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Voluivie: II. 







General United States Army. 

IN TWO volumes. 

VOL. 11. 

• • 

.'.•. r-' •' ■•'■•. 



.Ky " 




[All right* reserved.) 

• • •• 

• • • 

• •• 



••• • 

• •• ? 

• • 

• • • 


Jbnkins & McCOWAN, 
New York. 





Organizing Scouts — Miss Rebecca Wright — Important 
Information — Decides to Move on Newtown — Meet- 
ing General Grant — Organization of the Union 
Army — Opening of the Battle of the Opequon — 
Death of General Russell — A Turning Movement 
— A Successful Cavalry Charge — Victory — Three 
Loyal Girls — Appointed a Brigadier^General in the 
Regular Army — Remarks on the Battle. 1-32 


Pursuing Early — A Secret March — Fisher's Hill — A 
Great Success — Removal of Averell — The Re- 
treat — Capturing an Old Comrade — The Murder 
of Lieutenant Meigs 33-52 


Reasons for Not Pursuing Early Through the Blue 
Ridge — General Torbert Detailed to Give General 
Rosser a "Drubbing" — General Rosser Routed — 
Telegraphed to Meet Stanton — Longstreet's Mes- 
sage — Return to Winchester — The Ride to Cedar 
Creek — The Retreating Army — Rallying the 
Troops — Re-forming the Line — Commencing the 



Attack — Defeat of the Confederates — Appointed a 
Major-General in the Regular Army — Results of 
the Battle 53-96 


General Early Reorganizes His Forces — Mosby the 
Guerrilla — General Merritt sent to Operate Against 
Mosby — Rosser Again Active — General Custer 
Surprised — Colonel Young Sent to Capture Gil- 
more the Guerrilla — Colonel Young's Success — 
Capture of General Kelly and General Crook — 
Spies — Was Wilkes Booth a Spy ? — Driving the 
Confederates Out of the Valley — The Battle of 
Waynesboro* — Marching to Join the Army of the 
Potomac 97-123 


Transferred to Petersburg — General RawMns's Cordial 
Welcome — General Grant's Orders and Plans — A 
Trip with Mr. Lincoln and General Grant — Meet- 
ing General Sherman — Opposed to Joining the 
Army of the Tennessee — Opening of the Appomat- 
tox Campaign — General Grant and General Rawlins 124-147 


Battle of Dinwiddie Court House — Pickett Repulsed — 
Reinforced by the Fifth Corps — Battle of Five 
Forks — Turning the Confederate Left — An Un- 
qualified Success — Relieving General Warren — 
The Warren Court of Inquiry — General Sherman's 
Opinion 14S-170 


Result of the Battle of Five Forks — Retreat of Lee — 
An Intercepted Despatch — At Amelia Court House 
— Battle of Sailor's Creek — The Confederates' 
Stubborn Resistance — A Complete Victory — Im- 
portance of the Battle 171-186 




Lincoln's Laconic Despatch — Capturing Lee's Supplies 
— Delighted Engineers — The Confederates* Last 
Effort — A Flag of Truce — General Geary's "Last 
Ditch" Absurdity — Meeting of Grant and Lee — 
The Surrender — Estimate of General Grant 187-204 


Ordered to Greensboro*, N. C. — March to the Dan 
River — Assigned to the Command West of the 
Mississippi — Leaving Washington — Flight of Gen- 
eral Early — Maximilian — Making Demonstrations 
on the Upper Rio Grande — Confederates Join 
Maximilian — The French Invasion of Mexico, and 
its Relations to the Rebellion — Assisting tlie Lib- 
erals — Restoration of the Republic 205-228 


A. J. Hamilton Appointed Provisional Governor of 
Texas — Assembles a Constitutional Convention — 
The Texans Dissatisfied — Lawlessness — Oppres- 
sive Legislation — Ex - Confederates Controlling 
Louisiana — A Constitutional Convention — The 
Meeting Suppressed — A Bloody Riot — My Reports 
of the Massacre — Portions Suppressed by Presi- 
dent Johnson — Sustained by a Congressional Com- 
mittee — The Reconstruction Laws 229-249 


Passage of the Reconstruction Act Over the Presi- 
dent's Veto — Placed in Command of the Fifth 
Military District — Removing Officers — My Rea- 
sons for Such Action — Affairs in Louisiana and 
Texas — Removal of Governor Wells — Revision of 
the Jury Lists — Relieved from the Command of 
the Fifth Military District 250-280 




At Fort Leavenworth — The Treaty of Medicine Lodge 
— Going to Fort Dodge — Discontented Indians — 
Indian Outrages — A Delegation of Chiefs — Terrible 
Indian Raid — Death of Corastock — Vast Herds of 
Buffalo — Preparing for a Winter Campaign — Meet- • 
ing " Buffalo Bill " — He Undertakes a Dangerous 
Task — Forsyth's Gallant Fight — Rescued 281-306 


Fitting Out the Winter Expedition — Accompanying the 
Main Force — The Other Columns — Struck by a 
Blizzard — Custer's Fight on the Washita — Defeat 
and Death of Black Kettle — Massacre of Elliott's 
Party — Relief of Colonel Crawford 307-322 


A Winter Expedition — Herds of Buffalo — Wolves — 
Blizzards — A Terrible Night — Finding the Bodies 
of Elliott's Party — The Abandoned Indian Camps 
— Pushing Down the Washita — The Captured 
Chiefs — Evans's Successful Fight — Establishing 
Fort Sill — " California Joe" — Duplicity of the 
Cheyennes — Ordered to Repair to Washington. . . . 323-347 


Inspecting Military Posts in Utah and Montana — De- 
sire to Witness the Franco-Cxerman War — On a 
Sand-Bar in the Missouri — A Bear Hunt — An Ind- 
ian Scare — Myriads of Mosquitoes — Permission 
Given to Visit Europe — Calling on President 
Grant — Sailing for Liverpool — Arrival in Berlin... 348-361 


Leaving for the Seat of War — Meeting with Prince 
Bismarck — His Interest in Public Opinion in 
America — His Inclinations in Early Life — Pre- 



sented to the King -The Battle of Gravelotte— 
The German Plan — Its Final Success — Sending 
News of the Victory — Mistaken for a P'renchman. 362-380 


Searching for Quarters — Hunting up Provisions — A 
Slender Breakfast— Going over the Battle- Field — 
The German Artillery — A Group of Wounded — 
Dining With the King— On the March— The Ba- 
varians — Kirschwasser — Urging on the Troops. . . 381-394 


After McMahon — The Battle of Beaumont — The 
French Surprised — The Marching of the German 
Soldiers — The Battle of Sedan —Gallant Cavalry 
Charges — Defeat of the French — The Surrender 
of Napoleon — Bismarck and the King — Decorat- 
ing the Soldiers 395-410 


Riding Over the Battle-Field — Destruction of Bazeilles 
— Mistakes of the French — Marshal Bazaine — On 
to Paris — A Week in Meaux — Rheims — On the 
Picket- Line — Under Fire — A Surrender — At Ver- 
sailles — General Burnside and Mr. Forbes in Paris. 411-430 


Brussels — Deciding to Visit Eastern Eurof)e — Austria 
— Down the Danube — In Constantinople — The 
Ladies of the Harem — The Sultan — Turkish Sol- 
diers — A Banquet — A Visit in Athens — King 
George of Greece — Victor-Emmanuel — ** Bedevil- 
ed with Cares of State" — Deer Shooting — A Mili- 
tary Dinner — Return to Versailles — Germans 
Entering Paris — Criticism on the Franco-Prussian 
War — Conclusion 431-453 




Steel Portrait — General P. H. Sheridan Frontispiece 

Portrait of Miss Rebecca M. Wright 7 

Fac-simile Letter from Abraham Lincoln, Sept. 20, 1864.. . 31 

Fac-simile Letter from Abraham Lincoln, Oct. 22, 1864. . . 91 
Belle-Grove House. General Sheridan's Headquarters at 

Cedar Creek 225 

Portrait of General Horatio G. Wright 273 

Portrait of General William H. Emory 329 

Portrait of General George Crook 375 

General Sheridan and Staff. Dinwiddie Court House. . . . 419 



Battle-field of Winchester (Opequon) Facing 26 

Battle-field of Fisher's Hill 39 

Battle-field of Cedar Creek Facing 94 

Fourth Expedition — Merritt's Raid to Loudoun loi 

Fifth Expeditiorv — Torbert's Raid to Gordonsville 103 

Battle-field of Waynesboro' 117 

Sixth Expedition — Winchester to Petersburg Facing 122 

Battle-field of Dinwiddie Court House Facing 154 

Battle-field of Five Forks Facing 164 

Battle-field of Sailor's Creek 185 

Seventh Expedition — The Appomattox Campaign 195 

Eighth Expedition — To the Dan River and Return 207 

Indian Campaign of 1868-1869 Facing 344 

Map Showing Parts of France, Belgium, and Germany.Facing 426 













\^7HILE occupying the ground between Clif- 
ton and Berryville, referred to in the 
last chapter of the preceding volume, I felt 
the need of an efficient body of scouts to col- 
lect information regarding the enemy, for the 
defective intelligence-establishment with which 
I started out from Harper's Ferry early in 
August had not proved satisfactory. I ther^- 

Vol. IL— I. i 


fore began to organize my scouts on a system 
which I hoped would give better results than 
had the method hitherto pursued in the de- 
partment, which was to employ on this ser- 
vice doubtful citizens and Confederate desert- 
ers. If these should turn out untrustworthy, 
the mischief they might do us gave me grave 
apprehension, and I finally concluded that those 
of our own soldiers who should volunteer for the 
delicate and hazardous duty would be the most 
valuable material, and decided that they should 
have a battalion organization and be commanded 
by an officer, Major H. K. Young, of the First 
Rhode Island Infantry. These men were dis- 
guised in Confederate uniforms whenever neces- 
sary, were paid from the Secret-Service Fund in 
proportion to the value of the intelligence they 
furnished, which often stood us in good stead in 
checking the forays of Gilmore, Mosby, and other 
irregulars. Beneficial results came from the plan 
in many other ways too, and particularly so when 
in a few days two of my scouts put me in the 
way of getting news conveyed from Winchester. 
They had learned that just outside of my lines, 
near Millwood, there was living an old colored 
man, who had a permit from the Confederate 
commander to go into Winchester and return 
three times a week, for the purpose of selling 


vegetables to the inhabitants. The scouts had 
sounded this man, and, finding him both loyal and 
shrewd, suggested that he might be made useful 
to us within the enemy's lines; and the proposal 
struck me as feasible, provided there could be 
found in Winchester some reliable person who 
would be willing to co-operate and correspond 
with me. I asked General Crook, who was ac- 
quainted with many of the Union people of Win- 
chester, if he knew of such a person, and he 
recommended a Miss Rebecca Wright, a young 
lady whom he had met there before the battle of 
Kernstown, who, he said, was a member of the 
Society of Friends and the teacher of a small 
private school. He knew she was faithful and 
loyal to the Government, and thought she might 
be willing to render us assistance, but he could 
not be certain of this, for on account of her well- 
known loyalty she was under constant surveil- 
lance. I hesitated at first, but finally deciding to 
try it, despatched the two scouts to the old negro's 
cabin, and they brought him to my headquarters 
late that night. I was soon convinced of the 
negro's fidelity, and asking him if he was ac- 
quainted with Miss Rebecca Wright, of Win- 
chester, he replied that he knew her well. There- 
upon I told him what I wished to do. and after 
a little persuasion he agreed to carry a letter to 


her on his next marketing trip. My messag^e was 
prepared by writing it on tissue paper, which was 
then compressed into a small pellet, and protected 
by wrapping it in tin-foil so that it could be safely 
carried in the man's mouth. The probability of his 
being searched when he came to the Confederate 
picket-line was not remote, and in such event he 
was to swallow the pellet. The letter appealed 
to Miss Wright's loyalty and patriotism, and 
requested her to furnish me with information 
regarding the strength and condition of Early's 
army. The night before the negro started one 
of the scouts placed the odd-looking communica- 
tion in his hands, with renewed injunctions as to 
secrecy and promptitude. Early the next morn- 
ing it was delivered to Miss Wright, with an inti- 
mation that a letter of importance was enclosed 
in the tin-foil, the negro telling her at the same 
time that she might expect him to call for a mes- 
sage in reply before his return home. At first 
Miss Wright began to open the pellet nervously, 
but when told to be careful, and to preserve the 
foil as a wrapping for her answer, she proceeded 
slowly and carefully, and when the note appeared 
intact the messenger retired, remarking again that 
in the evening he would corne for an answer. 

On reading my communication Miss Wright 
wa§ much startled by the perils it involved, and 


hesitatingly consulted her mother, but her devot- 
ed loyalty soon silenced every other considera- 
tion, and the brave girl resolved to comply with 
my request, notwithstanding it might jeopardize 
her life. The evening before a convalescent Con- 
federate officer had visited her mother's house, and 
in conversation about the war had disclosed the 
fact that Kershaw's division of infantry and Cut- 
shaw's battalion of artillery had started to rejoin 
General Lee. At the time Miss Wright heard 
this she attached little if any importance to it, 
but now she perceived the value of the intelli- 
gence, and, as her first venture, determined to send 
it to md at once, which she did with a promise 
that in the future she would with great pleasure 
continue to transmit information by the negro 

Miss Wright's answer proved of more value to 
me than she anticipated, for it not only quieted the 
conflicting reports concerning Anderson's corps, 
but was most important in showing positively that 
Kershaw was gone, and this circumstance led, three 
days later, to the battle of the Opequon, or Win- 
chester as it has been unofficially called.* Word 

• " September 15, 1864. 

" I learn from Major-General Crook that you are a loyal lady, and still love 
the old flag. Can you inform me of the position of Early's forces, the number 
of divisions in his army, and the strength of any or all of them, and hijs prob- 


to the eflfect that some of Early's troops were 
under orders to return to Petersburg, and would 
start back at the first favorable opportunity, 
had been communicated to me already from 
many sources, but we had not been able to ascer- 
tain the date for their departure. Now that they 
had actually started, I decided to wait before 
oflFering battle until Kershaw had gone so far as 
to preclude his return, feeling confident that my 
prudence would be justified by the improved 
chances of victory ; and then, besides, Mr. Stanton 
kept reminding me that positive success was 
necessary to counteract the political dissatisfac- 
tion existing in some of the Northern States. 
This course was advised and approved by General 
Grant, but even with his powerful backing it was 
difficult to resist the persistent pressure of those 

able or rq>orted intentions ? Have any more troops arrived from Richmond, 
or are any more coming, or reported to be coming ? 

" I am, very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

" P. H. Sheridan, Major-General Commanding. 
«« You can trust the bearer." 

" Septebieer 1 6, 1864. 

'< I have no communication whatever with the rebels, but will tell you what 
I know. The division of General Kershaw, and Cutshaw's artillery, twelve 
guns and men. General Anderson commanding, have been sent away, and no 
more are expected, as they cannot be spared from Richmond. I do not know 
how the troops are situated, but the force is much smaller than represented. I 
will take pleasure hereafter in learning all I can of their strength and position, 
and the bearer may call again. 

"Very respectfully yours, 





whose judgment, warped by their interests in 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, was often con- 
fused and misled by stories of scouts (sent out 

from Washington), averring that Kershaw and 


Fitzhugh Lee had returned to Petersburg, Breck- 
enridge to southwestern Virginia, and at one 
time even maintaining that Early's whole army 
was east of the Blue Ridge, and its commander 
himself at Gordonsville. 

During the inactivity prevailing in my army for 
the ten days preceding Miss Wright's communica- 
tion the infantry was quiet, with the exception of 
Getty's division, which made a reconnoissance to 
the Opequon, and developed a heavy force of the 
enemy at Edwards's Corners. The cavalry, how- 
ever, was employed a good deal in this interval 
skirmishing — heavily at times — to maintain a 
space about six miles in width between the hos- 
tile lines, for I wished to control this ground so 
that when I was released from the instructions 
of August 12 I could move my men into posi- 
tion for attack without the knowledge of Early. 
The most noteworthy of these mounted encoun- 
ters was that of Mcintosh's brigade, which cap- 
tured the Eighth South Carolina at Abraham s 
Creek September 13. 

It was the evening of the i6th of September 
that I received from Miss Wright the positive in- 


formation that Kershaw was in march toward 
Front Royal on his way by Chester Gap to Rich- 
mond. Concluding that this was my opportunity, 
I at once resolved to throw my whole force into 
Newtown the next day, but a despatch from Gen- 
eral Grant directing me to meet him at Charles- 
town, whither he was coming to consult with me, 
caused me to defer action until after I should see 
him. In our resulting interview at Charlestown, 
I went over the situation very thoroughly, and 
pointed out with so much confidence the chances 
of a complete victory should I throw my army 
across the Valley pike near Newtown that he fell 
in with the plan at once, authorized me to resume 
the offensive, and to attack Early as soon as I 
deemed it most propitious to do so; and although 
before leaving City Point he had outlined certain 
operations for my army, yet he neither discussed 
nor disclosed his plans, my knowledge of the sit- 
uation striking him as being so much more accu- 
rate than his own.* 

The interview over, I returned to my army to 
arrange for its movement toward Newtown, but 
while busy with these preparations, a report came 

•[Extract from '• Grant's Memoirs," page 328.] 

'•••Before starting I had drawn up a plan of campaign for Sheridan, 
which I had brought with me ; but seeing that he was so clear and so positive 
in his views, and so confident of success, I said nothing about this, and did not 
take it out of my pocket * •." 


to me from General Averell which showed that 
Early was moving with two divisions of infantry 
toward Martinsburg. This considerably altered 
the state of affairs, and I now decided to change 
my plan and attack at once the two divisions re- 
maining about Winchester and Stephenson's de- 
pot, and later, the two sent to Martinsburg ; the 
disjointed state of the enemy giving me an oppor- 
tunity to take him in detail, unless the Martins- 
burg column should be returned by forced 

While General Early was in the telegraph office 
at Martinsburg on the morning of the i8th, he 
learned of Grant's visit to me ; and anticipat- 
ing activity by reason of this circumstance, he 
promptly proceeded to withdraw so as to get 
the two divisions within supporting distance of 
Ramseur's, which lay across the Berryville pike 
about two miles east of Winchester, between 
Abraham's Creek and Red Bud Run, so by the 
night of the i8th Wharton's division, under 
Breckenridge, was at Stephenson's depot, Rodes 
near there, and Gordon's at Bunker Hill. At 
daylight of the 19th these positions of the Con- 
federate infantry still obtained, with the cavalry 
of Lomax, Jackson, and Johnson on the right of 
Ramseur, while to the left and rear of the enemy's 
general line was Fitzhugh Lee, covering from 


Stephenson's depot west across the Valley pike 
to Apple-pie Ridge. 

My army* moved at 3 o'clock that morning. 
The plan was for Torbert to advance with Mer- 
ritt's division of cavalry from Summit Point, 
carry the crossings of the Opequon at Stevens's 
and Lock's fords, and form a junction near 
Stephenson's depot, with Averell, who was to 

* Organization of the Union Forces, Commanded by Major-General 

Philip H. Sheridan, at the Battle of Winchf^ter (or 

THE Opequon), Virginia, September 19, 1864. 

Headquarters Escort : 
Sixth United States Cavalry, Captain Ira W. Claflin. 

Sixth Army Corps : 
Major-General Horatio G. Wright 
Escort : 
First Michigan Cavalry, Company G, Lieutenant William H. Wheeler. 

First Division : 

(1) Brigadier-General David A. Russell. 

(2) Brigadier-General Emory Upton. 

(3) Colonel Oliver Edwards. 

First Brigade : 

Lieutenant-Colonel Edward L. Campbell. 

Fourth New Jersey, Captain Baldwin Hufty. 
Tenth New Jersey, Major Lambert Boeman, 
Fifteenth New Jersey, Captain William T. Cornish. 

Second Brigade : 

(i) Brigadier-General Emory Upton. 
(2) Colonel Joseph E. Hamblin. 

Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery, Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie. 
Sixty-fifth New York (i). Colonel Joseph E. Hamblin. 

" ** (2), Captain Henry C Fisk. 

One Hundred and Twenty -first New York, Captain John D. P. Douw. 
Ninety-fifth and Ninety-Sixth Pennsylvania,* Captain Francis J. Randall. 

* Guarding trains, and not engaged in the battle. 


move south from Darksville by the Valley pike. 
Meanwhile, Wilson was to strike up the Berry- 
ville pike, carry the Berryville crossing of the 
Opequon, charge through the gorge or caflon 
on the road west of the stream, and occupy 
the open ground at the head of this defile. 
Wilson's attack was to be supported by the 
Sixth and Nineteenth corps, which were ordered 


Third Brigade : 

(i) Colonel Oliver Edwards. 
(2) Colonel Isaac C. Bassett. 

Thirty-seventh Massachusetts, Lieutenant-Colonel George L. Montague. 

Forty-ninth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Baynton J. Hickman. 

Eighty-second Pennsylvania, Colonel Isaac C. Bassett 

One Hundred and Nineteenth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Gideon Clark. 

Second Rhode Island (battalion). Captain Elisha H. Rhodes. 

Fifth Wisconsin (battalion), Major Charles W. Kempi 

Second Division : 
Brigadier-General George W. Getty. 

First Brigade : 

Brigadier- General Frank Wheaton. 

Sixty-second New York, Lieutenant -Colonel Theo. B. Hamilton. 
Ninety-third Pennsylvania, Lieutenant -Colonel John S. Long. 
Ninety -eighth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Kohler. 
One Hundred and Second Pennsylvania, Major James H. Coleman. 
One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Pennsylvania, Major Robert Munroe. 

Second Brigade: 

Colonel James M. Warner. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Amasa S. Tracy.* 

Second Vermont, Major Enoch E. Johnson. 

Third and Fourth Vermont, Major Horace W. Floyd. 

Fifth Vermont, Captain Addison Brown, Jr. 

Sixth Vermont, Captain Martin W. Davis. 

Eleventh Vermont (First Heavy Artillery), Major Aldace F. Walker. 

* *' Superintended a portion of the line. 




to the Berryville crossing, and as the cavalry 
gained the open ground beyond the gorge, the 
two infantry corps, under command of General 
Wright, were expected to press on after and 
occupy Wilson's ground, who was then to shift 
to the south bank of Abraham's Creek and cover 
my left ; Crook's two divisions, having to march 
from Summit Point, were to follow the Sixth and 

Third Brigade: 
Brigadier-General Daniel D. BidwelL 
Seventh Maine, Major Stephen C. Fletcher. 
Forty-third New York, Major Charles A. Milliken. 
Forty -ninth New York (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel Erastus D. Holt. 
Seventy -seventh New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Winsor B. French. 
One Hundred and Twenty-second New York, Major Jabez M. Brower. 
Sixty-first Pennsylvania (battalion) (i), Captain Charles S. Greene. 
«« «« ** (2), Captain David J. Taylor. 

Third Division : 
Brigadier-General James B. Ricketts. 

First Brigade : 

Colonel William Emerson. 

Fourteenth New Jersey (i), Major Peter Vredenburgh. 
** ** (2), Captain Jacob J. Janeway. 

One Hundred and Sixth New York, Captain Peter Robertson. 
One Hundred and Fifty-first New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas M. Fay. 
Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania, Colonel John W. Schall. 
Tenth Vermont (i), Major Edwin Dillingham. 
•« «« (2), Captain Lucius T. Hunt. 

Second Brigade : 

Colonel J. Warren Keifer. 

Sixth Maryland (l). Colonel John W. Horn. 

«« «« (2), Captain Clifton K. Prentiss. 

Ninth New York Heavy Artillery, Major Charles Burgess. 
One Hundred and Tenth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Otho H. Binkley. 
One Hundred and Twenty-second Ohio, Colonel Wm. H. Ball. 
One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Ohio (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Aaron W. Ebright, 
•« ♦« *♦ (2), Captain George W, Hoge, 


Nineteenth corps to the Opcquon, and should 
they arrive before the action began, they were to 
be held in reserve till the proper moment came, 
and then, as a turning-column, be thrown over 
toward the Valley pike, south of Winchester. 

Mcintosh's brigade of Wilson's division drove 
the enemy's pickets away from the Berryville 
crossing at dawn, and Wilson following rapidly 

Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania, Lieutenant John F. Young. 
One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Pennsylvania (i), Colonel Matthew R. Mc- 

** «• " (2), Major Lewis A. May. 

Artillery Brigade : 

Colonel Charles H. Tompkins. 

Maine Light. Fifth Battery (E), Captain Grecnleaf T. Stevens. 
Massachusetts Light, First Battery (A), Captain Wm. H. McCartney. 
New York Light, First Battery (i), Lieutenant William H. Johnson. 

*• " " (2), Lieutenant Orsamus R. Van Etten. 

First Rhode Island Light, Battery C, Lieutenant Jacob H. Lamb. 
First Rhode Island Light, Battery G, Captain George W. Adams. 
Fifth United States, Battery M. Captain James McKnight 

Nineteenth Army Corps : 
Brigadier-General William H. Emory. 

First Division : 
Brigadier-General William Dwight. 

First Brigade: 
Colonel George L. Beal. 

Twenty-ninth Maine (i\ Major William Knowlton. 

" '* (2), Captain Alfred L. Turner. 

Thirtieth Massachusetts, Captain Samuel D. Shipley. 
One Hundred and Fourteenth New York, (i) Colonel Samuel R. Per Lee. 

*• •• *• " (2) Major Oscar H. Curtis. 

One Hundred and Sixteenth New York, Colonel George M. Love. 
One Hundred and Fifty-third New York, Colonel Edwin P. Davi3. 



through the gorge with the rest of the division, 
debouched from its western extremity with such 
suddenness as to capture a small earthwork in 
front of General Ramseur's main line ; and not- 
withstanding the Confederate infantry, on recover- 
ing from its astonishment,' tried hard to dislodge 
them, Wilson's troopers obstinately held the work 
till the Sixth Corps came up. I followed Wilson 

Second Brigade: 
Brig^ier-General James W. McMillan. 

Twelfth Connecticut (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Frank H. Peck. 

" •« (2). Captain Sydney E. Clark. 

One Hundred and Sixtieth New York,* Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Van 

Forty-seventh Pennsylvania, Colonel Tilghroan H. Good. 
Eighth Vermont, Colonel Stephen Thomas. 

Third Brigade : f 
Colonel Leonard D. H. Currie. 

Thirtieth Maine, % Captain George W. Randall. 

One Hundred and Thirty-third New York, Major Anthony J. Allaire. 

One Hundred and Sixty-second New York, Colonel Justus \V. Blanchard. 

One Hundred and Sixty-fifth New York (six companies), Lieutenant-Colonel 

Gouvemeur Carr. 
One Hundred and Seventy. third New York, Major George W. Rogers. 

Artillery : 
New York Light, Fifth Battery, Lieuteiiant John V. Grant 

Second Division: 
Brigadier-General Cuvicr Grover. 

First Brigade : 
Brigadier-General Henry W. Birge. 

Ninth Connecticut, Colonel Thomas W. Cahill. 
Twelfth Maine, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Ilslcy. 
Fourteenth Maine, Colonel Thomas W. Porter. 
Twenty -sixth Massachusetts, Colonel Alpha B. Farr. 

• Non-veterans of Ninetieth New York attached, 
t Detached at Harpcr*s Ferry, and not engaged in the battle. 
) Non-veteran« pf ThirtecQth and Fifteenth Maine temporarily atuched- 


to select the ground on which to form the infantry. 
The Sixth Corps began to arrive about 8 o'clock, 
and taking up the line Wilson had been holding, 
just beyond the head of the narrow ravine, the 
cavalry was ^ transferred to the south side of 
Abraham's Creek. 

The Confederate line lay along some elevated 
ground about two miles east of Winchester, and 

Fourteenth New Hampshire (i), Colonel Alexander Gardiner. 

" " «• (2), Captain Flavel L. Tolman. 

Seventy -6fth New York (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Willoughby Babcock. 
** •* (2), Major Benjamin F. Thurber. 

Second Brigade : 

Colonel Edward L. Molineux. 

Thirteenth Connecticut, Colonel Charles D. Blinn. 

Eleventh Indiana, Colonel Daniel Macauley. 

Twenty-second Iowa, Colonel Harvey Graham. 

Third Massachusetts Cavalry (dismounted), Lieutenant-Colonel Lorenzo D. 


One Hundred and Thirty-first New York, Colonel Nicholas W. Day. 

One Himdred and Fifty-ninth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel William Walter- 


Third Brigade : 

(i), Colonel Jacob Sharpc. 

(2), Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Neafic. 

Thirty -eighth Massachusetts, Major Charles F. Allen. 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth New York, Captain Charles R. Anderson. 

One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Neafie. 

«« " ** " (2), Captain James J. Hoyt. 

One Hundred and Seventy-fifth New York (three companies), Captain Charles 

One Hundred and Seventy-sixth New York, Major Qharles Lewis. 

Fourth Brigade: 

Colonel David Shunk. 

Eighth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander J. Kenny. 
Eighteenth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel William S. Charles. 
Twenty-fourth Iowa, Lieutenant-Colonel John Q. Wilds. 
Twent^-ei|jhth Iowa, Lieutcnjint-CQlQn^ Bartholomew W, Wll^on^ 



extended from Abraham's Creek north across the 
Berry ville pike, the left being hidden in the heavy 
timber on Red Bud Run. Between this Hne and 
mine, especially on my right, cluitips of woods 
and patches of underbrush occurred here and 
there, but the undulating ground consisted main- 
ly of open fields, many of which were cover-ed 
with standing corn that had already ripened. 

Artillery : 

Maine Light, First Battery (A), Captain Albert W. Bradbury. 

Reserve Artillery : 

Captain Elijah D. Taft 

Indiana Light, Seventeenth Battery. Captain Milton L. Miner. 
First Rhode Island Light, Battery D, Lieutenant Frederick Chase. 

Army of West Virginia. 

Brigadier-General George Crook. 

First Division: 

Colonel Joseph Thoburn. 

First Brigade : 

Colonel*George D. Wells. 

Thirty-tourth Massachusetts, Major Harrison W. Pratt. 
Fifth New York Heavy Artillery, Second Battalion, Major Caspar Urban. 
One Hundred and Sixteenth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas F. Wildes. 
One Hundred and Twenty-third Ohio, Captain John W. Chamberlin. 

Second Brigade : * 
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert S. Northcott. 

First West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Jacob Weddle. 
Fourth W^est Virginia, Captain Benjamin D. Boswell. 
Twelfth West Virginia, Captain Erastus G. Bartlett. 

Third Brigade : 
Colonel Thomas M. Harris. 

Twenty-third Illinois (battalion). Captain Samuel A. Simison. 
Fifty -fourth Pennsylvania (i), Lieutenant -Colonel John P. Linton. 
" •• (2). Major Enoch D. Yutzy. 

* Guarding trains, and not engaged in the battle. 

Vol. II.— 2. 


Much time was lost in getting all of the Sixth 
and Nineteenth corps through the narrow defile, 
Grover's division being greatly delayed there by 
a train of ammunition wagons, and it was not 
until late in the forenoon that the troops intended 
for the attack could be got into line ready to ad- 
vance. General Early was not slow to avail him- 
self of the advantages thus offered him, and my 

Tenth West Virginia, Major Henry H. Withers. 

Eleventh West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Van H. Bukey. 

Fifteenth West Virginia, Major John W. HoUiday. 

Second Division : 

(1) Colonel Isaac H. Duval. 

(2) Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes. 

First Brigade : 

(1) Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes. 

(2) Colonel Hiram F. Duval. 

Twenty-third Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel James M. Comly. 
Thirty-sixth Ohio (i), Colonel Hiram F. Duval. 

«* ** (2), Lieutenant-Colonel William H. G. Adney. 

Fifth West Virginia (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Enochs. 
Thirteenth West Virginia, Colonel William R. Brown. 

Second Brigade : 

(i) Colonel Daniel D. Johnson. 

(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin F. Coates. 

Thirty-fourth Ohio, (battalion,) Lieutenant-Colonel Luther Furney. 
Ninety -first Ohio (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin F. Coates 

" " (2), Major Lemuel Z. Cadot. 

Ninth West Virginia, Major Benjamin M. Skinner. 
Fourteenth West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Taggart. 

Artillery Brigade: 

Captain Henry A. Du Pont. 

First Ohio Light, Battery L, Captain Frank C. Gibbs. 

First Pennsylvania Light, Battery D, Lieutenant William Munk. 

Fifth United SUtes, Battery B, Captain Henry A. Du Pont, 


chances of striking him in detail were growing 
less every moment, for Gordon and Rodes were 
hurrying their divisions from Stephenson's depot 
across-country on a line that would place Gordon 
in the woods south of Red Bud Run, and bring 
Rodes into the interval between Gordon and 
When the two corps had all got through the 

Cavalry : 
Brigadier-Genera] Alfred T. A. Torbert. 

Escort : 
First Rhode Island, Major William H. Turner, Jr. 

First Division : 
Brigadier- General Wesley Merritt. 

First Brigade : 

Brigadier-General George A. Custer. 

First Michigan, Colonel Peter Stagg. 
Fifth Michigan, Major Smith H. Hastings. 
Sixth Michigan, Colonel James H. Kidd. 
Seventh Michigan, Major Melvin Brewer. 
Twenty-fifth New York, Major Charles J. Seymour. 

Second Brigade : 

Colonel Thomas C. Devin. 

Fourth New York (i), Major August Hourand. 

*• ** (2), Major Edward Schwartz. 

Sixth New York, Major William E. Beardsley. 
Ninth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel George S. Nichols. 
Nineteenth New York (First Dragoons), Colonel Alfred Gibbs. 
Seventeenth Pennsylvania, Major Coe Durland. 

Rf.serve Brigade : 

Colonel Charles R. Lowell, Jr. 

Second Massachusetts, Lieutenant-Colonel Casper Crowninshicld. 
Sixth Pennsylvania,* Major Charles L. Leiper. 

* At Pleasant Valley, Md., and not engaged in the battle 


caflon they were formed with Getty's division of 
the Sixth to the left of the Berryvilie pike^ 
Rickett's division to the right of the pike, and 
Russell's division in reserve in rear of the other 
two. Grover's division of the Nineteenth Corps 
came next on the right of Rickett's, with 
Dwight to its rear in reserve, while Crook was 
to begin massing near the Opequon crossing 

First United States, Captain Eugene M. Baker. 

Second United States (i), Captain Theophilus F. Rodenbough. 

" " (2). Captain Robert S. Smith 

Fifth United States, Lieutenant Gustavus Urban. 

Second Division : ♦ 
Brigadier-General William W. Averell. 

First Brigade : 

Colonel James N. Schoonmaker. 

Eif^hth Ohio (detachment), Colonel Alpheus S. Moore. 
Fourteenth Pennsylvania (i), Captain Ashbell Duncan. 

** •« (2), Captain William W. Miles. 

Twenty -second Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew J. Greenfield. 

Second Brigade : 

Colonel Henry Capehart 

First New York, Major Timothy Quinn. 

First West Vi'-ginia, Major Harvey Farabce. 

Second West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel John J. Hoffman. 

Third West Virginia, Major John S. Witchcr. 

Artillery : 
Fifth United States, Battery L, Lieutenant Gulian V. Weir. 

Third Division : 
Brigadier- General James H. Wilson. 

* From Department of West Virginia. 


about the time Wright and Emory were ready 
to attack. 

Just before noon the Une of Getty, Ricketts, and 
Grover moved forward, and as we advanced, the 
Confederates, covered by some heavy woods on 
their right, slight underbrush and corn-fields along 
their centre, and a large body of timber on their 
left along the Red Bud, opened fire from their 

First Brigade : 

(1) Brigadier-General John B. Mcintosh. 

(2) Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Puring^ton. 

First Connecticut, Major George O. Marcy. 

Third New Jersey, Major William P. Robeson, Jr 

Second New York, Captain Walter C. Hull. 

Fifth New York, Blajor Abram H. Krom. 

Second Ohio (i), Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Purington. 

** (2), Major A. Bayard Nettleton. 

Eighteenth Pennsylvania (i), Lieutenant-Colonel William P. Brinton. 
*♦ '* (2), Major John W. Phillips. 

Second Brigade : 

Brigadier-General George H. Chapman. 

Third Indiana (two companies). Lieutenant Benjamin F. Gilbert. 
First New Hampshire (battalion). Colonel John L. Thompson. 
Eighth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Benjamin. 
Twenty-second New York, Major Caleb Moore. 
First Vermont, Colonel William Wells. 

Horse-Artillery : 

Captain La Rhett L. Livingston. 

New York Light, Sixth Battery,* Captain Joseph W. Martin. 

First United States, Batteries K and L, Lieutenant Franck E. Taylor. 

Second United States, Batteries B and L, Captain Charles H. Peirce. 

Second United States. Battery 1), Lieutenant Edward B. Williston. 

Second United States, Battery M, f Lieutenant Carle A. Woodruff. 

Third United States, Batteries C, F, and K,t Captain Dunbar R. Ransom. 

Fourth United States, Batteries C and E,t Lieutenant Terence Reilly. 

* At Sandy Hook, Md., and not engaged in the battle, 
t At Pleasant Valley, Md., and not engaged in the baule. 


whole front. We gained considerable ground at 
first, especially on our left but the desperate resist- 
ance which the right met with demonstrated that 
the time we had unavoidably lost in the morning 
had been of incalculable value to Early, for it was 
evident that he had been enabled already to so 
far concentrate his troops as to have the different 
divisions of his army in a connected line of battle 
in good shape to resist. 

Getty and Ricketts made some progress toward 
Winchester in connection with Wilson's cavalry, 
which was beyond the Senseny road on Getty's 
left, and as they were pressing back Ramseur's 
infantry and Lomax's cavalry Grover attacked 
from the right with decided effect. Grover in a 
few minutes broke up Evans's brigade of Gor- 
don's division, but his pursuit of Evans destroyed 
the contmuity of my general line, and increased 
an interval that had already been made by the 
deflection of Ricketts to the Lft, in obedience to 
instructions that had been given him to guide his 
division on the Berryville pike. As the line 
pressed forward, Ricketts observ^ed this widening 
interval and endeavored to fill it with the small 
brigade of Colonel Keifer, but at this juncture 
both Gordon and Rodes struck the weak spot 
where the right of the Sixth Corps and the left of 
the Nineteenth should have been in conjunction. 


and succeeded in checking my advance by driving 
back a part of Ricketts's division, and the most of 
Grover's. As these troops were retiring I ordered 
Russell's reserve division to be put into action, 
and just as the flank of the enemy's troops in 
pursuit of Grover was presented, Upton's brigade, 
led in person by both Russell and Upton, struck 
it in a charge so vigorous as to drive the Confed- 
erates back in turn to their original ground. 

The success of Russell enabled me to re-estab- 
lish the right of my line some little distance in 
advance of the position from which it started in 
the morning, and behind Russell's division (now 
commanded by Upton) the broken regiments of 
Ricketts's division were rallied. Dwight's division 
was then brought up on the right, and Grover's 
men formed behind it. 

The charge of Russell was most opportune, but 
it cost many men in killed and wounded. Among 
the former was the courageous Russell himself, 
killed by a piece of shell that passed through his 
heart, although he had previously been struck by 
a bullet in the left breast, which wound, from its 
nature, must have proved mortal, yet of which he 
had not spoken. Russell's death oppressed us all 
with sadness, and me particularly. In the early 
days of my army life he was my captain and 
friend, and I was deeply indebted to him, not only 



for sound advice and good example, but for the 
inestimable service he had just performed, and 
sealed with his life, so it may be inferred how 
keenly I felt his loss. 

As my lines were being rearranged, it was sug- 
gested to me to put Crook into the battle, but so 
strongly had I set my heart on using him to take 
possession of the Valley pike and cut off the 
enemy, that I resisted this advice, hoping that the 
necessity for putting him in would be obviated by 
the attack near Stephenson's depot that Torbert's 
cavalry was to make, and from which I was mo- 
mentarily expecting to hear. No news of Tor* 
bert's progress came, however, so, yielding at last, 
I directed Crook to take post on the right of the 
Nineteenth Corps and, when the action was re- 
newed, to push his command forward as a turning- 
column in conjunction with Emory. After some 
delay in the annoying defile, Crook got his men 
up, and posting Colonel Thoburn's division on the 
prolongation of the Nineteenth Corps, he formed 
Colonel Duval's division to the right of Thoburn. 
Here I joined Crook, informing him that I had 
just got word that Torbert was driving the enemy 
in confusion along the Martinsburg pike toward 
Winchester ; at the same time I directed him to at- 
tack the moment all of Duval's men were in line. 
Wright was instructed to advance in concert with 


Crook, by swinging Emory and the right of the 
Sixth Corps to the left together in a half-wheel. 
Then leaving Crook, I rode along the Sixth and 
Nineteenth corps, the open ground over which 
they were passing aflfording a rare opportunity to 
witness the precision with which the attack was 
taken up from right to left. Crook's success be- 
gan the moment he started to turn the enemy's 
left ; and assured by the fact that Torbert had 
stampeded the Confederate cavalry and thrown 
Breckenridge's infantry into such disorder that it 
could do little to prevent the envelopment of Gor- 
don's left, Crook pressed forward without even a 

Both Emory and Wright took up the fight as 
ordered, and as they did so I sent word to 
Wilson, in the hope that he could partly perform 
the work originally laid out for Crook, to push 
along the Senseny road and, if possible, gain the 
valley pike south of Winchester. I then returned 
toward my right flank, and as I reached the 
Nineteenth Corps the enemy was contesting the 
ground in its front with great obstinacy; but Em- 
ory's dogged persistence was at length rewarded 
with success, just as Crook's command emerged 
from the morass of Red Bud Run, and swept 
around Gordon, toward the right of Breckenridge, 
who, with two of Wharton's brigades, was hold' 



ing a line at right angles with the Valley pike 
the protection of the Confederate rear. Early 
ordered these two brigades back from Steph 
son's depot in the morning, purposing to prot 
with them his right flank and line of retreat, 
while they were en route to this end, he w; 
obliged to* recall them to his left to meet Croc! 

To confront Torbert, Patton's brigade of inf 
try and some of Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry had b 
left back by Breckenridge, but, with Averell 
the west side of the Valley pike and Merritt 
the east, Torbert began to drive this opposin 
force toward Winchester the moment he struc 
it near Stephenson's depot, keeping it on the gcj 
till it reached the position held by BreckenridgCiK » 
where it endeavored to make a stand. 

The ground which Breckenridge was holding" 
was open, and off^ered an opportunity such as sel- 
dom had been presented during the war for a 
mounted attack, and Torbert was not slow to take 
advantage of it. The instant Merritt's division 
could be formed for the charge, it went at Breck- 
enridge's infantry and Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry 
with such momentum as to break the Confeder- 
ate left, just as Averell was passing around it. 
Merritt's brigades, led by Custer, Lowell, and 
Devin, met from the start with pronounced sue- 



cess, and with sabre or pistol in hand literally 
rode down a battery of five guns and took about 
1,200 prisoners. Almost simultaneously with this 
cavalry charge, Crook struck Breckenridge's right 
and Gordon's left, forcing these divisions to give 
way, and as they retired, Wright, in a vigorous 
attack, quickly broke Rodes up and pressed Ram- 
seur so hard that the whole Confederate army 
fell back, contracting its lines within some breast- 
works which had been thrown up at a former peri- 
od of the war, immediately in front of Winchester. 

Here Early tried hard to stem the tide, but soon 
Torbert's cavalry began passing around his left 
flank, and as Crook, Emory, and Wright attacked 
in front, panic took possession of the enemy, his 
troops, now fugitives and stragglers, seeking es- 
cape into and through Winchester. 

When this second break occurred, the Sixth and 
Nineteenth corps were moved over toward the 
Millwood pike to help Wilson on the left, but the 
day was so far spent that they could render him 
no assistance, and Ramseur's division, which had 
maintained some organization, was in such toler- 
able shape as to check him. Meanwhile Torbert 
passed around to the west of Winchester to join 
Wilson, but was unable to do so till after dark. 
Crook's command pursued the enemy through the 
town to Mill Creek, I going along. 


Just after entering the town Crook and I met, 
in the main street, three young girls, who gave us 
the most hearty reception. One of these young 
women was a Miss Griffith, the other two Miss 
Jennie and Miss Susie Meredith. During the day 
they had been watching the battle from the roof 
of the Meredith residence, with tears and lamenta- 
tions, they said, in the morning when misfortune 
appeared to have overtaken the Union troops, 
but with unbounded exultation when, later, the 
tide set in against the Confederates. Our pres- 
ence was, to them, an assurance of victory, and 
their delight being irrepressible, they indulged in 
the most unguarded manifestations and expres- 
sions. When cautioned by Crook, who knew them 
well, and reminded that the valley had hitherto 
been a race-course — one day in the possession of 
friends, and the next of enemies — and warned of 
the dangers they were incurring by such demon- 
strations, they assured him that they had no 
further fears of that kind now, adding that Early's 
army was so demoralized by the defeat it had just 
sustained that it would never be in condition to 
enter Winchester again. As soon as we had suc- 
ceeded in calming the excited girls a little I 
expressed a desire to find some place where I could 
write a telegram to General Grant informing him 
of the result of the battle, and General Crook con- 



ducted me to the home of Miss Wright, where I 
met for the first time the woman who had contrib- 
uted so much to our success, and on a desk in 
her school-room wrote the despatch announcing 
that we had sent Early's army whirling up the 

My losses in the battle of the Opequon were 
heavy, amounting to about 4,500 killed, wound- 
ed, and missing. Among the killed was Gen- 
eral Russell, commanding a division, and the 
wounded included Generals Upton, Mcintosh and 
Chapman, and Colonels Duval and Sharpe. The 
Confederate loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners 
about equaled mine, General Rodes being of the 
killed, while Generals Fitzhugh Lee and York 
were severely wounded. 

We captured five pieces of artillery and nine 
battle-flags. The restoration of the lower valley 
— from the Potomac to Strasburg — to the control 
of the Union forces caused great rejoicing in 
the North, and relieved the Administration from 
further solicitude fop the safety of the Maryland 
and Pennsylvania borders. The President's appre- 
ciation of the victory was expressed in a despatch 
so like Mr. Lincoln that I give 2l facsimile of it to 
the reader. This he supplemented by promoting 
me to the grade of brigadier-general in the reg- 
ular army, and assigning me to the permanent 



command of the Middle Military Department, 
and following that came warm congratulations 
from Mr. Stanton and from Generals Grant, 
Sherman, and Meade. 

The battle was not fought out on the plan in 
accordance with which marching orders were 
issued to my troops, for I then hoped to take 
Early in detail, and with Crook's force cut off his 
retreat. I adhered to this purpose during the early 
part of the contest, but was obliged to abandon 
the idea because of unavoidable delays by which 
I was prevented from getting the Sixth and Nine- 
teenth corps through the narrow defile and into 
position early enough to destroy Ramseur while 
still isolated. So much delay had not been anti- 
cipated, and this loss of time was taken advantage 
of by the enemy to recall the troops diverted to 
Bunker Hill and Martinsburg on the 17th, thus 
enabling him to bring them all to the support of 
Ramseur before I could strike with effect. My 
idea was to attack Ramseur and Wharton, succes- 
sively, at a very early hour and before they could 
get succor, but I was not in condition to do it till 
nearly noon, by which time Gordon and Rodes 
had been enabled to get upon the ground at a 
point from which, as I advanced, they enfiladed 
my right flank, and gave it such a repulse that to 
re-form this part of my line I was obliged to recall 








the left from some of the ground it had gained. 
It was during this reorganization of my lines that 
I changed my plan as to Crook, and moved him 
from my left to my right. This I did with great 
reluctance, for I hoped to destroy Early's army 
entirely if Crook continued on his original line 
of march toward the Valley pike, south of Win- 
chester ; and although the ultimate results did, in 
a measure vindicate the change, yet I have always 
thought that by adhering to the original plan we 
might have captured the bulk of Early's army. 






nPHE night of the 19th of September I gave or- 
ders for following Early up the valley next 
morning — the pursuit to begin at daybreak — and 
in obedience to these directions Torbert moved 
Averell out on the Back road leading to Cedar 
Creek, and Merritt up the Valley pike toward 
Strasburg, while Wilson was directed on Front 
Royal by way of Stevensburg. Merritt's division 
was followed by the infantry, Emory's and 
Wright's columns marching abreast in the open 
country to the right and left of the pike, and 
Crook s immediately behind them. The enemy 
having kept up his retreat at night, presented no 
opposition whatever until the cavalry discovered 
him posted at Fisher's Hill, on the first defensive 
line where he could hope to make any serious re- 
sistance. No effort was made to dislodge him, 
and later in the day, after Wright and Emory 
came up, Torbert shifted Merritt over toward the 

Vol II.— 3. 33 


Back road till he rejoined Averell. As Merritt 
moved to the right, the Sixth and Nineteenth 
corps crossed Cedar Creek and took up the 
ground the cavalry was vacating, Wright posting 
his own corps to the west of the Valley pike over- 
looking Strasburg, and Emory's on his left so as 
to extend almost to the road leading from Stras- 
burg to Front Royal. Crook, as he came up the 
same evening, went into position in some heavy 
timber on the north bank of Cedar Creek. 

A reconnoissance made pending these move* 
ments convinced me that the enemy's position at 
Fisher's Hill was so strong that a direct assault 
would entail unnecessary destruction of life, and, 
besides, be of doubtful result. At the point where 
Early's troops were in position, between the Mas- 
sanutten range and Little North Mountain, the 
valley is only about three and a half miles wide. 
All along the precipitous bluff which overhangs 
Tumbling Run on the south side, a heavy line of 
earthworks had been constructed when Early re- 
treated to this point in August, and these were 
now being strengthened so as to make them 
almost impregnable ; in fact, so secure did Early 
consider himself that, for convenience, his am- 
munition chests were taken from the caissons and 
placed behind the breastworks. Wharton, now in 
command of Breckenridge's division — its late 



commander having gone to southwest Virginia — 
held the right of this line, with Gordon next him; 
Pegram, commanding Ramseur's old division, 
joined Gordon. Ramseur with Rodes's division, 
was on Pegram's left, while Lomax's cavalry, now 
serving as foot-troops, extended the line to the 
Back road. Fitzhugh Lee being wounded, his 
cavalry, under General Wickham, was sent to 
Milford to prevent Fisher's Hill from being turned 
through the Luray Valley. 

In consequence of the enemy's being so well 
protected from a direct assault, I resolved on the 
night of the 20th to use again a turning-column 
against his left, as had been done on the 19th at 
the Opequon. To this end I resolved to move 
Crook, unperceived if possible, over to the eastern 
face of Little North Mountain, whence he could 
strike the left and rear of the Confederate line, 
and as he broke it up, I could support him by a 
left half-wheel of my whole line of battle. The 
execution of this plan would require perfect 
secrecy, however, for the enemy from his signal- 
station on Three Top could plainly see every 
movement of our troops in daylight. Hence, to 
escape such observation, I marched Crook during 
the night of the 20th into some heavy timber 
north of Cedar Creek, where he lay concealed all 
day the 21st. This same day Wright and Emory 


were moved up closer to the Confederate works, 
and the Sixth Corps, after a severe fight, in which 
Ricketts's and Getty were engaged, took up some 
high ground on the right of the Manassas Gap 
railroad in plain view of the Confederate works, 
and confronting a commanding point where much 
of Early's artillery was massed. Soon after Gen- 
eral Wright had established this line I rode with 
him along it to the westward, and finding that 
the enemy was still holding an elevated posi- 
tion further to our right, on the north side of 
Tumbling Run, I directed this also to be occupied. 
Wright soon carried the point, which gave us an 
unobstructed view of the enemy's works and 
offered good ground for our artillery. It also 
enabled me to move the whole of the Sixth Corps 
to the front till its line was within about seven 
hundred yards of the enemy's works ; the Nine- 
teenth Corps, on the morning of the 2 2d, covering 
the ground vacated by the Sixth by moving to 
the front and extending to the right, but still 
keeping its reserves on the railroad. 

In the darkness of the night of the 21st, Crook 
was brought across Cedar Creek and hidden in a 
clump of timber behind Hupp's Hill till dayHght 
of the 2 2d, when, under cover of the intervening 
woods and ravines, he was marched beyond the 
right of the Sixth Corps and again concealed not 


far from the Back road. After Crook had got 
into this last position, Ricketts's division was 
pushed out until it confronted the left of the 
enemy's infantry, the rest of the Sixth Corps ex- 
tending from Ricketts's left to the Manassas Gap 
railroad, while the Nineteenth Corps filled in the 
space between the left of the Sixth and the North 
Fork of the Shenandoah. 

When Ricketts moved out on this new line, in 
conjunction with AverelFs cavalry on his right, 
the enemy surmising, from information secured 
from his signal-station, no doubt, that my attack 
was to be made from Ricketts's front, prepared 
for it there, but no such intention ever existed. 
Ricketts was pushed forward only that he might 
readily join Crook's turning-column as it swung 
into the enemy's rear. To ensure success, all that 
I needed now was enough daylight to complete 
my arrangements, the secrecy of movement im- 
posed by the situation consuming many valuable 

While Ricketts was occupying the enemy's 
attention, Crook, again moving unobserved into 
the dense timber on the eastern face of Little 
North Mountain, conducted his command south 
in two parallel columns until he gained the rear 
of the enemy's works, when, marching his divi- 
sions by the left flank, he led them in an easterly 


direction down the mountain-side. As he em- 
erged from the timber near the base of the 
mountain, the Confederates discovered him, of 
course, and opened with their batteries, but it 
was too late — they having few troops at hand to 
confront the turning-column. Loudly cheering, 
Crook's men quickly crossed the broken stretch 
in rear of the enemy's left, producing confusion 
and consternation at every step. 

About a mile from the mountain's base Crook's 
left was joined by Ricketts, who in proper time 
had begun to swing his division into the action, 
and the two commands moved along in rear of 
the works so rapidly that, with but slight resist- 
ance, the Confederates abandoned the guns 
massed near the centre. The swinging move- 
ment of Ricketts was taken up successively from 
right to left throughout my line, and in a few 
minutes the enemy was thoroughly routed, the 
action, though brief, being none the less decisive. 
Lomax's dismounted cavalry gave way first, but 
was shortly followed by all the Confederate 
infantry in an indescribable panic, precipitated 
doubtless by fears of being caught and captured 
in the pocket formed by Tumbling Run and the 
North Fork of the Shenandoah River. The stam- 
pede was complete, the enemy leaving the field 
without semblance of organization, abandoning 


'^^^'^"C-^^-^XJ-Jf^'* m , 


nearly all his artillery and such other property as 
was in the works, and the rout extending through 
the fields and over the roads toward Woodstock, 
Wright and Emory in hot pursuit. 

Midway between Fisher's Hill and Woodstock 
there is some high ground, where at night-fall a 
small squad endeavored to stay us with two 
pieces of artillery, but this attempt at resistance 
proved fruitless, and, notwithstanding the dark- 
ness, the guns were soon captured. The chase 
was then taken up by Devin's brigade as soon as 
it could be passed to the front, and continued till 
after daylight the next morning, but the delays 
incident to a night pursuit made it impossible for 
Devin to do more than pick up stragglers. 

Our success was very great, yet I had antici- 
pated results still more pregnant. Indeed, I had 
high hopes of capturing almost the whole of 
Early's army before it reached New Market, and 
with this object in view, during the manoeuvres of 
the 2ist I had sent Torbert up the Luray Valley 
with Wilson's division and two of Merritt's 
brigades, in the expectation that he would drive 
Wickham out of the Luray Pass by Early's right, 
and by crossing the Massanutten Mountain near 
New Market, gain his rear. Torbert started in 
good season, and after some slight skirmishing 
at Gooney Run, got as far as Milford, but failed to 


dislodge Wickham. In fact, he made little or no 
attempt to force Wickham from his position, and 
with only a feeble effort withdrew. I heard 
nothing at all from Torbert during the 22d, and 
supposing that everything was progressing favor- 
ably, I was astonished and chagrined on the 
morning^ of the 23d, at Woodstock, to receive the 
intelligence that he had fallen back to Front 
Royal and Buckton ford. My disappointment 
was extreme, but there was now no help for the 
situation save to renew and emphasize Torbert 's 
orders, and this was done at once, notwithstand- 
ing that I thought the delay had so much di- 
minished the chances of his getting in the rear of 
Early as to make such a result a very remote 
possibility, unless, indeed, far greater zeal was 
displayed than had been in the first attempt to 
penetrate the Luray Valley. 

The battle of Fisher's Hill was, in a measure; a 
part of the battle of the Opequon ; that is to say, 
it was an incident of the pursuit resulting from 
that action. In many ways, however, it was 
much more satisfactory, and particularly so be- 
cause the plan arranged on the evening of the 
2oth was carried out to the very letter by Gen- 
erals Wright, Crook, and Emory, not only in all 
their preliminary manoeuvres, but also during the 
fight itself. The only drawback was with the 



cavalry, and to this day I have been unable to 
account satisfactorily for Torbert's failure. No 
doubt, Wickham's position near Milford was a 
strong one, but Torbert ought to have made a 
fight. Had he been defeated in this, his with- 
drawal then to await the result at Fisher's Hill 
would have been justified, but it does not appear 
that he made any serious effort at all to dislodge 
the Confederate cavalry : his impotent attempt 
not only chagrined me very much, but occa- 
sioned much unfavorable comment throughout 
the army. 

We reached Woodstock early on the morning 
of the 23d, and halted there some little time to let 
the troops recover their organization, which had 
been broken in the night march they had just 
made. When the commands had closed up we 
pushed on toward Edinburg, in the hope of 
making more captures at Narrow Passage Creek ; 
but the Confederates, too fleet for us, got away ; 
so General Wright halted the infantry not far 
from Edinburg, till rations could be brought the 
men. Meanwhile I, having remained at Wood- 
stock, sent Devin*s brigade to press the enemy 
under every favorable opportunity, and if possible 
prevent him from halting long enough to reorgan- 
ize. Notwithstanding Devin's efforts the Confed- 
erates managed to assemble a considerable force 



to resist him, and being too weak for the rear- 
guard, he awaited the arrival of Averell, who, I 
had informed him, would be hurried to the front 
with all possible despatch, for I thought that 
Averell must be close at hand. It turned out, 
however, that he was not near by at all, and, 
moreover, that without good reason he had re- 
frained from taking any part - whatever in pursu- 
ing the enemy in the flight from Fisher's Hill, and 
in fact had gone into camp and left to the infantry 
the work of pursuit. 

It was nearly noon when Averell came up, and 
a great deal of precious time had been lost. We 
had some hot words, but hoping that he would 
retrieve the mistake of the night before, I direct- 
ed him to proceed to the front at once, and in 
conjunction with Devin close with the enemy. 
He reached Devin's command about 3 o'clock in 
the afternoon, just as this officer was pushing the 
Confederates so energetically that they were 
abandoning Mount Jackson, yet Averell utterly 
failed to accomplish anything. Indeed, his indif- 
ferent attack was not at all worthy the excellent 
soldiers he commanded, and when I learned that it 
was his intention to withdraw from the enemy's 
front, and this, too, on the indefinite report of a 
signal -officer that a ** brigade or division" of 
Confederates was turning his right flank, and 


that he had not seriously attempted to verify the 
information, I sent him this order : 

" Headquarters Middle Military Division, 
"Woodstock, Va., Sept. 23, 1864. 

" Brevet Major-General Averell : 

" Your report and report of signal-officer received. I do not 
want you to let the enemy bluff you or your command, and I 
want you to distinctly understand this note. I do not advise 
rashness, . but I do desire resolution and actual fighting, with 
necessary casualties, before you retire. There must now be no 
backing or filling by you without a superior force of the enemy 
actually engaging you. 

" P. H. Sheridan, 

" Major-General Commanding." 

Some little time after this note went to Averell, 
word was brought me that he had already carried 
out the programme indicated when forwarding 
the report of the expected turning of his right, and 
that he had actually withdrawn and gone into 
camp near Hawkinsburg. I then decided to re- 
lieve him from the command of his division, which 
I did, ordering him to Wheeling, Colonel William 
H. Powell being assigned to succeed him. 

The removal of Averell was but the culmination 
of a series of events extending back to the time 
I assumed command of the Middle Military Divi- 
sion. At the outset, General Grant, fearing dis- 
cord on account of Averell's ranking Torbert, 
authorized me to relieve the former officer, but I 
hoped that if any trouble of this sort arose, it 



could be allayed, or at least repressed, during the 
campaign against Early, since the different com- 
mands would often have to act separately. After 
that, the dispersion of my army by the return of 
the Sixth Corps and Torbert's cavalry to the Army 
of the Potomac would take place, I thought, and 
this would restore matters to their normal condi- 
tion ; but Averells dissatisfaction began to show 
itself immediately after his arrival at Martinsburg, 
on the 14th of August, and, except when he was 
conducting some independent expedition, had 
been manifested on all occasions since. I there- 
fore thought that the interest of the service would 
be subserved by removing one whose growing 
indifference might render the best -laid plans 
inoperative. * 

The failure of Averell to press the enemy the 
evening of the 23d gave Early time to collect his 
scattered forces and take up a position on the 
east side of the North Fork of the Shenandoah, 
his left resting on the west side of that stream at 
Rude's Hill, a commanding point about two miles 

•'* Headquarters Middle Military Division. 

*• Harrisonburg, Va., Sept. 25, 1864—11:30?. m. 

" Lieut-General Grant, Comd'g, &c., City Point, Va.: 

** • • • I have relieved Averell from his command. Instead of following the 
enemy when he was broken at Fisher*s Hill (so there was not a cavalry organ- 
ization left), he went into camp and let me pursue the enemy for a distance of 
fifteen miles, with infantry, during the night.* ' * 

** P. H. Sheridan, Major-Gencral." 


south of Mt. Jackson. Along this line he had 
constructed some slight works during the night, 
and at daylight on- the 24th I moved the Sixth 
and Nineteenth corps through Mt. Jackson to at- 
tack him, sending Powell's division to pass around 
his left flank, toward Timberville, and Devin's 
brigade across the North Fork, to move along the 
base of Peaked Ridge and attack his right. The 
country was entirely open, and none of these 
manoeuvres could be executed without being ob- 
served, so as soon as my advance began, the enemy 
rapidly retreated in line of battle up the valley 
through New Market, closely followed by Wright 
and Emory, their artillery on the pike and their 
columns on its right and left. Both sides moved 
with celerity, the Confederates stimulated by the 
desire to escape, and our men animated by the 
prospect of wholly destroying Early's army. The 
stern -chase continued for about thirteen miles, 
our infantry often coming within range, yet when- 
ever we began to deploy, the Confederates in- 
creased the distance between us by resorting to a 
double quick, evading battle with admirable tact. 
While all this was going on, the open country 
permitted us a rare and brilliant sight, the bright 
sun gleaming from the arms and trappings of the 
thousands of pursuers and pursued. 

Near New Market, as a last effort to hold the 


enemy, I pushed Devin*s cavalry — comprising 
about five hundred men — with two guns right up 
on Early's lines, in the hope that the tempting 
opportunity given him to capture the guns would 
stay his retreat long enough to let my infantry 
deploy within range, but he refused the bait, and 
after momentarily checking Devin he continued 
on with little loss and in pretty good order. 

All hope of Torbert's appearing in rear of the 
Confederates vanished as they passed beyond 
New Market. Some six miles south of this place 
Early left the Valley Pike and took the road to 
Keezletown, a move due in a measure to Powell's 
march by way of Timberville toward Lacy's 
Springs, but mainly caused by the fact that the 
Keezletown road ran immediately along the base 
of Peaked Mountain — a rugged ridge affording 
protection to Early's right flank — and led in a 
direction facilitating his junction with Kershaw, 
who had been ordered back to him from Culpeper 
the day after the battle of the Opequon. The 
chase was kept up on the Keezeltown road till 
darkness overtook us, when my weary troops 
were permitted to go into camp ; and as soon as 
the enemy discovered by our fires that the pursuit 
had stopped, he also bivouacked some five miles 
farther south toward Port Republic. 

The next morning Early was joined by Lomax's 


cavalry from Harrisonburg, Wickham's and 
Payne's brigades of cavalry also uniting with him 
from the Luray Valley. His whole army then 
fell back to the mouth of Brown's Gap to await 
Kershaw's division and Cutshaw's artillery, now 
on their return. 

By the morning of the 25th the main body of 
the enemy had disappeared entirely from my 
front, and the capture of some small squads of 
Confederates in the neighboring hills furnished 
us the only incidents of the day. Among the pris- 
oners was a tall and fine looking officer, much 
worn with hunger and fatigue. The moment I 
saw him I recognized him as a former comrade, 
George W. Carr, with whom I had served in 
Washington Territory. He was in those days a 
lieutenant in the Ninth Infantry, and was one of 
the officers who superintended the execution of 
the nine Indians at the Cascades of the Columbia 
in 1856. Carr was very much emaciated, and 
greatly discouraged by the turn events had re- 
cently taken. For old acquaintance sake I gave 
him plenty to eat, and kept him in comfort at my 
headquarters until the next batch of prisoners 
was sent to the rear, when he went with them. 
He had resigned from the regular army at the 
commencement of hostilities, and, full of high 
anticipation, cast his lot with the Confederacy, 


but when he fell into our hands, his bright dreams 
having been dispelled by the harsh realities of 
war, he appeared to think that for him there was 
no future. 

Picking up prisoners here and there, my troops 
resumed their march directly south on the Valley 
pike, and when the Sixth and Nineteenth corps 
reached Harrisonburg they went into camp, Pow- 
ell in the meanwhile pushing on to Mt. Crawford, 
and Crook taking up a position in our rear at the 
junction of the Keezletown road and the Valley 
pike. Late in the afternoon Torbert's cavalry 
came in from New Market arriving at that place 
many hours later than it had been expected. 

The succeeding day I sent Merritt to Port Re- 
public to occupy the enemy's attention, while 
Torbert, with Wilson's division and the regular 
brigade, was ordered to Staunton, whence he was 
to proceed to Waynesboro' and blow up the rail- 
road bridge. Having done this, Torbert, as he re- 
turned, was to* drive off whatever cattle he could 
find, destroy all forage and breadstuffs, and burn 
the mills. He took possession of Waynesboro' in 
due time, but had succeeded in only partially 
demolishing the railroad bridge when, attacked 
by Pegram's division of infantry and Wickham's 
cavalry, he was compelled to fall back to Staun- 
ton. From the latter place he retired to Bridge- 

Vou u.— 4. 


water and Spring Hill, on the way, however, fully 
executing his instructions regarding the destruc- 
tion of supplies. 

While Torbert was on this expedition, Merritt 
had occupied Port Republic, but he happened to 
get there the very day that Kershaw's division 
was marching from Swift Run Gap to join Early. 
By accident Kershaw ran into Merritt shortly 
after the latter had gained the village. Kershaw's 
four infantry brigades attacked at once, and Mer- 
rit, forced out of Port Republic, fell back toward 
Cross Keys ; and in anticipation that the Confed- 
erates could be coaxed to that point, I ordered 
the infantry there, but Torbert's attack at Way- 
nesboro' had alarmed Early, and in consequence 
he drew all his forces in toward Rock-fish Gap. 
This enabled me to re-establish Merritt at Port 
Republic, send the Sixth and Nineteenth corps 
to the neighborhood of Mt. Crawford to await 
the return of Torbert, and to post Crook at Harri- 
sonburg ; these dispositions practically obtained 
till the 6th of October, I holding a line across the 
valley from Port Republic along North River by 
Mt. Crawford to the Back road near the mouth 
of Briery Branch Gap. 

It was during this period, about dusk on the 
evening of October 3, that between Harrisonburg 
and Dayton my engineer ofl&cer, Lieutenant John 


R. Meigs, was murdered within my lines. He 
had gone out with two topographical assistants 
to plot the country, and late in the evening, while 
riding along the public road on his return to 
camp, he overtook three men dressed in our 
uniform. From their dress, and also because the 
party was immediately behind our lines and with- 
in a mile and a half of my headquarters, Meigs 
and his ' assistants naturally thought that they 
were joining friends, and wholly unsuspicious of 
anything to the contrary, rode on with the three 
men some little distance ; but their perfidy was 
abruptly discovered by their suddenly turning 
upon Meigs with a call for his surrender. It has 
been claimed that, refusing to submit, he fired on 
the treacherous party, but the statement is not 
true, for one of the topographers escaped — the 
other was captured — and reported a few minutes 
later at my headquarters that Meigs was killed 
without resistance of any kind whatever, and 
without even the chance to give himself up. 
This man was so cool, and related all the circum- 
stances of the occurrence with such exactness, 
as to prove the truthfulness of his statement. 
The fact that the murder had been committed 
inside our lines was evidence that the perpetra- 
tors of the crime, having their homes in the 
vicinity, had been clandestinely visiting them. 



and been secretly harbored by some of the 
neighboring residents. Determining to teach 
a lesson to these abettors of the foul deed — a 
lesson they would never forget — I ordered all 
the houses within an area of five miles to be 
burned. General Custer, who had succeeded to 
the command of the Third Cavalry division 
(General Wilson having been detailed as chief 
of cavalry to Sherman's army), was charged 
with this duty, and the next morning proceeded 
to put the order into execution. The prescribed 
area included the little village of Dayton, but 
when a few houses in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the scene of the murder had been burned, 
Custer was directed to cease his desolating work, 
but to fetch away all the able-bodied males as 









\^7HILE we lay in camp at Harrisonburg it 
became necessary to decide whether or not 
I would advance to Brown's Gap, and, after driv- 
ing the enemy from there, follow him through 
the Blue Ridge into eastern Virginia. Indeed, 
this question began to cause me solicitude as soon 
as I knew Early had escaped me at New Market, 
for I felt certain that I should be urged to pursue 
the Confederates toward Charlottesville and Gor- 
donsville, and be expected to operate on that line 
against Richmond. For many reasons I was 
much opposed to such a plan, but mainly because 
its execution would involve the opening of the 




Orange and Alexandria railroad. To protect 
this road against the raids of the numerous guer- 
rilla bands that infested the region through which 
it passed, and to keep it in operation, would re- 
quire a large force of infantry, and would also 
greatly reduce my cavalry ; besides, I should be 
obliged to leave a force in the valley strong 
enough to give security to the line of the upper 
Potomac and the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 
and this alone would probably take the whole of 
Crook's command, leaving me a wholly inade- 
quate number of fighting men to prosecute a cam- 
paign against the city of Richmond. Then, too, 
I was in doubt whether the besiegers could hold 
the entire army at Petersburg ; and in case they 
could not, a number of troops sufficient to crush me 
might be detached by Lee, moved rapidly by rail, 
and, after overwhelming me, be quickly returned 
to confront General Meade. I was satisfied, more- 
over, that my transportation could not supply me 
further than Harrisonburg, and if in penetrating 
the Blue Ridge I met with protracted resistance, 
a lack of supplies might compel me to abandon 
the attempt at a most inopportune time. 

I therefore advised that the Valley campaign 
be terminated north of Staunton, and I be permit- 
ted to return, carrying out on the way my original 
instructions for desolating the Shenandoah coun- 



try so as to make it untenable for permanent 
occupation by the Confederates. I proposed to 
detach the bulk of my army when this work of 
destruction was completed, and send it by way 
of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad through 
Washington to the Petersburg line, believing that 
I could move it more rapidly by that route than 
by any other. I was confident that if a move- 
ment of this character could be made with celer- 
ity it would culminate in the capture of Richmond, 
and possibly of General Lee's army, and I was in 
hopes that General Grant would take the same 
view of the matter ; but just at this time he was 
so pressed by the Government and by public 
opinion at the North, that he advocated the wholly 
different conception of driving Early into eastern 
Virginia, and adhered to this plan with some 
tenacity. Considerable correspondence regarding 
the subject took place between us, throughout 
which I stoutly maintained that we should not 
risk, by what I held to be a false move, all that 
my army had gained. I being on the ground, 
General Grant left to me the final decision of the 
question, and I solved the first step by deter- 
mining to withdraw down the valley at least as 
far as Strasburg, which movement was begun on 
the 6th of October. 
The cavalry as it retired was stretched across 


the country from the Blue Ridge to the eastern 
slope of the Alleghanies, with orders to drive oflF 
all stock and destroy all supplies as it moved 
northward. The infantry preceded the cavalry, 
passing down the Valley pike, and as we marched 
along the many columns of smoke from burning 
stacks, and mills filled with grain, indicated that 
the adjacent country was fast losing the features 
which hitherto had made it a great magazine of 
stores for the Confederate armies. 

During the 6th and 7th of October, the enemy's 
horse followed us up, though at a respectful dis- 
tance. This cavalry was now under command of 
General T. W. Rosser, who on October 5 had 
joined Early with an additional brigade from 
Richmond. As we proceeded the Confederates 
gained confidence, probably on account of the 
reputation with which its new commander had 
been heralded, and on the third day's march had 
the temerity to annoy my rear guard consider- 
ably. Tired of these annoyances, I concluded to 
open the enemy's eyes in earnest, so that night I 
told Torbert I expected him either to give Rosser 
a drubbing next morning or get whipped himself, 
and that the infantry would be halted until the 
affair was over; I also informed him that I pro- 
posed to ride out to Round Top Mountain to see 
the fight. When I decided to have Rosser chas- 



tised, Merritt was encamped at the foot of Round 
Top, an elevation just north of Tom's Brook, and 
Custer some six miles farther north and west, 
near Tumbling Run. In the night Custer was 
ordered to retrace his steps before daylight 
by the Back road, which is parallel to and 
about three miles from the Valley pike, and 
attack the enemy at Tom's Brook crossing, while 
Merritt's instructions were to assail him on the 
Valley pike in concert with Custer. About 7 
in the morning, Custer's division encountered 
Rosser himself with three brigades, and while 
the stirring sounds of the resulting artillery duel 
were reverberating through the valley Merritt 
moved briskly to the front and fell upon Gen- 
erals Lomax and Johnson on the Valley pike. 
Merritt, by extending his right, quickly establish- 
ed connection with Custer, and the two divisions 
moved forward together under Torbert's direc- 
tion, with a determination to inflict on the enemy 
the sharp and summary punishment his rashness 
had invited. 

The engagement soon became general across 
the valley, both sides fighting mainly mounted. 
For about two hours the contending lines strug- 
gled with each other along Tom's Brook, the 
charges and counter charges at many points 
being plainly visible from the summit of Round 


Top, where I had my headquarters for the 

The open country permitting a sabre fight, both 
sides seemed bent on using that arm. In the cen- 
tre the Confederates maintained their position 
with much stubbornness, and for a time seemed 
to have recovered their former spirit, but at last 
they began to give way on both flanks, and as 
these receded, Merritt and Custer went at the 
wavering ranks in a charge along the whole front. 
The result was a general smash-up of the entire 
Confederate line, the retreat quickly degenerat- 
ing into a rout the like of which was never be- 
fore seen. For twenty-six miles this wild stam- 
pede kept up, with our troopers close at the ene- 
my's heels; and the ludicrous incidents of the 
chase never ceased to be amusing topics around 
the camp-fires of Merritt and Custer. In the fight 
and pursuit Torbert took eleven pieces of artil- 
lery, with their caissons, all the wagons and am- 
bulances the enemy had on the ground, and 
three hundred prisoners. Some of Rosser's troop- 
ers fled to the mountains by way of Columbia 
Furnace, and some up the Valley pike and into 
the Massanutten Range, apparently not discover- 
ing that the chase had been discontinued till 
south of Mount Jackson they rallied on Early's 



After this catastrophe, Early reported to Gen- 
eral Lee that his cavalry was so badly demoral- 
ized that it should be dismounted ; and the citizens 
of the valley, intensely disgusted with the boast- 
ing and swaggering that had characterized the ar- 
rival of the '* Laurel Brigade "* in that section, bap- 
tized the action (known to us as Tom's Brook) the 
''Woodstock Races," and never tired of poking 
fun at General Rosser about his precipitate and 
inglorious flight. 

On the loth my army, resuming its retrograde 
movement, crossed to the north side of Cedar 
Creek. The work of repairing the Manassas Gap 
branch of the Orange and Alexandria railroad 
had been begun some days before, out from 
Washington, and, anticipating that it would be in 
readiness to transport troops by the time they 
could reach Piedmont, I directed the Sixth Corps 
to continue its march toward Front Royal, ex- 
pecting to return to the Army of the Potomac by 
that line. By the 12th, however, my views re- 
garding the reconstruction of this railroad began 
to prevail, and the work on it was discontinued. 
The Sixth Corps, therefore, abandoned that route, 
and moved toward Ashby's Gap with the purpose 
of marching direct to Washington, but on the 13th 

• When Rosser arrived from Richmond with his brigade he was proclaimed 
as the savior of the Valley, and his men came all bedecked with laurel branches. 


I recalled it to Cedar Creek, in consequence of the 
arrival of the enemy's infantry at Fisher's Hill, 
and the receipt, the night before, of the following 
despatch, which again opened the question of an 
advance on Gordonsville and Charlottesville: 

(Cipher.) ** Washington, October 12, 1864, 12 m. 

" Major-General Sheridan: 

** Lieutenant-General Grant wishes a position taken far enough 

south to serve as a base for further operations upon Gordonsville 

and Charlottesville. It must be strongly fortified and provisioned. 

Some point in the vicinity of Manassas Gap would seem best 

suited for all purposes. Colonel Alexander, of the Engineers, 

will be sent to consult with you as soon as you connect with 

General Augur. 

" H. W. Halleck, Major-General." 

As it was well known in Washington that the 
views expressed in the above despatch were coun- 
ter to my convictions, I was the next day required 
by the following telegram from Secretary Stan- 
ton to repair to that city : 

** Washington, October 13, 1864. 

" Major-General Sheridan 

(through General Augur) : 
" If you can come here, a consultation on several points is ex- 
tremely desirable. I propose to visit General Grant, and would 
like to see you first. 

" Edwin M. Stanton, 

** Secretary of War." 

I got all ready to comply with the terms of 
Secretary Stanton's despatch, but in the mean- 


time the enemy appeared in my front in force, 
with infantry and cavalry, and attacked Colonel 
Thoburn, who had been pushed out toward Stras- 
burg from Crook's command, and also Custer's 
division of cavalry on the Back road. As after- 
ward appeared, this attack was made in the belief 
that all of my troops but Crook's had gone to 
Petersburg. From this demonstration there en- 
sued near Hupp's Hill a bitter skirmish between 
Kershaw and Thoburn, and the latter was finally 
compelled to withdraw to the north bank of 
Cedar Creek. Custer gained better results, how- 
ever, on the Back road, with his usual dash 
driving the enemy's cavalry away from his front, 
Merritt's division then joining him and remaining 
on the right. 

The day's events pointing to a probability that 
the enemy intended to resume the offensive, to 
anticipate such a contingency I ordered the Sixth 
Corps to return from its march toward Ashby's 
Gap. It reached me by noon of the 14th, and 
went into position to the right and rear of the 
Nineteenth Corps, which held a line along the 
north bank of Cedar Creek, west of the Val- 
ley pike. Crook was posted on the left of the 
Nineteenth Corps and east of the Valley pike, 
with Thoburn's division advanced to a round 
hill, which commanded the junction of Cedar 


Creek and the Shenandoah River, while Torbert 
retained both Merritt and Custer on the right of 
the Sixth Corps, and at the same time covered 
with Powell the roads toward Front Royal. My 
headquarters were at the Belle Grove House, 
which was to the west of the pike and in rear 
of the Nineteenth Corps. It was my intention 
to attack the enemy as soon as the Sixth Corps 
reached me, but General Early having learned 
from his demonstration that I had not detached 
as largely as his previous information had led 
him to believe, on the night of the 13th withdrew 
to Fisher's Hill ; so, concluding that he could not 
do us serious hurt from there, I changed my mind 
as to attacking, deciding to defer such action till 
I could get to Washington, and come to some 
definite understanding about my future opera- 

To carry out this idea, on the evening of the 
15th I ordered all of the cavalry under General 
Torbert to accompany me to Front Royal, again 
intending to push it thence through Chester Gap 
to the Virginia Central railroad at Charlottesville, 
to destroy the bridge over the Rivanna River, 
while I passed through Manassas Gap to Rector- 
town, and thence by rail to Washington. On my 
arrival with the cavalry near Front Royal on the 
1 6th, I halted at the house of Mrs. Richards, on 


the north bank of the river, and there received the 
following despatch and inclosure from General 
Wright, who had been left in command at Cedar 
Creek : 

" Headquarters Middle Military Division, 

"October 16, 1864. 
" General : 

** I enclose you despatch which explains itself. If the enemy 
should be strongly re-enforced in cavalry, he might, by turning 
our right, give us a great deal of trouble. I shall hold on here 
until the enemy's movements are developed, and shall only fear 
an attack on my right, which I shall make every preparation for 
guarding against and resisting. 

***Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" H. G. Wright, Major-General Commanding. 

" Major-General p. H. Sheridan, 

" Commanding Middle Military Division." 


"To Lieutenant-General Early : 

" Be ready to move as soon as my forces join you, and we will 

crush Sheridan. 

** Longstreet, Lieutenant-General." 

The message from Longstreet had been taken 
down as it was being flagged from the Confeder- 
ate signal-station on Three Top Mountain, and 
afterward translated by our signal officers, who 
knew the Confederate signal code. I first thought 
it a ruse, and hardly worth attention, but on re- 
flection deemed it best to be on the safe side, so I 
abandoned the cavalry raid toward Charlottes- 
ville, in order to give General Wright the entire 


strength of the army, for it did not seem wise to 
reduce his numbers while reinforcement for the 
enemy might be near, and especially when such 
pregnant messages were reaching Early from 
one of the ablest of the Confederate generals. 
Therefore I sent the following note to General 
Wright : 

** Headquarters Middle Military Division, 
"Front Royal, October i6, 1864. 

*♦ General : The cavalry is all ordered back to you ; make 
your position strong. If Longstreet's despatch is true, he is 
under the impression that we have largely detached. % I will go 
over to Augur, and may get additional news. Close in Colonel 
Powell, who will be at this point. If the enemy should make an 
advance, I know you will defeat him. Look well to your ground 
and be well prepared. Get up everything that can be spared. I 
will bring up all I can, and will be up on Tuesday, if not sooner. 

"P. H. Sheridan, Major-GeneraL 

*« Major-General H. G. Wright, 

** Commanding Sixth Army Corps." 

At 5 o'clock on the evening of the i6th I tele- 
graphed General Halleck from Rectortown, giv- 
ing him the information which had come to me 
from Wright, asking if anything corroborative of 
it had been received from General Grant, and also 
saying that I would like to see Halleck ; the tele- 
gram ending with the question : *' Is it best for 
me to go to see you ? " Next morning I sent back 
to Wright all the cavalry except one regiment, 
which escorted me through Manassas Gap to the 


terminus of the railroad from Washington. I had 
with me Lieutenant-Colonel James W. Forsyth, 
chief-of-staflF, and three of my aides, Major George 
A. Forsyth, Captain Joseph O'Keefe, and Cap- 
tain Michael V. Sheridan. I rode my black 
horse, Rienzi, and the others their own respec- ' 
tive mounts. 

Before leaving Cedar Creek I had fixed the 
route of my return to be by rail from Washington 
to Martinsburg, and thence by horseback to Win- 
chester and Cedar Creek, and had ordered three 
hundred cavalry to Martinsburg to escort me from 
that point to the front. At Rectortown I met 
General Augur, who had brought a force out from 
Washington to reconstruct and protect the line 
of railroad, and through him received the follow- 
ing reply from General Halleck : 

** Headquarters Armies of the United States, 
"Washington, D. C, October 16, 1864. 

" To Major-General Sheridan, 

** Rectortown, Va. 

"General Grant says that Longstreet brought with him no 
troops from Richmond, but I have very little confidence in the 
information collected at his headquarters. If you can leave your 
command with safety, come to Washington, as I wish to give you 
the views of the authorities here. 

"H. W. Halleck, Major-General, Chief-of -Staff." 

In consequence of the Longstreet despatch, I 
felt a concern about my absence which I could 

Vol. II.— 5. 


hardly repress, but after duly considering what 
Ha Heck said, and believing that Longstreet could 
not unite with Early before I got back, and that 
even if he did Wright would be able to cope with 
them both, I and my staff, with our horses, took 
the cars for Washington, where we arrived on the 
morning of the 17th at about 8 o'clock. I pro- 
ceeded at an early hour to the War Department, 
and as soon as I met Secretary Stanton, asked him 
for a special train to be ready at 12 o'clock to 
take me to Martinsburg, saying that in view of 
existing conditions I must get back to my army 
as quickly as possible. He at once gave the 
order for the train, and then the Secretary, Hal- 
leek, and I proceeded to hold a consultation in 
regard to my operating east of the Blue Ridge. 
The upshot was that my views against such a plan 
were practically agreed to, and two engineer offi- 
cers were designated to return with me for the 
purpose of reporting on a defensive line in the 
valley that could be held while the bulk of my 
troops were being detached to Petersburg. Col- 
onel Alexander and Colonel Thom, both of the 
Engineer Corps, reported to accompany me, and 
at 12 o'clock we took the train. 

We arrived about dark at Martinsburg, and 
there found the escort of three hundred men which 
I had ordered before leaving Cedar Creek. We 


spent that night at Martinsburg, and early next 
morning mounted and started up the Valley pike 
for Winchester, leaving Captain Sheridan behind 
to conduct to the army the Commissioners whom 
the State of New York had sent down to receive 
the vote of her troops in the coming Presidential 
election. Colonel Alexander was a man of enor- 
mous weight, and Colonel Thom correspondingly 
light, and as both were unaccustomed to riding 
we had to go slowly, losing so much time, in fact, 
that we did not reach Winchester till between 3 
and 4 o'clock in the afternoon, though the distance 
is but twenty-eight miles. As soon as we arrived 
at Colonel Edwards's headquarters in the town, 
where I intended stopping for the night, I sent a 
courier to the front to bring me a report of the 
condition of affairs, and then took Colonel Alex- 
ander out on the heights about Winchester, in 
order that he might overlook the country, and 
make up his mind as to the utility of fortifying 
there. By the time we had completed our survey 
it was dark, and just as we reached Colonel 
Edwards's house on our return a courier came in 
from Cedar Creek bringing word that everything 
was all right, that the enemy was quiet at Fish- 
er's Hill, and that a brigade of Grover's division 
was to make a reconnoissance in the morning, 
the 19th, so about 10 o'clock I went to bed greatly 


relieved, and expecting to rejoin my headquarters 
at my leisure next day.* 

Toward 6 o'clock the morning of the 19th, the 
officer on picket duty at Winchester came to my 
room, I being yet in bed, and reported artillery 
firing from the direction of Cedar Creek. I asked 
him if the firing was continuous or only desul- 
tory, to which he replied that it was not a sus- * 

* Organization op the Union Forces Commanded by Major-Genbral 
Philip H. Sheridan at the Battle of Cedar Creek, 

Va., October 19, 1864. 

Army of the Shenandoah. 
Major-General Horatio G. Wright f 


Serenteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry (detachment), Major Weidner H. Spera. 
Sixth United SUtes Cavalry, Captain Ira W. Claflin. 

Sixth Army Corps. 

(i) Brigadier-General James B. Ricketts. 

(2) Brigadier-General George W. Getty. 

(3) Major-General Horatio G. Wright 

First Michigan Cavalry, Company G, Lieutenant William H. Wheeler. 

First Division. 
Brigadier-General Frank Wheaton. 

First Brigade: 

(i) Colonel William H. Penrose. 

(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Edward L. Campbell. 

(3) Captain Baldwin Hufty. 

Fourth New Jersey, Captain Baldwin Hufty. 
Tenth New Jersey (i), Major Lambert Boeman. 

" •* (2), Captain Charles 1>. Claypool. 

Fifteenth New Jersey (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Edward L. Campbell. 

(2), Captain Jas. W. Penrose. 

<< << 

t Commanded during General Sheridan'i temporary absence in the early part of the ttattle. 


tatned fire, but rather irregular and fitful. I re- 
marked : ** It's all right ; Grover has gone out this 
morning to make a reconnoissance, and he is 
merely feeling the enemy/* I tried to go to sleep 
again, but grew so restless that I could not, and 
soon got up and dressed myself. A little later 
the picket officer came back and reported that the 
firing, which could be distinctly heard from his 

Second Bbigade : 

(1) Colonel Joseph £. Hamblin. 

(2) Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie. 

(3) Lieutenant-Colonel Egbert Olcott. 

Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery (i), Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie. 

** •' (2), Major Edwaitl W. Jones. 

Sixty -fifth New York (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas H. Higinbotham. 

" (2). Captain Henry C. Fisk. 

One Hundred and Twenty-first New York ( I ), Lieutenant-Colonel Egbert Olcott 

•• •• " (2), Captain Daniel D. Jackson. 

Ninety-fifth and Ninety -sixth Pennsylvania, Captain John Harper. 

Third Brigade : • 

Colonel Oliver Edwards. 

Thirty-seventh Massachusetts, Lieutenant-Colonel George L. Montague. 

Forty-ninth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Baynton J. Hickman. 

Eighty -second Pennsylvania, Colonel Isaac C. Hassett. 

One Hundred and Nineteenth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Gideon Clark. 

Second Rhode Island (battalion). Captain Elisha H. Rhodes. 

Fifth Wisconsin (battalion). Major Charles W. Kempf. 

Seventeenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Major Coe Durland. 

Second Division. 

(i) Brigadier-General George W. Cxetty. 

(2) Brigadier-General Lewis A. Grant. 

(3) Brigadier-General George W. CJetty. 

First Brigade : 

Colonel James M. Warner. 
Sixty-second New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore B. Hamilton. 
Ninety-third Pennsylvania, Captain David C. Keller. 

* At Winchester, Va., and not engaged in the battle. 


line on the heights outside of Winchester, was 
still going on. I asked him if it sounded like a 
battle, and as he again said that it did not, I still 
inferred that the cannonading was caused by 
Grover's division banging away at the enemy 
simply to find out what he was up to. However, 
I went down-stairs and requested that breakfast 
be hurried up, and at the same time ordered the 

Ninet^eighth Pennsylvania (I), Lieutenant-Colonel John 6. Kohler. 

" *• (2). Captain Gottfried Bauer. 

One Hundred and Second Pennsylvania (i), Major James H. Coleman. 

" " *• (2), Captain James Patchell. 

One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel John C 


Second Brigade: 

(i) Brig^ier-General Lewis A. Grant. 

(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Amasa S. Tracy. 

(3) Brigadier-General Lewis A. Grant 

Second Vermont (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Amasa S. Tracy. 

" (2), Captain Elijah Wales. 

** (3), Lieutenant-Colonel Amasa S. Tracy. 

Third Vermont (battalion), Major Horace W. Floyd. 
Fourth Vermont (i), Major Horace W. Floyd. 

•• (2), Colonel George P. Foster.* 

Fifth Vermont, Major Enoch E. Johnson. 

Sixth Vermont (battalion) (i), Captain Edwin R. Kinney. 

•* , (2), Captain Wm. J. Sperry. 

Eleventh Vermont (First Heavy Artillery), Lieutenant - Colonel Charles 


Third Brigade : 

(i) Brigadier-General Daniel D. Bid well. 
(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Winsor B. French. 

First Maine (Veteran), Major Stephen C. Fletcher. 
Forty-third New York (battalion), Major Charles A. Milliken. 
Forty-ninth New York (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel Erastus D. Holt 
Seventy-seventh New York, Lieulenant-Colonel Winsor B. French. 

* Corps officer of the day at the beginning of the battle ; later, rqoined brigade and coooh- 
asanded the left of itt line. 


horses to be saddled and in readiness, for I con- 
cluded to go to the front before any further ex- 
aminations were made in regard to the defensive 

We mounted our horses between half-past 8 
and 9, and as we were proceeding up the street 
which leads directly through Winchester, from 
the Logan residence, where Edwards was quar- 

One Hundred and Twenty-second New York (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Augustus 

W. Dwight, 
•' " •• " (2), Major Jabez M. Brower. 

Sixty-first Pennsylvania (battalion), Captain David J. Taylor. 

Third Division. 
Colonel J. Warren Keifer. 

First Brigade : 

Colonel William Emerson. 

Fourteenth New Jersey, Captain Jacob J. Janeway. 
One Hundred and Sixth New York (i), Captain Alvah W. Briggs. 
«* " •• (2), Captain Peter Robertson. 

One Hundred and Fifty-first New York (i), Captain Browning N. Wiles. 
" *• ** (2), Captain Hiram A. Kimball. 

One Hundred and Eighty-fourth New York (battalion), Major William D. 

Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania (battalion) (I), Captain Edgar M. Ruhl. 

** ** ** (2), Captain John A. Salsbury 

Tenth Vermont (i), Colonel William W. Henry. 
*• (2), Captain Henry H. Dewey. 

Second Brigade : 

Colonel William H. Ball. 

Sixth Maryland, Major Joseph C. Hill. 
Ninth New York Heavy Artillery, Major James W. Snyder. 
One Hundred and Tenth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Otho H. Binkley. 
One Hundred and Twenty -second Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Moses M. Granger. 
Chic Hundred and Twenty-sixth Ohio (i), Major George W. Voorhes. 
" " ** •• (2), CapUin George W. Hoge. 

Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania, Lieutenant John F. Young. 
One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Pennsylvania, Major Lewis A. May. 



tered, to the Valley pike, I noticed that there 
were many women at the windows and doors of 
the houses, who kept shaking their skirts at us and 
who were otherwise markedly insolent in their 
demeanor, but supposing this conduct to be insti- 
gated by their well-known and perhaps natural 
prejudices, I ascribed to it no unusual significance. 
On reaching the edge of the town I halted a 

Artillery Brigade : 

Colonel Charles H. Tompkins. 

Maine Light, 5th Battery (E), Captain Creenleaf T. Stevens. 
New York Light, ist Battery, Lieutenant Orsamus R. Van Etten. 
First Rhode Island Light, Battery C, Lieutenant Jacob H. Lamb. 
First Rhode Island Light, Battery G, Captain George W. Adams. 
Fifth United States, Battery M, Captain James McKnight. 


Brigadier-General William H. Emory. 

First Division. 

(i) Brigadier-General James W. McMillan. 
(2) Brigadier-General William Dwight. 

First Brigade: 

Colonel Edwin P. Davis. 

Twenty-ninth Maine (i), Major George IL Nye. 

•* " (2), Captain Alfred L. Turner. 

Thirtieth Massachusetts, Captain Samuel D. Shipley. 
Ninetieth New York (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson Shaurman. 

** *' (2), Captain Henry de La Paturelle. 

One Hundred and Fourteenth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Henry li. Morse. 
One Hundred and Sixteenth New York, Colonel George M. Love. 
One Hundred and Fifty -third New York (i), Lieutenant- Colonel Alexander 

" *• '• ** (2), Captain George H. McLaughlin. 

Second Brigade: 

(1) Colonel Stephen Thomas. 

(2) Brigadier-General James W. McMillan. 

Twelfth Connecticut, Lieutenant-Colonel George N. Lewis. 

One Hundred and Sixtieth New York, Captain Henry P. Underbill. 

A ** CHAPE-VINE telegraph:' j^ 

moment, and there heard quite distinctly the 
sound of artillery firing in an unceasing roar. 
Concluding from this that a battle was in progress, 
I now felt confident that the women along the 
street had received intelligence from the battle- 
field by the ** grape-vine telegraph," and were in 
raptures over some good news, while I as yet was 
utterly ignorant of the actual situation. Moving 

Forty-seventh Pennsylvania, Major J. P. Shindel Gobin. 
Eighth Vermont (i), Major John B. Mead. 

(2), Captain Moses McFarland. 

(3), Colonel Stephen Thomas. 

Third Brigade: * 
Colonel Leonard D. H. Currie. 
Thirtieth Maine, Colonel Thomas H. Hubbard. 
One Hundred and Thirty-third New York, Major Anthony J. Allaire. 
One Hundred and Sixty-second New York, Colonel Justus W. Blanchard. 
One Hundred and Sixty-fifth New York (six companies), Lieutenant-Colonel 

Gouvemeur Carr. 
One Hundred and Seventy-third New York, Major George W. Rogers. 


New York Light. Fifth Battery, Captain Elijah. D. Taft. 

Second Division. 

(i) Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover. 
(2) Brigadier-General Henry W. Birge. 

First Brigade: 

(x) Brigadier- General Henry W. Birge. 
(2) Colonel Thomas W. Porter. 

Ninth Cornecticut (battalion), Captain John G. Healy. 
Twelfth Maine, Lieutenant- Colon el Edwin Ilsley. 
Fourteenth M.iinc (i), Colonel Thomas W. Porter. 

** *• (2), Captain John K. Laing. 

Twenty-sixth Massachusetts (battalion), Lieutenant John S. Cooke. 
Fourteenth New Hampshire (I), Captain Theodore A. Ripley. 

" ** (2), Captain Oliver H. Marston. 

Seventy-fifth New York, Major Benjamin F. Thurber. 

* Guarding wagon-trains, an J not engaged in the battle. 


on, I put my head down toward the pommel of 
my saddle and listened intently, trying to locate 
and interpret the sound, continuing in this posi- 
tion till we had crossed Mill Creek, about half 
a mile from Winchester. The result of my 
efforts in the interval was the conviction that 
the travel of the sound was increasing too rap- 
idly to be accounted for by my own rate of 

Second Brigade: 

Colonel Edward L. Molineux. 

Thirteenth Connecticut, Colonel Charles D. Blinn. 

Eleventh Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel William W. Damall. 

Twenty-second Iowa, Colonel Harvey Graham. 

Third Massachusetts Cavalry (dismounted), Colonel Lorenzo D. Sargent 

One Hundred and Thirty-first New York, Colonel Nicholas W. Day. 

One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel William Walter- 


Jhird Brigade: 

(1) Colonel Daniel Macauley. 

(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Neafie. 

Thirty -eighth Massachusetts, Major Charles F. Allen. 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth New York, Captain Charles R. Anderson. 

One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Neafie. 

" *• " (2), Captain Alfred Cooley. 

One Hundred and Seventy-fifth New York (battalion), Captain Charles 

One Hundred and Seventy-sixth New York, Major Charles Lewis. 

Fourth Brigade : 

Colonel David Shunk. 

Eighth Indiana (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander J. Kenny. 

•* (2), Major John R. Polk. 

Eighteenth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel William S. Charles. 
Twenty-fourth Iowa (i), Lieutenant-Colonel John Q. Wilds. 

(2), Captain Leander Clark. 
" (3), Major Edward Wright 
Twenty -eighth Iowa (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Bartholomew W. Wilson. 

(2), Major John Meyer. 


« «< 



motion, and that therefore my army must be 
falling back. 

At Mill Creek my escort fell in behind, and we 
were going ahead at a regular pace, when, just as 
we made the crest of the rise beyond the stream, 
there burst upon our view the appalling spectacle 
of a panic-stricken army — hundreds of slightly 
wounded men, throngs of others unhurt but ut- 


Maine Light, First Battery (A) (I), Lieutenent Eben D. Haley. 

(2), Lieutenant John S. Snow. 

<« i< 

Reservb Artillery: 

Major Albert W. Bradbury. 

Indiana Light, Seventeenth Battery, Lieutenant Hezekiah Hinkson. 
First Rhode Island Light, Battery D, Lieutenant Frederick Chase. 

Army of West Virginia. 
Brigadier-General George Crook. 

First Division. 

(1) Colonel Joseph Thobum. 

(2) Colonel Thomas M. Harris. 

First Brigade : 

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas F. Wildes. 

Thirty-fourth Massachusetts, Captain Andrew Potter. 

Fifth New York Heavy Artillery, Second Battalion, Captain Frederick C. Wilkie. 

One Hundred and Sixteenth Ohio, Captam Wilbert B. Teters. 

One Hundred and Twenty-third Ohio, Major I^Iorace Kellogg. 

Second Brigade: * 

Colonel William B. Curtis. 

First West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Jacob Weddle. 

Foiu-th West Virginia, Captain Benjamin D. Boswell. 

Twelfth West Virginia, Lieutenant -Colonel Robert S. Northcott. 

* Ac Wmchester. Va., and not engaged in the battle. 


terly demoralized, and baggage-wagons by the 
score, all pressing to the rear in hopeless con- 
fusion, telling only too plainly that a disaster had 
occurred at the front. On accosting some of the 
fugitives, they assured me that the army was 
broken? up, in full retreat, and that all was lost ; 
all this with a manner true to that peculiar indif- 
ference that takes possession of panic-stricken 

Third Brigade: 

(1) Colonel Thomas M. Harris. 

(2) Colonel Milton Wells. 

Twenty-third Illinois (battalion),* Captain Samuel A. Simison. 

Fifty-fourth Pennsylvania, Captain John Suter. 

Tenth West Virginia (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Moses S. HalL 

•* «• (2), Major Henry H. Withers. 

Eleventh West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Van H. Bukey. 
Fifteenth West Virginia (i). Colonel Milton Wells. 
" " (2), Major John W. Holliday. 

Second Division. 
Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes. 

/iRST Brigade: 
Colonel Hiram F. Duval. 

Twenty-third Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel James M. Comly, 
Thirty-sixth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. G. Adney. 
Fifth West Virginia (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Enochs. 
Thirteenth West Virginia (I), Colonel WUliam R. Brown.f 

(2), Lieutenant- Colonel James R. Hall. 

(< li 

Second Brigade: 

Lieut«^ant-Colonel Benjamin F. Coates. 

Thirty-fourth Ohio (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel Luther Fumey. 
Ninety -first Ohio, Major Lemuel Z. Cadot 
Ninth West Virginia, Captain John S. P. Carroll. 
Fourteenth West Virginia, Major Shriver Moore. 

* At Winchester, Va., and not engaged in the battle, 
t Corps officer of the day. 



men. I was greatly disturbed by the' sight, but 
at once sent word to Colonel Edwards, com- 
manding the brigade in Winchester, to stretch his 
troops across the valley, near Mill Creek, and stop 
all fugitives, directing also that the transportation 
be passed through and parked on the north side 
of the town. 
As I continued at a walk a few hundred yards 

Artillery Brigade. 

Captain Henry A. Du Pont 

First Ohio Light, Battery L, Captain Frank C. Gibbs. 
First Pennsylvania Light, Battery D, Lieutenant William Munk. 
Fifth United Sutes, Battery B (I), Lieutenant Henry F. Brewerton. 
<« *' *< (2), Lieutenant Charles Holman. 

Provisional Division. ♦ 
Colonel J. Howard Kitching. 

Brigadier-General Alfred T. A. Torbert 

First Rhode Island, Major William H. Turner, Jr. 

First Division. 
Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt. 

First Brigade: 

Colonel James H. Kidd. 

First Michigan, Captain Andrew W. Duggan. 

Fifth Michigan, Major Smith H. Hastings. 

Sixth Michigan, Major Charles W. Deane. 

Seventh Michigan, Major Daniel H. Darling. 

New York Light Artillery, Sixth Battery, Captain Joseph W. Martin. 

* Only a small detachment from the First Bnifade, and the Sixth New York Heavy Artillery, 
from the Second Brigade, engaged in the battle. 


farther, thinking all the time of Longstreet's 
telegram to Early, " Be ready when I join you, 
and we will crush Sheridan," I was fixing in my 
mind what I should do. My first thought was tq 
stop the army in the suburbs of Winchester as it 
came back, form a new line, and fight there ; but 
as the situation was more maturely considered ^ 
better conception prevailed. I was sure the troops 

Second Brigade: 

Colonel Thomas C. Devin. 

Fourth New York,* Major Edward Schwartz. 

Sixth New York, Captain George E. Farmer. 

Ninth New York, Colonel George S. Nichols. 

Nineteenth New York (First Dragoons), Colonel Alfred Gibbs. 

First United States Artillery, Batteries K and L, Lieutenant Franck E. Taylor. 

Reserve Brigade: 

(1) Colonel Charles R. Lowell, Jr. 

(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Casper Crowninshield. 

Second Massachusetts (i), Lieutenant-Colonel Casper Crowninshield. 

** •* (2), Captain Archibald McKendry. 

First United States, Captain Euj^ene M. Baker. 
Second United States, Captain Robert S. Smith. 
Fifth United States, Lieutenant Gustavus Urban. 

Skcond Division, f 

Colonel Willi^im H. Powell. 
First Brigade: 

Colonel Alpheus S. Moore. 

Eighth Ohio (detachment), . 

Fourteenth Pennsylvania, Major Thomas Gibson. 

Twenty-second Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew J. Greenfield. 

Second Brigade: 

Colonel Henry Capehart. 

First New York, Major Timothy Quinn. 
First West Virginia, Major Harvey Farabee. 

• Detailed for duty at Gene>^I Sheridan's headquarters, 
t From Department of West Virginia. 



had confidence in me, for heretofore we had been 
successful ; and as at other times they had seen 
me present at the slightest sign of trouble or dis- 
tress, I felt that I ought to try now to restore their 
broken ranks, or, failing in that, to share their 
fate because of what they had done hitherto. 

About this time Colonel Wood, my chief com- 
missary, arrived from the front and gave me 

Second West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel John J. Hoffman. 
Third West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel John L. McGee. 

Fifth United States, Battery L, Lieutenant Gulian V. Weir. 

Third Division. 
Brigadier-General George A. Custer. 

First Brigade. 

Colonel Alexander C. M. Pennington, J r. 

First Connecticut, Captain Edwin W. French. 

Third New Jersey, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles C. Suydam. 

Second New York, Captain Andrew S. Glover. 

Fifth New York, Major Theodore A. Boice. 

Second Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Purington. 

Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Major John W. Phillips. 

Second Brigade: 

Colonel William Wells. 

Third Indiana (two companies), Lieutenant Benjamin F. Gilbert. 
First New Hampshire (battalion). Colonel John L. Thompson. 
Eighth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Benjamin. 
Twenty-second New York, Major Charles C. Brown. 
First Vermont, Lieutenant-Colonel John W. Bennett. 


Second United States, Batteries B and L, Captain Charles H. Peirce. 
Third United States, Batteries C, F, and K, Captain Dunbar R. Ransom. 


fuller intelligence, reporting that everything was 
gone, my headquarters captured, and the troops 
dispersed. When I heard this I took two of my 
aides-de-camp. Major George A. Forsyth and 
Captain Joseph O'Keefe, and with twenty men 
from the escort started for the front, at the 
same time directing Colonel James W. Forsyth 
and Colonels Alexander and Thom to remain 
behind and do what they could to stop the run- 

For a short distance I traveled on the road, but 
soon found it so blocked with wagons and wound- 
ed men that my progress was impeded, and I was 
forced to take to the adjoining fields to make 
haste. When most of the wagons and 'wounded 
were past I returned to the road, which was 
thickly lined with unhurt men, who, having got 
far enough to the rear to be out of danger, had 
halted, without any organization, and begun 
cooking cofiFee, but when they saw me they aban- 
doned their coffee, threw up their hats, shouldered 
their muskets, and as I passed along turned to 
follow with enthusiasm and cheers. To acknowl- 
edge this exhibition of feeling I took off my hat, 
and with Forsyth and O'Keefe rode some distance 
in advance of my escort, while every mounted 
officer who saw me galloped out on either side of 
the pike to tell the men at a distance that I had 


come back. In this way the news was spread to 
the stragglers ofiF the road, when they, too, turned 
their faces to the front and marched toward the 
enemy, changing in a moment from the depths of 
depression to the extreme of enthusiasm. I al- 
ready knew that even in the ordinary condition 
of mind enthusiasm is a potent element with 
soldiers, but what I saw that day convinced me 
that if it can be excited from a state of despond- 
ency its power is almost irresistible. I said 
nothing except to remark^^as I rode among those 
on the road : ** If I had been with you this morn- 
ing this disaster would not have happened. We 
must face the other way ; we will go back and 
recover our camp." 

My first halt was made just north of Newtown, 
where I met a chaplain digging his heels into the 
sides of his jaded horse, and making for the rear 
with all possible speed. I drew up for an instant, 
and inquired of him how matters were going at 
the front. He replied, *' Everything is lost; but all 
will be right when you get there '* ; yet notwith- 
standing this expression of confidence in me, the 
parson at once resumed his breathless pace to the 
rear. At Newtown I was obliged to make a cir- 
cuit to the left, to get round the village. I could 
not pass through it, the streets were so crowded, 
but meeting on this detour Major McKinley, of 

Vol. IL-6. 


Crook's Staff, he spread the news of my return 
through the motley throng there. 

When nearing the Valley pike, just south of 
Newtown I saw about three-fourths of a mile 
west of the pike a body of troops, which proved 
to be Ricketts*s and Wheaton's divisions of the 
Sixth Corps, and then learned that the Nineteenth 
Corps had halted a little to the right and rear 
of these ; but I did not stop, desiring to get to 
the extreme front. Continuing on parallel with 
the pike, about midway between Newtown and 
Middletown I crossed to the west of it, and a 
little later came up in rear of Getty's division of 
the Sixth Corps. When I arrived, this division 
and the cavalry were the only troops in the 
presence of and resisting the enemy ; they were 
apparently acting as a rear guard at a point about 
three miles north of the line we held at Cedar 
Creek when the battle began. General Torbert 
was the first officer to meet me, saying as he rode 
up, '' My God ! I am glad you Ve come." Getty's 
division, when I found it, was about a mile north 
of Middletown, posted on the reverse slope of 
some slightly rising ground, holding a barricade 
made with fence-rails, and skirmishing slightly 
with the enemy's pickets. Jumping my horse 
over the line of rails, I rode to the crest of the 
elevation, and there taking off my hat, the men 


rose up from behind their barricade with cheers of 
recognition. An officer of the Vermont brigade, 
Colonel A. S. Tracy, rode out to the front, and 
joining me, informed me that General Louis A. 
Grant was in command there, the regular division 
commander, General Getty, having taken charge 
of the Sixth Corps in place of Ricketts, wounded 
early in the action, while temporarily commanding 
the corps. I then turned back to the rear of 
Getty's division, and as I came behind it, a line 
of regimental flags rose up out of the ground, as 
it seemed, to welcome me. They were mostly 
the colors of Crook's troops, who had been stam- 
peded and scattered in the surprise of the morn- 
ing. The color-bearers, having withstood the 
panic, had formed behind the troops of Getty. 
The line with the colors was largely composed of 
officers, among whom I recognized Colonel R. B. 
Hayes, since president of the United States, one of 
the brigade commanders. At the close of this 
incident I crossed the little narrow valley, or 
depression, in rear of Getty's line, and dismount- 
ing on the opposite crest, established that point 
as my headquarters. In a few minutes some of 
my staflF joined me, and the first directions I gave 
were to have the Nineteenth Corps and the two 
divisions of Wright's corps brought to the front, 
so they could be formed on Getty's division, pro- 


longed to the right ; for I had already decided to 
attack the enemy from that line as soon as I 
could get matters in shape to take the oflFensive. 
Crook met me at this time, and strongly favored 
my idea pf attacking, but said, however, that most 
of his troops were gone. General Wright came 
up a little later, when I saw that he was wounded, 
a ball having grazed the point of his chin so as 
to draw the blood plentifully. 

Wright gave me a hurried account of the day's 
events, and when told that we would fight the 
enemy on the line which Getty and the cavalry 
were holding, and that he must go himself and 
send all his staflF to bring up the troops, he zeal- 
ously fell in with the scheme ; and it was then 
that the Nineteenth Corps and two divisions of 
the Sixth were ordered to the front from where 
they had been halted to the right and rear of 

After this conversation I rode to the east of the 
Valley pike and to the left of Getty's division, to 
a point from which I could obtain a good view of 
the front, in the mean time sending Major Forsyth 
to communicate with Colonel Lowell (who occu- 
pied a position close in toward the suburbs of 
Middletown and directly in front of Getty's left) 
to learn whether he could hold on there. Lowell 
replied that he could. I then ordered Custer's 


division back to the right flank, and returning to 
the place where my headquarters had been estab- 
lished I met near them Ricketts's division under 
General Keifer and General Frank Wheaton's 
division, both marching to the front. When the 
men of these divisions saw me they began cheer- 
ing and took up the double quick to the front, 
while I turned back toward Getty's line to point 
out where these returning troops should be placed. 
Having done this, I ordered General Wright to 
resume command of the Sixth Corps, and Getty, 
who was temporarily in charge of it, to take com- 
mand of his own division. A little later the Nine- 
teenth Corps came up and was posted between 
the right of the Sixth Corps and Middle Marsh 

All this had consumed a great deal of time, and 
I concluded to visit again the point to the east of 
the Valley pike, from where I had first observed the 
enemy, to see what he was doing. Arrived there, 
I could plainly see him getting ready for attack, 
and Major Forsyth now suggested that it would 
be well to ride along the line of battle before the 
enemy assailed us, for although the troops had 
learned of my return, but few of them had seen 
me. Following his suggestion I started in behind 
the men, but when a few paces had been taken I 
crossed to the front and, hat in hand, passed along 


the entire length of the infantry line ; and it is 
from this circumstance that many of the oflBcers 
and men who then received me with such hearti- 
ness have since supposed that that was my first 
appearance on the field. But at least two hours 
had elapsed since I reached the ground, for it 
was after mid-day when this incident of riding 
down the front took place, and I arrived not later, 
certainly, than half-past lo o'clock. 

After re-arranging the line and preparing to 
attack I returned again to observe the Confed- 
erates, who shortly began to advance on us. The 
attacking columns did not cover my entire front, 
and it appeared that their onset would be mainly 
directed against the Nineteenth Corps, so, fearing 
that they might be too strong for Emory on ac- 
count of his depleted condition (many of his men 
not having had time to get up from the rear), 
and Getty's division being free from assault, I 
transferred a part of it from the extreme left to 
the support of the Nineteenth Corps. The assault 
was quickly repulsed by Emory, however, and as 
the enemy fell back Getty's troops were returned 
to their original place. This repulse of the Con- 
federates made me feel pretty safe from further 
offensive operations on their part, and I now de- 
cided to suspend the fighting till my thin ranks 
were further strengthened by the men who were 


continually coming up from the rear, and particu- 
larly till Crook's troops could be assembled on 
the extreme left. 

In consequence of the despatch already men- 
tioned, " Be ready when I join you, and we will 
crush Sheridan," since learned to have been 
fictitious, I had been supposing all day that 
Longstreet's troops were present, but as no defi- 
nite intelligence on this point had been gathered, 
I concluded, in the lull that now occurred, to 
ascertain something positive regarding Long- 
street ; and Merritt having been transferred to our 
left in the morning, I directed him to attack an 
exposed battery then at the edge of Middletown, 
and capture some prisoners. Merritt soon did 
this work effectually, concealing his intention till 
his troops got close in to the enemy, and then by 
a quick dash gobbling up a number of Confeder- 
ates. When the prisoners were brought in, I 
learned from them that the only troops of Long- 
street's in the fight were of Kershaw's division, 
which had rejoined Early at Brown's Gap in the 
latter part of September, and that the rest of Long- 
street's corps was not on the field. The receipt of 
this information entirely cleared the way for me 
to take the offensive, but on the heels of it came 
information that Longstreet was marching by the 
Front Royal pike to strike my rear at Winchester, 


driving PoweU's cavalry in as he advanced. This 
renewed my uneasiness, and caused me to delay 
the general attack till after assurances came from 
Powell denying utterly the reports as to Long- 
street, and confirming the statements of the 

Between half-past 3 and 4 o'clock, I was ready 
to assail, and decided to do so by advancing 
my infantry line in a swinging movement, so 
as to gain the Valley pike with my right between 
Middletown and the Belle Grove House ; and 
when the order was passed along, the men pushed 
steadily forward with enthusiasm and confidence. 
General Early's troops extended some little 
distance beyond our right, and when my flank 
neared the overlapping enemy, he turned on it, 
with the effect of causing a momentary con- 
fusion, but General McMillan quickly realizing 
the danger, broke the Confederates at the re- 
entering angle by a counter charge with his 
brigade, doing his work so well that the enemy's 
flanking troops were cut off from their main body 
and left to shift for themselves. Custer, who was 
just then moving in from the west side of Middle 
Marsh Brook, followed McMillan's timely blow 
with a charge of cavalry, but before starting out 
on it, and while his men were forming, ridi'ng at 
full speed himself, to throw his arms around my 


neck. By the time he had disengaged himself 
from this embrace, the troops broken by McMillan 
had gained some little distance to their rear, but 
Custer's troopers sweeping across the Middletown 
meadows and down toward Cedar Creek, took 
many of them prisoners before they could reaoh 
the stream — so I forgave his delay. 

My whole line as far as the eye could see was 
now driving everything before it, from behind 
trees, stone walls, and all such sheltering obstacles, 
so I rode toward the left to ascertain how matters 
were getting on there. As I passed along behind 
the advancing troops, first General Grover, and 
then Colonel Mackenzie, rode up to welcome me. 
Both were severely wounded, and I told them to 
leave the field, but they implored permission to 
remain till success was certain. When I reached 
the Valley pike Crook had reorganized his men, 
and as I desired that they should take part in the 
fight, for they were the very same troops that had 
turned Early's flank at Winchester and at Fisher's 
Hill, I ordered them to be pushed forward; and 
the alacrity and celerity with which they moved 
on Middletown demonstrated that their iU-for- 
tune of the morning had not sprung from lack of 

Meanwhile Lowell's brigade of cavalry, which, 
it will be remembered, had been holding on, dis- 



mounted, just north of Middletown ever since the 
time I arrived from Winchester, fell to the rear 
for the purpose of getting their led horses. A 
momentary panic was created in the nearest bri- 
gade of infantry by this withdrawal of Lowell, but 
as soon as his men were mounted they charged 
the enemy clear up to the stone walls in the 
edge of Middletown ; at sight of this the infantry 
brigade renewed its attack, and the enemy's right 
gave way. The accomplished Lowell received 
his death-wound in this courageous charge. 

All our troops were now moving on the retreat- 
ing Confederates, and as I rode to the front Colonel 
Gibbs, who succeeded Lowell, made ready for 
another mounted charge, but I checked him from 
pressing the enemy's right, in the hope that the 
swinging attack from my right would throw most 
of the Confederates to the east of the Valley pike, 
and hence off their line of retreat through Stras- 
burg to Fisher's Hill. The eagerness of the men 
soon frustrated this anticipation, however, the left 
insisting on keeping pace with the centre and 
right, and all pushing ahead till we regained our 
old camps at Cedar Creek. Beyond Cedar Creek, 
at Strasburg, the pike makes a sharp turn to the 
west toward Fisher's Hill, and here Merritt unit- 
ing with Custer, they together fell on the flank 
of the retreating columns, taking many prisoners. 



wagons, and guns, among the prisoners being 
Major-General Ramseur, who, mortally wounded, 
died the next day. 

When the news of the victory was received, 
General Grant directed a salute of one hundred 
shotted guns to be fired into Petersburg, and the 
President at once thanked the army in an auto- 
graph letter. A few weeks after, he promoted 
me, and I received notice of this in a special letter 
from the Secretary of War, saying, " that for the 
personal gallantry, military skill, and just confi- 
dence in the courage and patriotism of your 
troops, displayed by you on the 19th day of Octo- 
ber at Cedar Run, whereby, under the blessing of 
Providence, your routed army was reorganized, a 
great National disaster averted, and a brilliant vic- 
tory achieved over the rebels for the third time in 
pitched battle within thirty days, Philip H. Sher- 
idan is appointed a major - general in the United 
States Army." 

The direct result of the battle was the recapture 
of all the artillery, transportation, and camp equi- 
page we had lost, and in addition twenty-four 
pieces of the enemy's artillery, twelve hundred 
prisoners, and a number of battle-flags. But more 
still flowed from this victory, succeeding as it did 
the disaster of the morning, for the re-occupation 
of our old camps at once re-established a morale 


which for some hours had been greatly endan- 
gered by ill-fortune. 

It was not till after the battle that I learned 
fully what had taken place before my arrival, and 
then found that the enemy, having gathered all 
the strength he could through the return of con- 
valescents and other absentees, had moved quietly 
from Fisher's Hill, in the night of the i8th and 
early on the morning of the 19th, to surprise my 
army, which, it should be remembered, was posted 
on the north bank of Cedar Creek, Crook holding 
on the left of the Valley pike, with Thoburn's 
division advanced toward the creek on Duval's 
(under Colonel Rutherford B. 'Hayes) and Kitch- 
ing's provisional divisions to the north and rear 
of Thoburn. The Nineteenth Corps was on the 
right of Crook, extending in a semi-circular line 
from the pike nearly to Meadow Brook, while the 
Sixth Corps lay to the west of the brook in readi- 
ness to be used as a movable column. Merritt's 
division was to the right and rear of the Sixth 
Corps, and about a mile and a half west of Mer- 
rit was Custer covering the fords of Cedar Creek 
as far west as the Middle road. 

General Early's plan was for one column under 
General Gordon, consisting of three divisions of 
infantry (Gordon's, Ramseur's, and Pegram's), and 
Payne's brigade of cavalry,to cross the Shenandoah 


River directly east of the Confederate works at 
Fisher's Hill, march around the northerly face of 
the Massanutten Mountain, and again cross the 
Shenandoah at Bowman's and McInturflTs fords. 
Payne's task was to capture me at the Belle Grove 
House. General Early himself, with Kershaw's 
and Wharton's divisions, was to move through 
Strasburg, Kershaw, accompanied by Early, to 
cross Cedar Creek at Roberts's ford and connect 
with Gordon, while Wharton was to continue on 
the Valley pike to Hupp's Hill and join the left 
of Kershaw, when the crossing of the Valley pike 
over Cedar Creek became free. 

Lomax's cavalry, then in the Luray Valley, was 
ordered to join the right of Gordon on the field 
of battle, while Rosser was to carry the crossing 
of Cedar Creek on the Back road and attack 
Custer. Early s conceptions were carried through 
in the darkness wuth little accident or delay, Ker- 
shaw opening the fight by a furious attack on 
Thoburn's division, while at dawn and in a dense 
fog Gordon struck Crook's extreme left, surprising 
his pickets, and bursting into his camp with such 
suddenness as to stampede Crook's men. Gordon 
directing his march on my headquarters (the Belle 
Grove House), successfully turned our position as 
he gained the Valley pike, and General Wright 
was thus forced to order the withdrawal of the 

: I 

"■.. - ^ 

) . 



Nineteenth Corps from its post at the Cedar Creek 
crossing, and this enabled Wharton to get over 
the stream there unmolested and join Kershaw 
early in the action. 

After Crook's troops had been driven from their 
camps, General Wright endeavored to form a line 
with the Sixth Corps to hold the Valley pike to 
the left of the Nineteenth, but failing in this he 
ordered the withdrawal of the latter corps, Rick- 
etts, temporarily commanding the Sixth Corps, 
checking Gordon till Emory had retired. As 
already stated, Wharton was thus permitted to 
cross Cedar Creek on the pike, and now that Early 
had a continuous line, he pressed his advantage 
so vigorously that the whole Union army was 
soon driven from its camps in more or less dis- 
order; and though much disjointed resistance was 
displayed, it may be said that no systematic stand 
was made until Getty's division, aided by Torbert's 
cavalry, which Wright had ordered to the left 
early in the action, took up the ground where, on 
arriving from Winchester, I found them. 

When I left my command on the i6th, little did 
f anticipate that anything like this would happen. 
Indeed, I felt satisfied that Early was, of himself, 
too weak to take the oflFensive, and although I 
^^ubted the Longstreet despatch, yet I was con- 
fident that, even should it prove true, I could get 


back before the junction could be made, and at 
the worst I felt certain that my army was equal 
to confronting the forces of Longstreet and Early 
combined. Still, the surprise of the morning might 
have befallen me as well as the general on whom 
it did descend, and though it is possible that this 
could have been precluded had Powell's cavalry 
been closed in, as suggested in my despatch from 
Front Royal, yet the enemy's desperation might 
have prompted some other clever and ingenious 
scheme for relieving his fallen fortunes in the 
Shenandoah Valley. 










T^ ARLY'S broken army practically made no 
halt in its retreat after the battle of Cedar 
Creek until it reached New Market, though at 
Fisher's Hill was left a small rear-guard of caval- 
ry, which hastily decamped, however, when charg- 
ed by Gibbs's brigade on the morning of the 20th. 
Between the date of his signal defeat and the i ith 
of November, the enemy's scattered forces had 
sufficiently reorganized to permit his again mak- 
ing a reconnoissance in the valley as far north as 
Cedar Creek, my army having meanwhile with- 
drawn to .Kernstown, where it had been finally 
decided that a defensive line should be held to 
enable me to detach troops to General Grant, 

Vol. II.— 7. 97 


and where, by reconstructing the Winchester and 
Potomac railroad from Stephenson's depot to 
Harper's Ferry, my command might be more 
readily supplied. Early's reconnoissance north of 
Cedar Creek ended in a rapid withdrawal of his 
infantry after feeling my front, and with the 
usual ill-fortune to his cavalry ; Merritt and Cus- 
ter driving Rosser and Lomax with ease across 
Cedar Creek on the Middle and Back roads, while 
Powell's cavalry struck McCausland near Stony 
Point, and after capturing two pieces of artillery 
and about three hundred officers and men. chased 
him into the Luray Valley. 

Early got back to New Market on the 14th of 
November, and, from lack of subsistence, being 
unable to continue demonstrations to prevent my 
reinforcement of General Grant, began himself 
to detach to General Lee by returning Kershaw's 
division to Petersburg, as was definitely ascer- 
tained by Torbert in a reconnoissance to Mount 
Jackson. At this time General Grant wished me 
to send him the Sixth Corps, and it was got ready 
for the purpose, but when I informed him that 
Torbert's reconnoissance had developed the fact 
that Early still retained four divisions of infantry 
and one of cavalry, it was decided, on my sug- 
gestion, to let the Sixth Corps remain till the 
season should be a little further advanced, when 

Guerrilla bands. 


the inclemency of the weather would preclude 
infantry campaigning. These conditions came 
about early in December, and by the middle of 
the month the whole of the Sixth Corps was at 
Petersburg ; simultaneously with its transfer to 
that line Early sending his Second Corps to Lee. 

During the entire campaign I had been annoyed 
by guerrilla bands under such partisan chiefs as 
Mosby, White, Gilmore, McNeil, and others, and 
this had considerably depleted my line-of-battle 
strength, necessitating as it did large escorts for 
my supply-trains. The most redoubtable of these 
leaders was Mosby, whose force was made up 
from the country around Upperville, east of the 
Blue Ridge, to which section he always fled for 
a hiding-place when he scented danger. I had 
not directed any special operations against these 
partisans while the campaign was active, but as 
Mosby 's men had lately killed, within my lines, 
my chief quartermaster, Colonel Tolles, and 
Medical Inspector Ohlenchlager, I concluded to 
devote particular attention to these *' irregulars'* 
during the lull that now occurred ; so on the 28th 
of November, I directed General Merritt to march 
to the Loudoun Valley and operate against 
Mosby, taking care to clear the country of for- 
age and subsistence, so as to prevent the guer- 
rillas from being harbored there in the future. 


their destruction or capture being wellnigh im- 
possible, on account of their intimate knowledge 
of the mountain region. Merritt carried out his 
instructions with his usual sagacity and thorough- 
ness, sweeping widely over each side of his gen- 
eral line of march with flankers, who burned the 
grain and brought in large herds of cattle, hogs 
and sheep, which were issued to the troops. 

While Merritt was engaged in this service the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroad once more received 
the attention of the enemy ; Rosser, with two 
brigades of cavalry, crossing the Great North 
Mountain, capturing the post of New Creek, 
with about five hundred prisoners and seven 
guns, destroying all the supplies of the garrison, 
and breaking up the railroad track. This slight 
success of the Confederates in West Virginia, 
and the intelligence that they were contemplating 
further raids in that section, led me to send 
Crook there with one division, his other troops 
going to City Point ; and I hoped that all the 
threatened places would thus be sufficiently pro- 
tected, but negligence at Beverly resulted in the 
capture of that station by Rosser on the nth of 

In the meanwhile, Early established himself 
with Wharton's division at Staunton in winter 
quarters, posting his cavalry in that neighborhood 


»W fc* 


• • • » " 

• •••sfli^pf except a detachment at New Market, and 
• • *** • 
••, • Another small one at the signal-station on Three 

Top Mountain. The winter was a most severe 
one, snow falling frequently to the depth of sever- 
al inches, and the mercury often sinking below 
zero. The rigor of the season was very much 
against the success of any mounted operations, 
but General Grant being very desirous to have 
the railroads broken up about Gordonsville and 
Charlottesville, on the 19th of December I started 
the cavalry out for that purpose, Torbert, with 
Merritt and Powell, marching through Chester 
Gap, while Custer moved toward Staunton to 
make a demonstration in Torbert's favor, hoping 
to hold the enemy's troops in the valley. Un- 
fortunately, Custer did not accomplish all that 
was expected of him, and being surprised by 
Rosser and Payne near Lacy*s Springs before 
reveille, had to abandon his bivouac and retreat 
down the valley, with the loss of a number of 
prisoners, a few horses, and a good many horse 
equipments, for, because of the suddenness of 
Rosser's attack, many of the men had no time to 
saddle up. As soon as Custer's retreat was as- 
sured, Wharton's division of infantry was sent to 
Charlottesville to check Torbert, but this had 
already been done by Lomax, with the assistance 
of infantry sent up from Richmond. Indeed, 


from the very beginning of the movement the 
Confederates had been closely observing the 
columns of Torbert and Custer, and in con- 
sequence of the knowledge thus derived, Early 
had marched Lomax to Gordonsville in anticipa- 
tion of an attack there, at the same time sending 
Rosser down the valley to meet Custer. Torbert 
in the performance of his task captured two pieces 
of artillery from Johnson's and McCausland's 
brigades, at Liberty Mills on the Rapidan River, 
but in the main the purpose of the raid utterly 
fliled, so by the 27th of December he returned, 
many of his men badly frost-bitten from the ex- 
treme cold which had prevailed. 

This expedition practically closed all operations 
for the season, and the cavalry was put into win- 
ter cantonment near Winchester. The distribu- 
tion of my infantry to Petersburg and West 
Virginia left with me in the beginning of the new 
year, as already stated, but the one small division 
of the Nineteenth Corps. On account of this 
diminution of force, it became necessary for me 
to keep thoroughly posted in regard to the enemy, 
and I now realized more than I had done hitherto 
how efficient my scouts had become since under 
the control of Colonel Young ; for not only did 
they bring me almost every day intelligence from 
within Early s lines, but they also operated effi- 


ciently against the guerrillas infesting West Vir- 

Harry Gilmore, of Maryland/ was the most 
noted of these since the death of McNeil, and as 
the scouts had reported him in Harrisohburg the 
latter part of January, I directed two of the most 
trustworthy to be sent to watch his movements 
and ascertain his purposes. In a few days these 
spies returned with the intelligence that Gilmore 
was on his way to Moorefield, the centre of a very 
disloyal section in West Virginia, about ninety 
miles southwest of Winchester, where, under the 
guise of a camp-meeting, a gathering was to take 
place, at which he expected to enlist a number 
of men, be joined by a party of about twenty 
recruits coming from Maryland, and then begin 
depredations along the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road. Believing that Gilmore might be captured, 
I directed Young to undertake the task, and as 
a preliminary step he sent to Moorefield two of 
his men who early in the war had '' refugeed " 
from that section and enlisted in one of the Union 
regiments from West Virginia. In about a week 
these men came back and reported that Gilmore 
was living at a house between three and four 
miles from Moorefield, and gave full particulars 
as to his coming and going, the number of men 
he had about there and where they rendezvoused. 


With this knowledge at hand I directed Young 
to take twenty of his best men and leave that 
night for Moorefield, dressed in Confederate uni- 
forms, telling him that I would have about three 
hundred cavalry follow in his wake when he had 
got about fifteen miles start, and instructing him 
to pass his party oflF as a body of recruits for Gil- 
more coming from Maryland and pursued by the 
Yankee cavalry. I knew this would allay sus- 
picion and provide him help on the road ; and, 
indeed, as Colonel Whittaker, who alone knew the 
secret, followed after the fleeing ** Marylanders," 
he found that their advent had caused so little 
remark that the trail would have been lost had 
he not already known their destination. Young 
met with a hearty welcome wherever he halted 
on the way, and as he passed through the town 
of Moorefield learned with satisfaction that Gil- 
more still made his headquarters at the house 
where the report of the two scouts had located 
him a few days before. Reaching the designated 
place about 12 o'clock on the night of the 5th of 
February, Young, under the representation that 
he had come directly from Maryland and was 
being pursued by the Union cavalry, gained im- 
mediate access to Gilmore's room. He found the 
bold guerrilla snugly tucked in bed, with two 
pistols lying on a chair near by. He was sleeping 



SO soundly that to arouse him Young had to give 
him a violent shake. As he awoke and asked who 
was disturbing his slumbers, Young, pointing at 
him a cocked six-shooter, ordered him to dress with- 
out delay, and in answer to his inquiry, informed 
him that he was a prisoner to one of Sheridan's 
stafiF. Meanwhile Gilmore's men had learned of 
his trouble, but the early appearance of Colonel 
Whittaker caused them to disperse ; thus the last 
link between Maryland and the Confederacy was 
carried a prisoner to Winchester, whence he was 
sent to Fort Warren. 

The capture of Gilmore caused the disband- 
ment of the party he had organized at the ** camp- 
meeting,*' most of the men he had recruited re- 
turning to their homes discouraged, though some 
few joined the bands of Woodson and young 
Jesse McNeil, which, led by the latter, dashed 
into Cumberland, Maryland, at 3 o'clock on the 
morning of the 21st of February and made a re- 
prisal by carrying off General Crook and General 
Kelly, and doing their work so silently and quickly 
that they escaped without being noticed, and were 
some distance on their way before the colored 
watchman at the hotel where Crook was quartered 
could compose himself enough to give the alarm. 
A troop of cavalry gave hot chase from Cumber- 
land, striving to intercept the party at Moorefield 


and other points, but all eflForts were fruitless, the 
prisoners soon being beyond reach. 

Although I had adopted the general rule of 
employing only soldiers as scouts, there was an 
occasional exception to it. I cannot say that these 
exceptions proved wholly that an iron-clad observ- 
ance of the rule would have been best, but I am 
sure of it in one instance. A man named Lomas, 
who claimed to be a Marylander, oflFered me his 
services as a spy, and coming highly recom- 
mended from Mr. Stanton, who had made use of 
him in that capacity, I employed him. He made 
many pretensions, often appearing over anxious 
to impart information seemingly intended to im- 
press me with his importance, and yet was more 
than ordinarily intelligent, but in spite of that my 
confidence in him was by no means unlimited. I 
often found what he reported to me as taking 
place within the Confederate lines corroborated 
by Young*s men, but generally there were discrep- 
ancies in his tales, which led me to suspect that 
he was employed by the enemy as well as by 
me. I felt, however, that with good watching 
he could do me little harm, and if my suspicions 
were incorrect he might be very useful, so I held 
on to him. 

Early in February Lomas was very solicitous 
for me to employ a man who, he said, had been 




with Mosby, but on account of some quarrel in 
the irregular camp had abandoned that leader. 
Thinking that with two of them I might destroy 
the railroad bridges east of Lynchburg, I con- 
diaded, after the Mosby man had been brought 
^c> my headquarters by Lomas about 1 2 o'clock 
^ric night, to give him employment, at the same 
*^^^xirie informing Colonel Young that I suspected 
^t^^ir fideHty, however, and that he must test 
^*^ by shadowing their every movement. When 
)mas's companion entered my room he was 
mpletely disguised, but on discarding the vari- 
^^Vas contrivances by which his identity was con- 
^^aled he proved to be a rather slender, dark- 
^^C)mplexioned, handsome young man, of easy 
Address and captivating manners. He gave his 
^ame as Renfrew, answered all my questions sat- 
^sfactorily, and went into details about Mosby 
^nd his men which showed an intimacy with 
them at some time. I explained to the two men 
the work I had laid out for them, and stated the 
Sum of money I would give to have it done, but 
stipulated that in case of failure there would be 
no compensation whatever beyond the few dollars 
necessary for their expenses. They readily as- 
sented, and it was arranged that they should 
start the following night. Meanwhile Young had 
selected his men to shadow them, and in two 

1 10 PBRS6KAL MEMdtkS OF P. H. StiEklDA^. 

days reported my spies as being concealed at 
Strasburg, where they remained, without making 
the slightest efiFort to continue on their mission, 
and were busy, no doubt, communicating with 
the enemy, though I was not able to fasten this 
on them. On the i6th of February they returned 
to Winchester, and reported their failure, telling 
so many lies about their hazardous adventure 
as to remove all remaining doubt as to their 
double-dealing. Unquestionably they were spies 
from the enemy, and hence liable to the usual 
penalties of such service ; but it struck me that 
through them I might deceive Early as to the 
time of opening the spring campaign, I having 
already received from General Grant an intima- 
tion of what was expected of me. I therefore 
retained the men without even a suggestion of 
my knowledge of their true character, Young 
meanwhile keeping close watch over all their 

Toward the last of February General Early had 
at Staunton two brigades of infantry under 
Wharton. All the rest of the infantry except 
Echol's brigade, which was in southwestern Vir- 
ginia, had been sent to Petersburg during the 
winter, and Fitz. Lee s two brigades of cavalry 
also. Rosser's men were mostly at their homes, 
where, on account of a lack of subsistence and 

A PRETEb^DED FOX /WI^T. 1 1 1 

forage in the valley, they had been permitted to 
go, subject to call. Lomax's cavalry was at Mill- 
boro\ west of Staunton, where supplies were ob- 
tainable. It was my aim to get well on the road 
before Early could collect these scattered forces, 
and as many of the officers had been in the habit 
of amusing themselves fox-hunting during the 
latter part of the winter, I decided to use the 
hunt as an expedient for stealing a march on the 
enemy, and had it given out officially that a grand 
fox-chase would take place on the 29th of Febru- 
ary. Knowing that Lomas and Renfrew would 
spread the announcement South, they were per- 
mitted to see several red foxes that had been 
secured, as well as a large pack of hounds which 
Colonel Young had collected for the sport, and 
were then started on a second expedition to burn 
the bridges. Of course, they were shadowed as 
usual, and two days later, after they had com- 
municated with friends from their hiding-place in 
Xewtown, they were arrested. On the way north 
to Fort Warren they escaped from their guards 
when passing through Baltimore, and I never 
heard of them again, though I learned that, after 
the assassination of Mr. Lincoln, Secretary Stan- 
ton strongly suspected his friend Lomas of being 
associated with the conspirators, and it then oc- 
curred to me that the good-looking Renfrew may 


have been Wilkes Booth, for he certainly bore a 
strong resemblance to Booth's pictures. 

On the 27th of February my cavalry entered 
upon the campaign which cleared the Shenan- 
doah Valley of every remnant of organized Con- 
federates. General Torbert being absent on leave 
at this time, I did not recall him, but appointed 
General Merritt Chief of Cavalry, for Torbert 
had disappointed me on two important occasions 
— in the Luray Valley during the battle of Fish- 
er's Hill, and on the recent Gordonsville expedi- 
tion — and I mistrusted his ability to conduct any 
operations requiring much self-reliance. The col- 
umn was composed of Custer's and Devin's divi- 
sions of cavalry, and two sections of artillery, 
comprising in all about 10,000 officers and men. 
On wheels we had, to accompany this column, 
eight ambulances, sixteen ammunition wagons, a 
pontoon train for eight canvas boats, and a small 
supply-train, with fifteen days' rations of coflFee, 
sugar, and salt, it being intended to depend on 
the country for the meat and bread ration, the 
men carrying in their haversacks nearly enough 
to subsist them till out of the exhausted valley. 

Grant's orders were for me to destroy the Vir- 
ginia Central railroad and the James River canal, 
capture Lynchburg if practicable, and then join 
General Sherman in North Carolina wherever he 


might be found, or return to Winchester, but as to 
joining Sherman I was to be governed by the 
state of affairs after the projected capture of 
Lynchburg. The weather was cold, the valley 
and surrounding mountains being still covered 
with snow; but this was fast disappearing, how- 
ever, under the heavy rain that was coming down 
as the column moved along up the Valley pike 
at a steady gait that took us to Woodstock the 
first day. The second day we crossed the North 
Fork of the Shenandoah on our pontoon-bridge, 
and by night-fall reached Lacy's Springs, hav- 
ing seen nothing of the enemy as yet but a few 
partisans who hung on our flanks in the after- 

March i we encountered General Rosser at Mt. 
Crawford, he having been able to call together 
only some five or six hundred of his troops, our 
unsuspected march becoming known to Early 
only the day before. Rosser attempted to delay 
us here, trying to burn the bridges over the Mid- 
dle Fork of the Shenandoah, but two regiments 
from Colonel Capehart's brigade swam the stream 
and drove Rosser to Kline's Mills, taking thirty 
prisoners and twenty ambulances and wagons. 

Meanwhile General Early was busy at Staunton, 
but not knowing my objective point, he had order- 
ed the return of Echol's brigade from southwest- 

VoL. II.— 8. 


em Virginia for the protection of Lynchburg, 
directed Lomax's cavalry to concentrate at Pond 
Gap for the purpose of harassing me if I moved 
toward Lynchburg, and at the same time marched 
Wharton's two brigades of infantry, Nelson's 
artillery, and Rosser's cavalry to Waynesboro', 
whither he went also to remain till the object of 
my movement was ascertained. 

I entered Staunton the morning of March 2, 
and finding that Early had gone to Waynesboro' 
with his infantry and Rosser, the question at once 
arose whether I should continue my march to 
Lynchburg direct, leaving my adversary in my 
rear, or turn east and open the way through Rock- 
fish Gap to the Virginia Central railroad and 
James River canal. I felt confident of the suc- 
cess of the latter plan, for I knew that Early num- 
bered there not more than two thousand men; so, 
influenced by this, and somewhat also by the fact 
that Early had left word in Staunton that he 
would fight at Waynesboro', I directed Merritt to 
move toward that place with Custer, to be closely 
followed by Devin, who was to detach one bri- 
gade to destroy supplies at Swoope's depot. The 
by-roads were miry beyond description, rain hav- 
ing fallen almost incessantly since we left Win- 
chester, but notwithstanding the down-pour the 
column pushed on, men and horses growing al- 



most unrecognizable from the mud covering them 
from head to foot. 

General Early was true to the promise made 
his friends in Staunton, for when Custer neared 
Waynesboro' he found, occupying a line of breast- 
works on a ridge west of the town, two brigades 
of infantry, with eleven pieces of artillery and 
Rosser's cavalry. Custer, when developing the po- 
sition of the Confederates, discovered that their 
left was somewhat exposed instead of resting on 
South River ; he therefore made his dispositions 
for attack, sending around that flank the dis- 
mounted regiments from Pennington's brigade, 
while he himself, with two brigades, partly 
mounted and partly dismounted, assaulted along 
the whole line of breastworks. Pennington's 
flanking movement stampeded the enemy in short 
order, thus enabling Custer to carry the front 
with little resistance, and as he did so the Eighth 
New York and First Connecticut, in a charge in 
column, broke through the opening made by Cus- 
ter, and continued on through the town of Way- 
nesboro', never stopping till they crossed South 
River. There, finding themselves immediately 
in the enemy's rear, they promptly formed as 
foragers and held the east bank of the stream till 
all the Confederates surrendered except Rosser, 
who succeeded in making his way back to the 


valley, and Generals Early, Wharton, Long, and 
Lilley, who, with fifteen or twenty men, escaped 
across the Blue Ridge. I followed up the victory 
immediately by despatching Capehart through 
Rock-fish Gap, with orders to encamp on the east 
side of the Blue Ridge. By reason of this move 
all the enemy's stores and transportation fell 
into our hands, while we captured on the field 
seventeen battle flags, sixteen hundred officers 
and men, and eleven pieces of artillery. This 
decisive victory closed hostilities in the Shenan- 
doah Valley. The prisoners and artillery were 
sent back to Winchester next morning, under a 
guard of 1,500 men, commanded by Colonel J. H. 
Thompson, of the First New Hampshire. 

The night of March 2 Custer camped at Brook- 
field, Devin remaining at Waynesboro*. The for- 
mer started for Charlottesville the next morning 
early, followed by Devin with but two brigades. 
Gibbs having been left behind to blow up the 
iron railroad bridge across South River. Because 
of the incessant rains and spring thaws the roads 
were very soft, and the columns cut them up ter- 
ribly, the mud being thrown by the sets of fours 
across the road in ridges as much as two feet high, 
making it most difficult to get our wagons along, 
and distressingly wearing on the animals toward 
the middle and rear of the columns. Conse- 


quently I concluded to rest at Charlottesville 
for a couple of days and recuperate a little, in- 
tending at the same time to destroy, with small 
parties, the railroad from that point toward 
Lynchburg. Custer reached Charlottesville the 
3d, in the afternoon, and was met at the outskirts 
by a deputation of its citizens, headed by the 
mavor, who surrendered the town with mediaeval 
ceremony, formally handing over the keys of the 
public buildings and of the University of Virginia. 
But this little scene did not delay Custer long 
enough to prevent his capturing, just beyond the 
village, a small body of cavalry and three pieces 
of artillery. Gibbs's brigade, which was bringing 
up my mud-impeded train, did not arrive until the 
5th of March. In the mean time Young's scouts 
had brought word that the garrison of Lynch- 
burg was being increased and the fortifications 
strengthened, so that its capture would be improb- 
able. I decided, however, to move toward the 
place as far as Amherst Court House, which is 
sixteen miles short of the town, so Devin, under 
Merritt's supervision, marched along the James 
River, destroying the canal, while Custer pushed 
ahead on the railroad and broke it up. The tw^o 
columns were to join at New Market, whence I 
intended to cross the James River at some point 
east of Lynchburg, if practicable, so as to make 


hands. Each set of messengers got through, but 
the copy confided to Campbell and Rowan was 
first at Grant's headquarters. 

I halted for one day at Columbia to let my 
trains catch up, for it was still raining and the 
mud greatly delayed the teams, fatiguing and 
wearying the mules so much that I believe we 
should have been forced to abandon most of the 
wagons except for the invaluable help given by 
some two thousand negroes who had attached 
themselves to the column : they literally lifted 
the wagons out of the mud. From Columbia 
Merritt, with Devin's division, marched to Louisa 
Court House and destroyed the Virginia Central 
to Frederick's Hall. Meanwhile Custer was per- 
forming similar work from Frederick's Hall to 
Beaver Dam Station, and also pursued for a time 
General Early, who, it was learned from despatches 
captured in the telegraph office at Frederick's 
Hall, was in the neighborhood with a couple of 
hundred men. Custer captured some of these 
men and two of Early's staflF-officers, but the com- 
mander of the Valley District, accompanied by a 
single orderly, escaped across the South Anna 
and next day made his way to Richmond, the 
last man of the Confederate army that had so 
long contended with us in the Shenandoah Valley. 

At Frederick's Hall, Young's scouts brought me 


word from Richmond that General Longstreet 
was assembling a force there to prevent my junc- 
tion with Grant, and that Pickett's division, which 
had been sent toward Lynchburg to oppose my 
march, and Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry, were mov- 
ing east on the Southside railroad, with the ob- 
ject of circumventing me. Reasoning that Long- 
street could interpose eflFectually only by get- 
ting to the White House ahead of me, I pushed 
one column under Custer across the South Anna, 
by way of Ground Squirrel bridge, to Ashland, 
where it united with Merritt, who had meanwhile 
marched through Hanover Junction. Our appear- 
ance at Ashland drew the Confederates out in 
that direction, as was hoped, so, leaving Colonel 
Pennington's brigade there to amuse them, the 
united command retraced its route to Mount 
Carmel church to cross the North Anna. After 
dark Pennington came away, and all the troops 
reached the church by midnight of the 15th. 

Resuming the march at an early hour next 
morning, we took the road by way of King Will- 
iam Court House to the White House, where, 
arriving on the 18th, we found, greatly to our re- 
lief, the supplies which I had requested to be 
sent there. In the meanwhile the enemy had 
marched to Hanover Court House, but being un- 
able either to cross the Pamunkey there or fore- 




Stall me at the White House on the south side of the 
river, he withdrew to Richmond without further 
effort to impede my column. 

The hardships of this march far exceeded those 
of any previous campaigns by the cavalry. Al- 
most incessant rains had drenched us for sixteen 
days and nights, and the swollen streams and 
wellnigh bottomless roads east of Staunton pre- 
sented grave difficulties on every hand, but sur- 
mounting them all, we destroyed the enemy's 
means of subsistence, in quantities beyond com- 
putation, and permanently crippled the Virginia 
Central railroad, as well as the James River canal, 
and as each day brought us nearer the Army of 
the Potomac, all were filled with the comforting 
reflection that our work in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley had been thoroughly done, and every one was 
buoyed up by the cheering thought that we should 
soon take part in the final struggle of the war. 







' I "HE transfer of my command from the Shen- 
andoah Valley to the field of operations in 
front of Petersburg was not anticipated by Gen- 
eral Grant ; indeed, the despatch brought from 
Columbia by my scouts, asking that supplies be 
sent me at the White House, was the first word 
that reached him concerning the move. In view 
of my message the general-in-chief decided to 
wait my arrival before beginning spring opera- 
tions with the investing troops south of the James 
River, for he felt the importance of having my 
cavalry at hand in a campaign which he was con- 
vinced would wind up the war. We remained a 
few days at the White House resting and refitting 
the cavalry, a large amount of shoeing being 

necessary; but nothing like enough horses were at 




liand to replace those that had died or been dis- 
<£Lbled on the mud march from Staunton to the 
IPamunkey River, so a good many of the men were 
^till without mounts, and all such were sent by 
l>oat to the dismounted camp near City Point. 
"When all was ready the column set out for Han- 
<:ock Station, a point on the military railroad in 
ifront of Petersburg, and arriving there on the 27th 
of March, was in orders reunited with its com- 
rades of the Second Division, who had been ser- 
Aring w^ith the Army of the Potomac since we 
parted from them the previous August. General 
Crook, who had been exchanged within a few 
days, was now in command of this Second Divi- 
sion. The reunited corps was to enter upon the 
campaign as a separate army, I reporting directly 
to General Grant; the intention being thus to re- 
ward me for foregoing, of my own choice, my 
position as a department commander by joinmg 
the armies at Petersburg. 

Taking the road across the Peninsula, I started 
/rem the White House with Merritt's column on 
the 25th of March, and encamped that night at 
Iriarrison's Landing. Very early next morning, in 
Conformity with a request from General Grant, I 
left by boat for City Point, Merritt meanwhile con- 
cJucting the column across the James River to 
the point of rendezvous. The trip to City Point 


did not take long, and on arrival at army head- 
quarters the first person I met was General John 
A. Rawlins, General Grant's chief-of-stafF. Raw- 
lins was a man of strong likes and dislikes, and 
positive always both in speech and action, ex- 
hibiting marked feelings when greeting any one, 
and on this occasion met me with much warmth. 
His demonstrations of welcome over, we held a 
few minutes* conversation about the coming cam- 
paign, he taking strong ground against a part 
of the plan of operations adopted, namely, that 
which contemplated my joining General Sher- 
man's army. His language was unequivocal and 
vehement, and when he was through talking, he 
conducted me to General Grant's quarters, but he 
himself did not enter. 

General Grant was never impulsive, and always 
met his oflBcers in an unceremonious way, with a 
quiet "How are you?" soon putting one at his 
case, since the pleasant tone in which he spoke 
gave assurance of welcome, although his manner 
was otherwise impassive. When the ordinary 
greeting was over, he usually waited for his visitor 
to open the conversation, so on this occasion I 
began by giving him the details of my march 
from Winchester, my reasons for not joining Sher- 
man, as contemplated in my instructions, and the 
motives which had influenced me to march to 


the White House. The other provision of my or- 
ders on setting out from Winchester — the alter- 
native return to that place — was not touched 
upon, for the wisdom of having ignored that 
was fully apparent. Commenting on this recital 
of my doings, the General referred only to the 
tortuous course of my march from Waynesboro' 
down, our sore trials, and the valuable services of 
the scouts who had brought him tidings of me, 
closing with the remark that it was rare a depart- 
ment commander voluntarily deprived himself of 
independence, and added that I should not suffer 
for it. Then turning to the business for which he 
had called me to City Point, he outlined what he 
expected me to do; saying that I was to cut loose 
from the Army of the Potomac by passing its 
left flank to the southward along the line of the 
Danville railroad, and after crossing the Roanoke 
River, join General Sherman. While speaking, he 
handed me a copy of a general letter of instruc- 
tions that had been drawn up for the army on the 
24th. The letter contained these words concern- 
ing the movements of my command : 

" The cavalry under General Sheridan, joined by the division 
now under General Davies, will move at the same time (29th 
inst.) by the Weldon road and the Jerusalem plank- road, turn- 
ing west from the latter before crossing the Nottoway, and west 
with the whole column before reaching Stony Creelf. General 
Sheridan will then move independently under other instructions 


vrhich will be given him. All dismounted cavalry belonging to 
the Army of the Potomac, and the dismounted cavalry from the 
Middle Military Division not required for guarding property be- 
longing to their arm of the service, will report to Brigadier- 
General Benham to be added to the defenses of City Point" 

When I had gone over the entire letter I showed 
plainly that I was dissatisfied with it, for, coupled 
with what the General had outlined orally, which 
I supposed was the " other instructions," I believed 
it foreshadowed my junction with General Sher- 
man. Rawlins thought so too, as his vigorous 
language had left no room to doubt, so I imme- 
diately began to offer my objections to the pro- 
gramme. These were, that it would be bad policy 
to send me down to the Carolinas with a part of 
the Army of the Potomac, to come back to crush 
Lee after the destruction of General Johnston's 
army ; such a course would give rise to the charge 
that his own forces around Petersburg were not 
equal to the task, and would seriously affect pub- 
lic opinion in the North ; that in fact my cavalry 
belonged to the Army of the Potomac, which 
army was able unaided to destroy Lee, and I could 
not but oppose any dispersion of its strength. 

All this was said in a somewhat emphatic man- 
ner, and when I had finished he quietly told me 
that the portion of my instructions from which I 
so strongly dissented was intended as a ** blind " 
to cover any check the army in% its general move 



to the left might meet with, and prevent that 
element in the North which held that the war 
could be ended only through negotiation, from 
charging defeat. The fact that my cavalry was 
not to ultimately join Sherman was a great relief 
to me, and after expressing the utmost confidence 
in the plans unfolded for closing the war by di- 
recting every effort to the annihilation of Lee's 
army, I left him to go to General Ingalls's quarters. 
On the way I again met Rawlins, who, when I 
told him that General Grant had intimated his 
intention to modify the written plan of operations 
so far as regarded the cavalry, manifested the 
greatest satisfaction, and I judged from this that 
the new view of the matter had not previously 
been communicated to the chief-of-staflF, though 
he must have been acquainted of course with the 
programme made out on the 24th of March. 

Toward noon General Grant sent for me to ac- 
company him up the river. When I joined the 
General he informed me that the President was 
on board the boat — the steamer Mary Martin. 
For some days Mr. Lincoln had been at City 
Point, established on the steamer River QueeUy 
having come down from Washington to be nearer 
his generals, no doubt, and also to be conveniently 
situated for the reception of tidings from the 
front when operations began, for he could not 

Vol. II. — 9. 


endure the delays in getting news to Washington. 
This trip up the James had been projected by- 
General Meade, but on account of demands at 
the front he could not go, so the President, Gen- 
eral Grant, and I composed the party. We steamed 
up to where my cavalry was crossing on the pon- 
toon-bridge below the mouth of the Dutch Gap 
canal, and for a little while watched the column 
as it was passing over the river, the bright sun- 
shine presaging good weather, but only to delude, 
as was proved by the torrents of rain brought by 
the succeeding days of March. On the trip the 
President was not very cheerful. In fact, he was 
dejected, giving no indication of his usual means 
of diversion, by which (his quaint stories) I had 
often heard he could find relief from his cares. 
He spoke to me of the impending operations and 
asked many questions, laying stress upon the one, 
'* What would be the result when the army moved 
out to the left, if the enemy should come down 
and capture City Point ? " the question being 
prompted, doubtless, by the bold assault on our 
lines and capture of Fort Steadman two days 
before by General Gordon. I answered that I did 
not think it at all probable that General Lee would 
undertake such a desperate measure to relieve the 
strait he was in ; that General Hartranft's success- 
ful check to Gordon had ended, I thought, attacks 


of such a character ; and in any event General 
Grant would give Lee all he could attend to on 
the left. Mr. Lincoln said nothing about my pro- 
posed route of march, and I doubt if he knew of 
my instructions, or was in possession at most of 
more than a very general outline of the plan of 
campaign. It was late when the Mary Martin 
returned to City Point, and I spent the night there 
with General Ingalls. 

The morning of the 27th I went out to Hancock 
Station to look after my troops and prepare for 
moving two days later. In the afternoon I receiv- 
ed a telegram from General Grant, saying : '* Gen- 
eral Sherman will be here this evening to spend a 
few hours. I should like to have you come down." 
Sherman's coming was a surprise — at least to me 
it was — this despatch being my first intimation of 
his expected arrival. Well knowing the zeal and 
emphasis with which General Sherman would pre- 
sent his views, there again came into my mind 
many misgivings with reference to the move- 
ment of the cavalry, and I made haste to start 
for Grant's headquarters. I got off a little after 
7 o'clock, taking the rickety military railroad, 
the rails of which were laid on the natural surface 
of the ground, with grading only here and there 
at points of absolute necessity, and had not gone 
far when the locomotive jumped the track. This 


delayed my arrival at City Point till near mid- 
night, but on repairing to the little cabin that 
sheltered the general-in-chief, I found him and 
Sherman still up talking over the problem whose 
solution was near at hand. As already stated, 
thoughts as to the tenor of my instructions be- 
came uppermost the moment I received the tele- 
gram in the afternoon, and they continued to en- 
gross and disturb me all the way down the 
railroad, for I feared that the telegram foreshad- 
owed, under the propositions Sherman would 
present, a more specific compliance with the writ- 
ten instructions than General Grant had orally 
assured me would be exacted. 

My entrance into the shanty suspended the con- 
versation for a moment only, and then General 
Sherman, without prelude, rehearsed his plans for 
moving his army, pointing out with every detail 
how he would come up through the Carolinas to 
join the troops besieging Petersburg and Rich- 
mond, and intimating that my cavalry, after 
striking the Southside and Danville railroads, 
could join him with ease. I made no comments 
on the projects for moving his own troops, but as 
soon as opportunity offered, dissented emphati- 
cally from the proposition to have me join the 
Army of the Tennessee, repeating in substance 
what I had previously expressed to General Grant. 


My uneasiness made me somewhat too earnest, 
I fear, but General Grant soon mollified me, and 
smoothed matters over by practically repeating 
what he had told me in regard to this point at 
the close of our interview the day before, so I 
pursued the subject no further. In a little while 
the conference ended, and I again sought lodg- 
ing at the hospitable quarters of Ingalls. 

Very early the next morning, while I was still 
in bed. General Sherman came to me and renewed 
the subject of my joining him, but when he saw 
that I was unalterably opposed to it the conver- 
sation turned into other channels, and after we 
had chatted awhile he withdrew, and later in the 
day went up the river with the President, General 
Grant, and Admiral Porter, I returning to my 
command at Hancock Station, where my presence 
was needed to put my troops in march next day. 

During the entire winter General Grant's lines 
fronting Petersburg had extended south of the 
Appomattox River, practically from that stream 
around to where the Vaughn road crosses Hatch- 
er's Run, and this was nearly the situation when 
the cavalry concentrated at Hancock Station, 
General Weitzel holding the line north of the 
Appomattox, fronting Richmond and Bermuda 

The instructions of the 24th of March contem- 


plated that the campaign should begin with the 
movement of Warren's corps (the Fifth) at 3 
o'clock on the morning of the 29th, and Hum- 
phreys's (the Second) at 6; the rest of the infantry 
holding on in the trenches. The cavalry was to 
move in conjunction with Warren and Humphreys, 
and make its way out beyond our left as these 
corps opened the road. 

The night of the 28th I received the following 
additional instructions, the general tenor of which 
again disturbed me, for although I had been as- 
sured that I was not to join General Sherman, it 
will be seen that the supplemental directions dis- 
tinctly present that alternative, and I therefore 
feared that during the trip up the James River on 
the morning of the 28th General Grant had re- 
turned to his original views : 

" Headquarters Armies of the United States, 
** City Point, Va., March 28, 1865. 
" Major-General p. H. Sheridan : 

**The Fifth Army Corps will move by the Vaughn road at 
3 A. M. to-morrow morning. The Second moves at about 9 a. m., 
having but about three miles to march to reach the point desig- 
nated for it to take on the right of the Fifth Corps, after the lat- 
ter reaches Dinwiddie Court House. 

" Move your cavalry at as early an hour as you can, and with- 
out being confined to any particular road or roads. You may 
go out by the nearest roads in rear of the Fifth Corps, pass by 
its left, and passing near to or through Dinwiddie, reach the 
right and rear of the enemy as soon as you can. It is not the 
intention to attack the enemy in his intrenched position, but to 



force him out if possible. Should he come out and attack us, or 
get himself where he can be attacked, move in with your entire 
force in your own way, and with the full reliance that the army 
will engage or follow the enemy, as circumstances will dictate. 
I shall be on the field, and will probably be able to communicate 
with you ; should I not do so, and you find that the enemy keeps 
within his main intrenched line, you may cut loose and push for 
the Danville road. If you find it practicable I would like you to 
cross the Southside road, between Petersburg and Burkeville, 
and destroy it to some extent. I would not advise much deten- 
tion, however, until you reach the Danville road, which I would 
like you to strike as near to the Appomattox as possible; make 
your destruction of that road as complete as possible; you can 
then pass on to the Southside road, west of Burkeville, and 
destroy that in like manner. 

" After' having accomplished the destruction of the two rail- 
roads, which are now the only avenues of supply to Lee's army, 
you may return to this army, selecting your road farther south, 
or you may go on into North Carolina and join General Sherman. 
Should you select the latter course, get the information to me 
as early as possible, so that I may send orders to meet you at 
Goldsboro*. U. S. Grant, Lieut.-General." 

These instructions did not alter my line of 
march for the morrow, and I trusted matters 
would so come about as not to require compli- 
ance with those portions relative to the railroads 
and to joining Sherman ; so early on the 29th I 
moved my cavalry out toward Ream's Station on 
the Weldon road, Devin commanding the First 
Division, with Colonels Gibbs, Stagg, and Fitz- 
hugh in charge of the brigades ; the Third Divi- 
sion under Custer, Colonels Wells, Capehart, 
and Pennington being the brigade commanders. 


These two divisions united were commanded by 
Merritt, as they had been since leaving Win- 
chester. Crook headed the Second Division, his 
brigades being under General Davies and Col- 
onels John I. Gregg and Smith.* 

Our general direction was westward, over such 
routes as could be found, provided they did not 
embarrass the march of the infantry. The roads, 

* The Appomattox Campaign. 
Organization of the Cavalry Command on the Morning of March 

31, 1865. 
Major-General Philip H. Sheridan. 

Captain Thomas W. C. Moore, Aide-de-camp. 
Captain Michael V. Sheridan, Aide-de-camp. 

Principal Staff-Officers : 

Lieutenant-Colonel James W. Forsyth, Chief-of-Staff. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick C. Newhall, Adjutant-General. 
Colonel Frank T. Sherman, Inspector-General. 
Captain Andrew J. McGonnigle, Chief Quartermaster. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Kellogg, Chief Commissary of Subsistence. 
Surgeon James T. Ghiselin, Medical Director. 
Captain George L. Gillespie, Chief Engineer. 
Captain Ocran H. Howard, Chief Signal Officer. 

Army of the Shenandoah. 

Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt. 

First Division. 
Brigadier- General Thomas C. Devin. 

First Brigade : 
Colonel Peter Stagg. 

First Michigan^Lieutenant-Colonel George R. Maxwell. 
Fifth Michigan, Lieutenant-Colonel Smith H. Hastings. 
Sixth Michigan, Lieutenant-Colonel Harvey H. Vinton. 
Seventh Michigan, Lieutenant-Colonel George G. Briggs. 

Second Brigade : 
Colonel Charles L. Fitzhugh. 

Sixth New York, Major Harrison \Vhite. 
Ninth New York, Major James R. Dinnin. 



from the winter's frosts and rains, were in a 
frightful state, and when it was sought to avoid 
a spot which the head of the column had proved 
almost bottomless, the bogs and quicksands of 
the adjoining fields demonstrated that to make a 
detour was to go from bad to worse. In the face 
of these discouragements we floundered on, how- 
ever, crossing on the way a series of small streams 

Nineteenth New York (First N. Y. Dragoons), Major Howard M. Smith. 
Seventeenth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Coe Dtirland. 
Twentieth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Gabriel Middteton. 

Third (Reserve) Brigade : 

Brigadier-General Alfred Gibbs. 

Second Massachusetts, Colonel Caspar Crowninshield . 
Sixth Pennsylvania, Colonel Charles L. Leiper. 
First United States, Captain Richard S. C. Lord. 
Fifth United States, Captain Thomas Drummond. 
Sixth United States, Major Robert M. Morris. 

Artillery : 

Fourth United States, Batteries C and E, Captain Marcus P. Miller. 

Third Division. 
Brigadier-General George A. Custer. 

First Brigade ; 
Colonel Alexander C. M. Pennington. 

First Connecticut, Colonel Brayton Ives. 
Third New Jersey, Lieutenant-Colonel William P. Robeson. 
Second New York, Colonel Alanson M. Randol. 
Second Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel A Bayard Nettleton. 

Second Brigade : 
Colonel William Wells. 

Eighth New York, Major James Bliss. 
Fifteenth New York, Colonel John J. Coppinger. 
First Vermont, Lieutenant-Colonel Josiah Hall. 

Third Brigade ; 
Colonel Henry Capehart. 

First New York, Captain John J. O'Brien. 
First West Virginia, Captain S. Bentley Howe. 


swollen to their banks. Crook and Devin reached 
the county-seat of Dinwiddie about 5 o'clock in 
the evening, having encountered only a small 
picket, that at once gave way to our advance. 
Merritt left Custer at Malon's crossing of Row- 
anty Creek to care for the trains containing oui 
subsistence and the reserve ammunition, these 
being stuck in the mire at intervals all the way 

Second West Virginia, Lieutenant-Cclonel James Allen. 
Third West Virginia, Major John S. Witcher. 

Second Division. 

(Army of the Potomac) 

Major -General George Crook. 

First Brigade : 

Brigadier-General Henry E. Davies. 

First New Jersey, Colonel Hugh H. Janeway. 

Tenth New York, Colonel M. Henry Avery. 

Twenty- fourth New York, Colonel Walter C. Newberry. 

First Pennsylvania, Major Hampton S. Thomas. 

Second United States Artillery, Battery A, Lieutenant James II. Lord* 

Second Brigade : 

Colonel J. Irvin Gregg. 

Fourth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander P. Duncan. 
Eighth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel William A. Corrie. 
Sixteenth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant -Colonel John K. Robison. 
Twenty-first Pennsylvania, Colonel 0^iver B. Knowles. 
• First U. S. Artillery, Batteries H and I, Lieut. Chandler P. Eakin. 

Third Brigade : 

Colonel Charles H. Smith. 

First Maine, Lieutenant-Colonel Jonathan P. Cilley. 
Second New York Mounted Rifles, Major Paul Chadboume. 
Sixth Ohio, Major John H. Cryer. 
Thirteenth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Stephen R. Clark. 

* Detached with Artillery Brigade, Ninth Army Corps. 



ti>ack to the Jerusalem plank-road ; and to make 
ny headway at all with the trains, Custer's men 
f ten had to unload the wagons and lift them out 
f the boggy places. 
Crook and Devin camped near Dinwiddie CJ^urt 
ouse in such manner as to cover the Vaughn, 
I^'latfoot, Boydton, and Five Forks roads ; for, as 
^hese all intersected at Dinwiddie, they offered a 
hance for the enemy's approach toward the rear 
f the Fifth Corps, as Warren extended to the left 
cross the Boydton road. Any of these routes 
leading to the south or west might also be the 
C3ne on which, in conformity with one part of my 
instructions, I was expected to get out toward 
the Danville and Southside railroads, and the 
rive Forks road would lead directly to General 
3Lee's right flank, in case opportunity was found 
to comply with the other part. The place was, 
therefore, of great strategic value, and getting it 
>vithout cost repaid us for floundering through 
the mud. 

Dinwiddie Court House, though a most impor- 
tant point in the campaign, was far from attractive 
in feature, being made up of a half-dozen un- 
sightly houses, a ramshackle tavern propped up 
on two sides with pine poles, and the weather- 
beaten building that gave official name to the 
cross-roads. We had no tents — there were none 


in the command — so I took possession of the tav- 
ern for shelter for myself and staff, and just as 
we had finished looking over its primitive interior 
a rain-storm set m. 

The wagon containing my mess equipment was 
back somewhere on the road, hopelessly stuck in 
the mud, and hence we had nothing to eat except 
some coffee which two young women living at 
the tavern kindly made for us ; a small quantity 
of the berry being furnished from the haversacks 
of my escort. By the time we got the coflfee, 
rain was falling in sheets, and the evening bade 
fair to be a most dismal one ; but songs and cho- 
ruses set up by some of my staff — the two young 
women playing accompaniments on a pattered 
piano — relieved the situation and enlivened us a 
little. However, the dreary night brought me one 
great comfort ; for General Grant, who that day 
had moved out to Gravelly Run, sent me instruc- 
tions to abandon all idea of the contemplated raid, 
and directed me to act in concert with the in- 
fantry under his immediate command, to turn, if 
possible, the right flank of Lee's army. The des- 
patch made my mind easy with respect to the 
objectionable feature of my original instructions, 
and of course relieved me also from the anxiety 
growing out of the letter received at Hancock 
Station the night of the 28th; so, notwithstanding 


-fche suspicions excited by some of my staff con- 
drerning the Virginia feather-bed that had been 
^issigned me, I turned in at a late hour and slept 
xTiost soundly. 

The night of the 29th the left of General Grant's 
xnfantry — ^Warren's corps — rested on the Boyd- 
-ton road, not far from its intersection with the 
Quaker road. Humphreys's corps was next to 
^Warren ; then came Ord, next Wright, and then 
Parke, with his right resting on the Appomattox. 
"The moving of Warren and Humphreys to the left 
during the day was early discovered by General 
Lee. He met it by extending the right of his 
infantry on the White Oak road, while drawing 
in the cavalry of W. H. F. Lee and Rosser along 
the south bank of Stony Creek to cover a cross- 
roads called Five Forks, to anticipate me there; for 
assuming that my command was moving in con- 
junction with the infantry, with the ultimate pur- 
pose of striking the Southside railroad, Lee made 
no effort to hold Dinwiddie, which he might have 
done with his cavalry, and in this he made a fatal 
mistake. The cavalry of Fitz. Lee was ordered at 
this same time from Sunderland depot to Five 
Forks, and its chief placed in command of all the 
mounted troops of General Lee's army. 

At daylight on the 30th I proceeded to make 
dispositions under the new conditions imposed by 


my modified instructions, and directed Merritt t 
push Devin out as far as the White Oak road 
make a reconnoissance to Five Forks, Crook beings 
instructed to send Davies's brigade to support 
Devin. Crook was to hold, with Gregg's brigade, 
the Stony Creek crossing of the Boydton plank- 
road, retaining Smith's near Dinwiddie, for use in 
any direction required. On the 29th W. H. F. 
Lee conformed the march of his cavalry with that 
of ours, but my holding Stony Creek in this way 
forced him to make a detour west of Chamberlin's 
Run, in order to get in communication with his 
friends at Five Forks. 

The rain that had been falling all night gave 
no sign of stopping, but kept pouring down all 
day long, and the swamps and quicksands mired 
the horses, whether they marched in the roads or 
across the adjacent fields. Undismayed, never- 
theless, each column set out for its appointed 
duty, but shortly after the troops began to move 
I received from General Grant this despatch, 
which put a new phase on matters : 

" Headquarters Armies of the United States, 
" Gravelly Run, March 30, 1865. 
'* Major-General Sheridan : 

** The heavy rain of to-day will make it impossible for us 10 
do much until it dries up a little, or we get roads around our 
rear repaired. You may, therefore, leave what cavalry you 
deem necessary to protect the left, and hold such positions as 


you deem necessary for that purpose, and send the remainder 
back to Humphrey's Station * where they can get hay and grain. 
Fifty wagons loaded with forage will be sent to you in the morn- 
ing. Send an officer back to direct the wagons back to where 
you want them. Report to me the cavalry you will leave back, 
and the position you will occupy. Could not your cavalry go 
back by the way of Stony Creek depot and destroy or capture the 
store of supplies there ? 

•' U. S. Grant, Licut.-General." 

When I had read and pondered this, I deter- 
mined to ride over to General Grant's headquar- 
ters on Gravelly Run, and get a clear idea of 
what it was proposed to do, for it seemed to me 
that a suspension of operations would be a serious 
mistake. Mounting a powerful gray pacing 
horse called Breckenridge (from its capture from 
one of Breckenridge's staflF-officers at Missionary 
Ridge), and that I knew would carry me through 
the mud, I set out accompanied by my Assistant 
Adjutant-General, Colonel Frederick C. Newhall, 
and an escort of about ten or fifteen men. At 
first we rode north up the Boydton plank-road, 
and coming upon our infantry pickets from a direc- 
tion where the enemy was expected to appear, they 
began to fire upon us, but seeing from our actions 
that we were friends, they ceased, and permitted 
us to pass the outposts. We then struggled on in 
a northeasterly direction across-country, till we 

* Humphrey's Station was back on the military railroad. 


struck the Vaughn road. This carried us to 
army headquarters, which were established south 
of Gravelly Run in an old corn-field. I rode to 
within a few yards of the front of General Grant's 
tent, my horse plunging at every step almost to 
his knees in the mud, and dismounted near a 
camp-fire, apparently a general one, for all the 
staff-officers were standing around it on boards 
and rails placed here and there to keep them 
from sinking into the mire. 

Going directly to General Grant's tent, I found 
him and Rawlins talking over the question of sus- 
pending operations till the weather should im- 
.prove. No orders about the matter had been 
issued yet, except the despatch to me , and Raw- 
lins, being strongly opposed to the proposition, 
was frankly expostulating with General Grant, 
who, after greeting me, remarked, in his quiet way : 
** Well. Rawlins, I think you had better take com- 
mand." Seeing that there was a difference up 
between Rawlins and his chief, I made the excuse 
of being wet and cold, and went outside to the 
fire. Here General Ingalls met me and took me 
to his tent, where I was much more comfortable 
than when standing outside, and where a few 
minutes later we were joined by General Grant. 
Ingalls then retired, and General Grant began 
talking of our fearful plight, resulting from the 



rains and mud, and saying that because of this it 
seemed necessary to suspend operations. I at 
once begged him not to do so, telling him that 
my cavalry was already on the move in spite of 
the difficulties, and that although a suspension of 
operations would not be fatal, yet it would give 
rise to the very charge of disaster to which he had 
referred at City Point, and, moreover, that we 
"would surely be ridiculed, just as General Bum- 
side's army was after the mud march of 1863. 
His better judgment was against suspending 
operations, but the proposition had been suggest- 
ed by all sorts of complaints as to the impossibil- 
ity of moving the trains and the like, so it needed 
little argument to convince him, and without 
further discussion he said, in that manner which 
with him meant a firmness of purpose that could 
not be changed by further complainings, *' We 
will go on." I then told him that I believed I 
could break in the enemy *s right if he would let 
me have the Sixth Corps ; but saying that the 
condition of the roads would prevent the move- 
ment of infantry, he replied that I would have to 
seize Five Forks with the cavalry alone. 

On my way back to Dinwiddie I stopped at the 
headquarters of General Warren, but the General 
being asleep, I went to the tent of one of his staff- 
officers. Colonel William T. Gentry, an old per- 

VOL. II. — 10. 


sonal friend with whom I had served in Oregon. 
In a few minutes Warren qame in. and we had a 
short conversation, he speaking rather despond* 
ently of the outlook, being influenced no doubt 
by the depressing weather. 

From Warren's headquarters I returned by the 
Boydton road to Dinwiddie Court House, fording 
Gravelly Run with ease. When I got as far as 
the Dabney road I sent Colonel Newhall out on 
it toward Five Forks, with orders for Merritt to 
develop the enemy*s position and strength, and 
then rode on to Dinwiddie to endeavor to get all 
my other troops up. Merritt was halted at the 
intersection of the Five Forks and Gravelly 
Church roads when Newhall delivered the orders, 
and in compliance moving out Gibbs's brigade 
promptly, sharp skirmishing was brought on, 
Gibbs driving the Confederates to Five Forks, 
where he found them behind a line of breast- 
works running along the White Oak road. The 
reconnoissance demonstrating the intention of 
the enemy to hold this point, Gibbs was with- 

That evening, at 7 o'clock, I reported the posi- 
tion of the Confederate cavalry, and stated that 
it had been reinforced by Pickett's division of 
infantry. On receipt of this despatch. General 
Grant offered me the Fifth Corps, but I declined 



to take it, and again asked for the Sixth, saying 
that with it I believed I could turn the enemy's 
(Pickett's) left, or break through his lines. The 
morning of the 31st General Grant replied that 
the Sixth Corps could not be taken from its posi- 
tion in the line, and offered me the Second ; but 
in the mean time circumstances had changed, and 
no corps was ordered. 





HP HE night of March 30 Merritt, with Devin's 
division and Davies's brigade, was camped 
on the Five Forks road about two miles in front 
of Dinwiddie, near J. Boisseau's. Crook, with 
Smith and Gregg's brigades, continued to cover 
Stony Creek, and Custer was still back at Ro- 
wanty Creek, trying to get the trains up. This 
force had been counted while crossing the creek 
on the 29th, the three divisions numbering 9.000 
enlisted men. Crook having 3,300, and Custer and 
Devin 5,700. 

During the 30th, the enemy had been concen- 
trating his cavalry, and by evening General W. 
H. F. Lee and General Rosser had joined Fitz- 
hugh Lee near Five Forks. To this force was 
added, about dark, five brigades of infantry — three 

from Pickett's division, and two from Johnson's — 



sll under command of Pickett. The infantry 
came by the White Oak road from the right of 
General Lee's intrenchments, and their arrival 
became positively known to me about dark, the 
confirmatory intelligence being brought in then 
by some of Young's scouts who had been inside 
the Confederate lines. 

On the 31st, the rain having ceased, directions 
were given at an early hour to both Merritt and 
Crook to make reconnoissances preparatory to 
securing Five Forks, and about 9 o'clock Merritt 
started for the crossroads, Davies's brigade sup- 
porting him. His march was necessarily slow 
because of the mud, and the enemy's pickets re- 
sisted with obstinacy also, but the coveted cross- 
roads fell to Merritt without much trouble, as the 
bulk of the enemy was just then bent on other 
things. At the same hour that Merritt started. 
Crook moved Smith's brigade out northwest from 
Dinwiddie to Fitzgerald's crossing of Chamber- 
lain's Creek, to cover Merritt's left, supporting 
Smith by placing Gregg to his right and rear. 
The occupation of this ford was timely, for Pick- 
ett, now in command of both the cavalry and 
infantry, was already marching to get in Merritt's 
rear by crossing Chamberlain's Creek. 

To hold on to Fitzgerald's ford Smith had to 
make a sharp fight, but Mumford's cavalry attack- 



ing Devin, the enemy's infantry succeeded in get- 
ting over Chamberlain's Creek at a point higher 
up than Fitzgerald's ford, and assailing Davies. 
forced him back in a northeasterly direction tow- 
ard the Dinwiddie and Five Forks road in com- 
pany with Devin. The retreat of Davies permitted 
Pickett to pass between Crook and Merritt, which 
he promptly did, eflfectually separating them and 
cutting off both Davies and Devin from the road 
to Dinwiddie, so that to get to that point they 
had to retreat across the country to B. Boisseau's 
and then down the Boydton road. 

Gibbs's brigade had been in reserve near the 
intersection of the Five Forks and Dabney roads, 
and directing Merritt to hold on there, I ordered 
Gregg's brigade to be mounted and brought to 
Merritt's aid, for if Pickett continued in pursuit 
north of the Five Forks road he would expose his 
right and rear, and I determined to attack him, in 
such case, from Gibbs's position. Gregg arrived 
in good season, and as soon as his men were dis- 
mounted on Gibbs's left, Merritt assailed fiercely, 
compelling Pickett to halt and face a new foe, 
thus interrupting an advance that would finally 
have carried Pickett into the rear of Warren's 

It was now about 4 o'clock in the afternoon and 
we were in a critical situation, but having ordered 



Merritt to bring Devin and Davies to Dinwiddie 
by the Boydton road, staflF-officers were sent to 
hurry Custer to the same point, for with its sev- 
eral diverging roads the Court House was of vital 
importance, and I determined to stay there at all 
hazards. At the same time orders were sent to 
Smith's brigade, which, by the advance of Pickett 
past its right flank and the pressure of W. H. F. 
Lee on its front, had been compelled to give up 
Fitzgerald's crossing, to fall back toward Din- 
widdie but to contest every inch of ground so as 
to gain time. 

When halted by the attack of Gregg and Gibbs, 
Pickett, desisting from his pursuit of Devin, as 
already stated, turned his undivided attention to 
this unexpected force, and with his preponderat- 
ing infantry pressed it back oji the Five Forks 
road toward Dinwiddie, though our men, fighting 
dismounted behind barricades at difi'erent points, 
displayed such obstinacy as to make Pickett's 
progress slow, and thus give me time to look out 
a line for defending the Court House. I selected 
a place about three-fourths of a mile northwest 
of the crossroads, and Custer coming up quickly 
with Capehart's brigade, took position on the left 
of the road to Five Forks in some open ground 
along the crest of a gentle ridge. Custer got 
Capehart into place just in time to lend a hand to 



Smith, who, severely pressed, came back on us 
here from his retreat along Chamberlain's " bed" 
— the vernacular for a woody swamp such as that 
through which Smith retired. A little later the 
brigades of Gregg and Gibbs, falling to the rear 
slowly and steadily, took up in the woods a line 
which covered the Boydton Road some distance 
to the right of Capehart, the intervening gap to 
be filled with Pennington's brigade. By this time 
our horse-artillery, which for two days had been 
stuck in the mud, was all up, and every gun was 
posted in this line. 

It was now near sunset, and the enemy's caval- 
ry thinking the day was theirs, made a dash at 
Smith, but just as the assailants appeared in the 
open fields, Capehart's men opened so suddenly 
on their left flank as to cause it to recoil in aston- 
ishment, which permitted Smith to connect his 
brigade with Custer unmolested. We were now 
in good shape behind the familiar barricades, and 
having a continuous line, excepting only the gap 
to be filled with Pennington, that covered Din- 
widdie and the Boydton Road. My left rested 
in the woods about half a mile west of the Court 
House, and the barricades extended from this 
flank in a semicircle through the open fields in a 
northeasterly direction, to a piece of thick timber 
on the right, near the Boydton Road. 



A little before the sun went down the Confeder- 
.^te infantry was formed for the attack, and, for- 
tunately for us, Pennington's brigade came up 
^nd filled the space to which it was assigned 
fcetween .Capehart and Gibbs, just as Pickett 
moved out across the cleared fields in front of 
<Juster, in deep lines that plainly told how greatly 
-we were outnumbered. 

Accompanied by Generals Merritt and Custer 
snd my staflF, I now rode along the barricades to 
encourage the men. Our enthusiastic reception 
showed that they were determined to stay. The 
cavalcade drew the enemy's fire, which emptied 
several of the saddles — among others Mr. Theo- 
dore Wilson, correspondent of the New York 
Herald, being wounded. In reply our horse- 
artillery opened on the advancing Confederates, 
but the men behind the barricades lay still till 
Pickett's troops were within short range. Then 
they opened, Custer's repeating rifles pouring out 
such a shower of lead that nothing could stand 
up against it. The repulse was very quick, and 
as the gray lines retired to the woods from which 
but a few minutes before they had so confidently 
advanced, all danger of their taking Dinwiddie 
or marching to the left and rear of our infantry 
line was over, at least for the night. The enemy 
being thus checked, I sent a staff-officer — Captain 


Sheridan — to General Grant to report what had 
taken place during the afternoon, and to say that 
I proposed to stay at Dinwiddie, but if ultimately 
compelled to abandon the place, I would do so by 
retiring on the Vaughn road toward Hatcher's 
Run, for I then thought the attack might be re- 
newed next morning. Devin and Davies joined 
me about dark, and my troops being now well in 
hand, I sent a second stafiF-officer— Colonel John 
Kellogg — to explain my situation more fully, and 
to assure General Grant that I would hold on at 
Dinwiddie till forced to let go. 

By following me to Dinwiddie the enemy's in- 
fantry had completely isolated itself, and hence 
there was now oflFered the Union troops a rare 
opportunity. Lee was outside of his works, just 
as we desired, and the general-in-chief realized 
this the moment he received the first report of my 
situation ; General Meade appreciated it too from 
the information he got from Captain Sheridan. 
en route to army headquarters with the first tid- 
ings, and sent this telegram to General Grant : 

" Headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, 
" March 31, 1865. 9:45 p. m. 
** Lieuten ant-General Grant: 

" Would it not be well for Warren to go down with his w^hole 
corps and smash up the force in front of Sheridan ? Humphreys 
can hold the line to the Boydton plank-road, and the refusal 
along with it. Bartlett's brigade is now on the road from G. 



Boisseau's, running north, where it crosses Gravelly Run, he 
having gone down the White Oak road. Warren could go at 
once that way, and take the force threatening Sheridan in rear 
at Dinwiddie, and move on the enemy's rear with the other two. 

"G. G. Meade, Major-General." 

An hour later General Grant replied in these 
words : 

" Headquarters Armies of the United States, 

"Dabney's Mills, March 31, 1865. 10:15 p. m. 

" Major-General Meade, 

" Commanding Army of the Potomac. 

" Let Warren move in the way you propose, and urge him not 

to stop for anything. Let Griffin go on as he was first directed.* 

** U. S. Grant, Lieutenant-General." 

These two despatches were the initiatory steps 
in sending the Fifth Corps, under Major-General 
G. K. Warren, to report to me, and when I receiv- 
ed word of its coming and also that General 
Mackenzie's cavalry from the Army of the James 
was likewise to be added to my command, and 
that discretionary authority was given me to use 
all my forces against Pickett, I resolved to destroy 
him, if it was within the bounds of possibility, 
before he could rejoin Lee. 

In a despatch, dated 10:05 p. m., telling me of 
the coming of Warren and Mackenzie, General 
Grant also said that the Fifth Corps should reach 
me by 12 o'clock that night, but at that hour 

• Griffin had been ordered by Warren to the Boyd ton road to protect his rear. 


not only had none of the corps arrived, but no 
report from it, so believing that if it came all the 
way down to Dimviddie the next morning, our 
opportunity would be gone, I concluded that it 
would be best to order Warren to move in on the 
enemy s rear while the cavalry attacked in front, 
and. therefore, at 3 o'clock in the morning of April i 
sent this despatch to General Warren : 

" Cavalry Headquarters, Dinwiddie C. H., 
"April I, 1865. 3. A. M. 
" Major-General Warren, 

*» Commanding Fifth Army Corps. 
" I am holding in front of Dinwiddie Court House, on the 
road leading to Five Forks, for three-quarters of a mile with Gen- 
eral Custer's division. The enemy are in his immediate front, 
lying so as to cover the road just this side of A. Adams's house, 
which leads across Chamberlain's bed, or run. I understand you 
have a division at J. Boisseau's ;* if so, you are in rear of the 
enemy's line and almost on his flank. I will hold on here. Pos- 
sibly they may attack Custer at daylight ; if so, attack instantly 
and in full force. Attack at daylight anyhow, and I will make 
an effort to get the road this side of Adams's house, and if I do, 
you can capture the whole of them. Any force moving down 
the road I am holding, or on the White Oak road, will be in the 
enemy's rear, and in all probability get any force that may escape 
you by a flank movement. Do not fear my leaving here. If the 
enemy remains, I shall fight at daylight. 

"P. H. Sheridan, Major-General." 

With daylight came a slight fog, but it lifted 
almost immediately, and Merritt moved Custer 

• This *' J." was an error ; it should have been *'G.** J. Boisseau's house 
was in possession of the enemy. The division in question was near G. or Dr. 
Boisseau's, on the Crump road, north of Gravelly Run. 


.^nd Devin forward. As these divisions advanced 
*he enemy's infantry fell back on the Five Forks 
s'oad, Devin pressing him along the road, while 
<Duster extended on the left over toward Cham- 
"berlain's Run, Crook being held in watch along 
Stony Creek, meanwhile, to be utilized as circum- 
stances might require when Warren attacked. 

The order of General Meade to Warren the 
night of March 31 — a copy being sent me also — 
was positive in its directions, but as midnight 
came without a sign of or word from the Fifth 
Corps, notwithstanding that was the hour fixed 
for its arrival, I nevertheless assumed that there 
were good reasons for its non-appearance, but 
never once doubted that measures would be taken 
to comply with my despatch of 3 a. m., and there- 
fore hoped that, as Pickett was falling back slowly 
toward Five Forks, Griffin's and Crawford's divi- 
sions would come in on the Confederate left and 
rear by the Crump road near J. Boisseau's house. 
But they did not reach there till after the enemy 
had got by. As a matter of fact, when Pickett 
was passing the all-important point Warren's men 
were just breaking from the bivouac in which 
their chief had placed them the night before, and 
the head of Griffin's division did not get to Bois- 
seau's till after my cavalry, which meanwhile had 
been joined by Ayres's division of the Fifth Corps 


by way of the Boydton and Dabney roads. By 
reason of the delay in moving Griffin and Craw- 
ford, the enemy having escaped, I massed the 
Fifth Corps at J. Boisseau's so that the men could 
be rested, and directed it to remain there ; 
General Warren himself had not then come up. 
General Mackenzie, who had reported just after 
daybreak, was ordered at first to stay at Din- 
widdie Court House, but later was brought along 
the Five Forks road to Dr. Smith's, and Crook's 
division was directed to continue watching the 
crossings of Stony Creek and Chamberlain's Run. 

That we had accomplished nothing but to oblige 
our foe to retreat was to me bitterly disappointing, 
but still feeling sure that he would not give up 
the Five Forks crossroads without a fight, I pressed 
him back there with Merritt's cavalrv, Custer ad- 
vancing on the Scott road, while Devin drove the 
rear-guard along that leading from J. Boisseau's 
to Five Forks. 

By 2 o'clock in the afternoon Merritt had forced 
the enemy inside his intrenchments, which began 
with a short return about three-quarters of a mile 
east of the Forks and ran along the south side of 
the White Oak road to a point about a mile west 
of the Forks. From the left of the return over 
toward Hatcher's Run was posted Mumford's cav- 
alry, dismounted. In the return itself was Wallace's 


rigade, and next on its right came Ransom's, then 

tewart's, then Terry's, then Corse's. On the right 

f Corse was W. H. F. Lee's division of cavalry. 

en pieces of artillery also were in this line, three 

the right of the works, three near the centre at 

lie crossroads, and four on the left, in the return. 

osser's cavalry was guarding the Confederate 

rains north of Hatcher's Run beyond the cross- 

ng of the Ford road. 

I felt certain the enemy would fight at Five 
orks — he had to— so, while we were getting up 
'to his intrenchments, I decided on my plan of 
tattle. This was to attack his whole front with 
^^lerritt's two cavalry divisions, make a feint of 
burning his right flank, and with the Fifth Corps 
^issail his left. As the Fifth Corps moved into 
.action, its right flank was to be covered by Mac- 
kenzie's cavalry, thus entirely cutting off Pick- 
ett's troops from communication with Lee's right 
£ank, which rested near the Butler house at the 
junction of the Claiborne and White Oaks roads. 
In execution of this plan, Merritt worked his men 
close in toward the intrenchments, and while he 
Avas thus engaged, I ordered Warren to bring up 
the Fifth Corps, sending the order by my engineer 
ofi&cer, Captain Gillespie, who had reconnoitred 
the ground in the neighborhood of Gravelly Run 
Church, where the infantrv was to form for attack. 


Gillespie delivered the order about i o'clock, 
and when the corps was put in motion, General 
Warren joined me at the front. Before he came, 
I had received, through Colonel Babcock, author- 
ity from General Grant, to relieve him, but I did 
not wish to do it, particularly on the eve of bat- 
tle ; so, saying nothing at all about the message 
brought me, I entered at once on the plan for 
defeating Pickett, telling Warren how the enemy 
was posted, explaining with considerable detail, 
and concluding by stating that I wished his troops 
to be formed on the Gravelly Church road, near 
its junction with the White Oak road, with two 
divisions to the front, aligned obliquely to the 
White Oak road, and one in reserve, opposite the 
centre of these two. 

General Warren seemed to understand me 
clearly, and then left to join his command, while 
I turned my attention to the cavalry, instructing 
Merritt to begin by making demonstrations as 
though to turn the enemy's right, and to assault 
the front of the works with his dismounted cav- 
alry as soon as Warren became engaged. After- 
ward I rode around to Gravelly Run Church, 
and found the head of Warren's column just 
appearing, while he was sitting under a tree mak- 
ing a rough sketch of the ground. I was disap- 
pointed that more of the corps was not already 


up, and as the precious minutes went by without 
any apparent effort to hurry the troops on to the 
field, this disappointment grew into disgust. At 
last I expressed to Warren my fears that the 
cavalry might expend all their ammunition before 
the attack could be made, that the sun would go 
down before the battle could be begun, or that 
troops from Lee's right, which, be it remembered, 
was less than three miles away from my right, 
might, by striking my rear, or even by threaten- 
ing it, prevent the attack on Pickett. 

Warren did not seem to me to be at all solic- 
itous ; his manner exhibited decided apathy, and 
he remarked with indifference that '* Bobby Lee 
was always getting people into trouble." With 
unconcern such as this, it is no wonder that fully 
three hours' time was consumed in marching his 
corps from J. BoisseaiTs to Gravelly Run Church, 
though the distance was but two miles. However, 
when my patience was almost worn out, Warren 
reported his troops ready, Ayres's division being 
formed on the west side of the Gravelly Church 
road, Crawford's on the east side, and Griffin in 
reserve behind the right of Crawford, a little dif- 
ferent from my instructions. The corps had no 
artillery present, its batteries, on account of the 
mud, being still north of Gravelly Run. Mean- 
while Merritt had been busy working his men close 

Vol. n.— II. 


up to the intrenchments from the angle of the return 
west, along the White Oak road. 

About 4 o'clock Warren began the attack. He 
was to assault the left flank of the Confederate 
infantry at a point where I knew Pickett's intrench- 
ments were refused, almost at right angles with 
the White Oak road. I did not know exactly how 
far toward Hatcher's Run this part of the works 
extended, for here the videttes of Mumford's cav- 
alry were covering, but I did know where the 
refusal began. This return, then, was the point I 
wished to assail, believing that if the assault was 
made with spirit, the line could be turned. I 
therefore intended that Ayres and Crawford should 
attack the refused trenches squarely, and when 
these two divisions and Merritt's cavalry became 
hotly engaged, Griffin's division was to pass around 
the left of the Confederate line ; and I personally 
instructed Griffin how I wished him to go in, telling 
him also that as he advanced, his right flank would 
be taken care of by Mackenzie,who was to be push- 
ed over toward the Ford road and Hatcher's Run. 

The front of the corps was oblique to the White 
Oak road; and on getting there, it was to swing 
round to the left till perpendicular to the road, 
keeping closed to the left. Ayres did his part 
well, and to the letter, bringing his division square 
up to the front of the return near the angle ; but 


rawford did not wheel to the left, as was in- 
tended. On the contrary, on receiving fire from 
^^lumford's cavalry, Crawford swerved to the right 
.sind moved north from the return, thus isolating 
l^is division from Ayres ; and Griffin, uncertain of 
the enemy's position, naturally followed Crawford. 
The deflection of this division on a line of 
march which finally brought it out on the Ford 
xoad near C. Young's house, frustrated the pur- 
p)ose 1 had in mind when ordering the attack, and 
oaused a gap between Ayres and Crawford, of 
"which the enemy quickly took advantage, and 
succeeded in throwing a part of Ayres's division 
into confusion. At this juncture I sent word to 
Oeneral Warren to have Crawford recalled ; for 
the direction he was following was not only a mis- 
-taken one, but, in case the assault at the return 
failed, he ran great risk of capture. Warren could 
not be found, so I then sent for Griffin — first by Col- 
onel Newhall, and then by Colonel Sherman — to 
come to the aid of Ayres, who was now contend- 
ing alone with that part of the enemy's infantry 
at the return. By this time Griffin had observed 
and appreciated Crawford's mistake, however, 
and when the staff-officers reached him, was al- 
ready faced to the left ; so, marching across Craw- 
ford's rear, he quickly joined Ayres, who mean- 
while had rallied his troops and carried the return. 


« I ■ ■ p 

• t ■ m. 


Jn concert with some Fifth Corps regiments under 
Colonel Richardson, drove the last of the enemy 
westward on the White Oak road. 

Our success was unqualified; we had overthrown 
Pickett, taken six guns, thirteen battle-flags, arid 
nearly six thousand prisoners. When the battle 
was practically over, I turned to consider my posi- 
tion with reference to the main Confederate army. 
My troops, though victorious, were isolated from 
the Army of the Potomac, for on the 31st of 
March the extreme left of that army had been 
thrown back nearly to the Boydton plank-road, 
and hence there was nothing to prevent the ene- 
my's issuing from his trenches at the intersection 
of the White Oak and Claiborne roads and march- 
ing directly on my rear. I surmised that he might 
do this that night or early next morning. It was 
therefore necessary to protect myself in this criti- 
cal situation, and General Warren having sorely 
disappointed me, both in the moving of his corps 
and in its management during the battle, I felt 
that he was not the man to rely upon under such 
circumstances, and deeming that it was to the 
best interest of the service as well as but just to 
myself, I relieved him, ordering him to report to 
General Grant. 

I then put Griffin in command of the Fifth Corps, 
and directed him to withdraw from the pursuit as 


quickly as he could after following the enemy 
short distance, and form in line of battle nea 
Gravelly Run Church, at right angles with th 
White Oak road, with Ayres and Crawford fa — 
cing toward the enemy at the junction of th 
White Oak and Claiborne roads, leaving Bartlett 
how commanding Grifl&n's division, near the For 
road. Mackenzie also was left on the Ford roa 
at the crossing of Hatcher's Run, Merritt goin 
into camp on the widow Gillian's plantation. A 
I had been obliged to keep Crook's division along — 
Stony Creek throughout the day, it had taken nc^- 
active part in the battle. 

Years after the war, in 1879, a Court of Inquiry- 
was given General Warren in relation to his con- 
duct on the day of the battle. He assumed that 
the delay in not granting his request for an in- 
quiry, which was first made at the close of the 
war, was due to opposition on my part. In this 
he was in error ; I never opposed the ordering of 
the Court, but when it was finally decided to con- 
vene it I naturally asked to be represented by 
counsel, for the authorization of the Inquiry was 
so peculiarly phrased that it made me practically 
a respondent.* 

• *'Nkw York City, May 3, 1880. 
•* Major General VV. S. Hancock, U. S. A. 

•* President Court of Inquiry, Governor's Island. 
*' Sir : Since my arrival in this city, under a subpoena to appear and testify 
before the Court of which you are president, I have l>een indirectly and unoffi- 


Briefly stated, in my report of the battle of Five 
Forks there were four imputations concerning 
General Warren. The first implied that Warren 
failed to reach me on the ist of April, when I 
had reason to expect him ; the second, that the 
tactical handling of his corps was unskillful ; the 

dally informed that the Court some time ago forwarded an invitation to me 
(which has not been receiTed) to appear personally or by counsel, in order to 
aid it in obtaining a knowledge as to the facts concerning the movements ter- 
minating in the battle of ' Five Forks,' with reference to the direct subjects of 
its inquiry. Any invitation of this character I should always and do consider 
it incumbent on me to accede to, and do everything in roy power in further- 
ance of the specific purposes for which courts of inquiry are by law instituted. 

** The order convening the Court (a copy of which was not received by me at 
my division headquarters until two days after the time appointed for the Court 
to assemble) contemplates an inquiry based on the application of Lieutenant- 
Colonel G. K. Warren, Corps of Engineers, as to his conduct while major-gen- 
eral commanding the Fifth Army Corps, under my command, in reference to 
accusations or imputations assumed in the order to have been made against 
him, and I understand through the daily press that my official report of the 
battle of Five Forks has been submitted by him as a basis of inquiry. 

** If it is proposed to inquire, either directly or indirectly, as to any action of 
mine so far as the commanding general Fifth Army Corps was concerned, or 
my motives for such action, I desire to be specifically informed wherein such ac- 
tion or transaction is alleged to contain an accusation or imputation to become a 
subject of inquiry, so that, knowing what issues are raised, I may intelligently 
aid the Court in arriving at the facts. 

** It is a long time since the battle of F^ve Forks was fought, and during the 
time that has elapsed the official reports of that battle have been received and 
acknowledged by the Government ; but now, when the memory of events has 
in many instances grown dim, and three of the principal actors on that field are 
dead —Generals Griffin, Custer, and Dcvin, whose testimony would have been 
valuable —an investigation is ordered which might perhaps do injustice unless 
the facts pertinent to the issues are fully developed. 

•' My duties are such that it will not be convenient for me to be present con- 
tinuously during the sessions of the Court. In order, however, that everything 
may be laid before it in my power pertinent to such specific issues as are legally 
raised, I beg leave to introduce Major Asa Bird Gardner as my counsel. 

** Very respectfully, 

• P. H. Sheridan, Lieut.-General.*' 


third, that he did not exert himself to get his 
corps up to Gravelly Run Church ; and the fourth, 
that when portions of his line gave way he did 
not exert himself to restore confidence to his 
troops. The Court found against him on the first 
and second counts, and for him on the third and 
fourth. This finding was unsatisfactory to Gen- 
eral Warren, for he hoped to obtain such an un- 
equivocal recognition of his services as to cast 
discredit on my motives for relieving him. These 
were prompted by the conditions alone — by the 
conduct of General Warren as described, and my 
consequent lack of confidence in him. 

It will be remembered that in my conversation 
with General Grant on the 30th, relative to the 
suspension of operations because of the mud, I 
asked him to let me have the Sixth Corps to help 
me in breaking in on the enemy's right, but that 
it could not be sent me ; it will be recalled also 
that the Fifth Corps was afterward tendered and 
declined. From these facts it has been alleged 
that I was prejudiced against General Warren, 
but this is not true. As we had never been 
thrown much together I knew but little of him. 
I had no personal objection to him, and certainly 
could have none to his corps. I was expected to 
do an extremely dangerous piece of work, and 
knowing the Sixth Corps well — my cavalry having 


campaigned with it so successfully in the Shenan- 
<loah Valley — I naturally preferred it. and declined 
the Fifth for no other reason. But the Sixth 
could not be given, and the turn of events finally 
brought me the fifth after my cavalry, under the 
most trying difficulties, had drawn the enemy 
from his works, and into such a position as to per- 
mit the realization of General Grant's hope to 
break up with my force Lee's right flank. Pick- 
ett's isolation offered an opportunity which we 
could not aflford to neglect, and the destruction of 
his command would fill the measure of General 
Grant's expectations as well as meet my own de- 
sires. The occasion was not an ordinary one, and 
as I thought that Warren had not risen to its 
demand in the battle, I deemed it injudicious and 
unsafe under the critical conditions existing to re- 
tain him longer. That I was justified in this is 
plain to all who are disposed to be fair-minded, 
so with the following extract from General Sher- 
man's review of the proceedings of the Warren 
Court, and with which I am convinced the judg- 
ment of history will accord, I leave the subject : 

** It would be an unsafe and dangerous rule to hold the com- 
mander of an army in battle to a technical adherence to any 
rule of conduct for managmg his command. He is responsible 
for results, and holds the lives and reputations of every officer 
and soldier under his orders as subordmate to the great end — 
victory. The most important events are usually compressed 


into an hour, a minute, and he cannot stop to analyze hia reasons* 
He must act on the impulse, the conviction, of the instant, andi 
should be sustained in his conclusions, if not manifestly unjust. 
The power to command men, and give vehement impulse to thetc 
joint action, is something which cannot be defined by words, but 
it is plain and manifest in battles, and whoever commands am 
army in chief must choose his subordinates by reason of qualities 
which can alone be tested in actual conflict 

" No one has questioned the patriotism, integrity, and great 
intelligence of General Warren. These are attested by a lone 
record of most excellent service, but in the clash of arms at and 
near Five Forks, March 31 and April x, 1865, his personal activ- 
ity fell short of the standard fixed by General Sheridan, on wfaona 
alone rested the great responsibility for that and succeeding days. 

*< My conclusion is that General Sheridan was perfectly justi^ 
fied in his action in this case, and he must be fully and entirely^ 
sustained if the United States expects great victories by her anna* 
in the future." 







\^7HEN the news of the battle at Five Forks 
reached General Grant, he realized that the 
decisive character of our victory would necessitate 
the immediate abandonment of Richmond and 
Petersburg by the enemy; and fearing that Lee 
would escape without further injury, he issued 
orders, the propriety of which must be settled 
by history, to assault next morning the whole 
intrenched line. But Lee could not retreat at 
once. He had not anticipated disaster at Five 
Forks, and hence was unprepared to withdraw on 
the moment ; and the necessity of getting off his 
trains and munitions of war, as well as being 
obliged to cover the flight of the Confederate 
Government, compelled him to hold on to Rich- 
mond and Petersburg till the afternoon of the 2d, 
though before that Parke, Ord, and Wright had 

carried his outer intrenchments at several points, 



thus materially shortening the line of invest* 

The night of the ist of April, General Hum« 
phreys's corps — the Second — ^had extended its 
left toward the White Oak road, and early next 
morning, under instructions from General Grant, 
Miles's division of that corps reported to me, and 
supporting him with Ayres's and Crawford's divi- 
sions of the Fifth Corps, I then directed him to 
advance toward Petersburg and attack the ene- 
my's works at the intersection of the Claiborne 
and White Oak roads. 

Such of the enemy as were still in the works 
Miles easily forced across Hatcher's Run, in the 
direction of Sutherland's depot, but the Confeder- 
ates promptly took up a position north of the 
little stream, and Miles being anxious to attack, I 
gave him leave, but just at this time General 
Humphreys came up with a request to me from 
General Meade to return Miles. On this request 
I relinquished command of the division, when, 
supported by the Fifth Corps it could have broken 
in the enemy's right at a vital point ; and I have 
always since regretted that I did so, for the mes- 
sage Humphreys conveyed was without authority 
from General Grant, by whom Miles had been sent 
to me, but thinking good feeling a desideratum 
just then, and wishing to avoid wrangles, I faced 


the Fifth Corps about and marched it down to 
Five Forks, and out the Ford road to the crossing- 
of Hatcher's Run. After we had gone, General 
Grant, intending this quarter of the field to be 
under my control, ordered Humphreys with his 
other two divisions to move to the right, in tow- 
ard Petersburg. This left Miles entirely unsup- 
ported, and his gallant attack made soon after 
was unsuccessful at first, but about 3 o'clock in 
the afternoon he carried the point which covered 
the retreat from Petersburg and Richmond. 

Merritt had been sent westward, meanwhile, in 
the direction of Ford's Station, to break the en- 
emy's horse which had been collecting to the 
north of Hatcher's Run. Meeting with but little 
opposition, Merritt drove this cavalry force in a 
northerly direction toward Scott's Corners, while 
the Fifth Corps was pushed toward Sutherland's 
depot, in the hope of coming in on the rear of the 
force that was confronting Miles when I left him. 
Crawford and Merritt engaged the enemy lightly 
just before night, but his main column, retreating 
along the river road south of the Appomattox, 
had got across Namozine Creek, and the darkness 
prevented our doing more than to pick up some 
stragglers. The next morning the pursuit was 
resumed, the cavalry again in advance, the Fifth 
Corps keeping up with it all the while, and as we 



pressed our adversaries hundreds and hundreds 
of prisoners, armed and unarmed, fell into our 
hands, together with many wagons and five pieces 
of artillery. At Deep Creek the rear-guard turned 
on us, and a severe skirmish took place. Merritt, 
finding the enemy very strong, was directed to 
await the arrival of Crook and for the rear divi- 
sion of the Fifth Corps ; but by the time they 
reached the creek, darkness had again come to 
protect the Confederates, and we had to be con- 
tent with meagre results at that point. 

From the beginning it was apparent that Lee, in 
his retreat, was making for Amelia Court House, 
where his columns •north and south of the Appo- 
mattox River could join, and where, no doubt, he 
expected to meet supplies, so Crook was ordered 
to march early on April 4 to strike the Danville 
railroad, between Jettersville and Burkeville, and 
then move south along the railroad toward Jetters- 
ville, Merritt to move toward Amelia Court House, 
and the Fifth Corps to Jettersville itself. 

The Fifth Corps got to Jettersville about 5 in the 
afternoon, and I immediately intrenched it across 
the Burkeville road with the determination to stay 
there till the main army could come up, for I hoped 
we could force Lee to surrender at Amelia Court 
House, since a firm hold on Jettersville would cut 
him ofiF from his line of retreat toward Burkeville. 



Accompanied only by my escort — the First 
United States Cavalry, about two hundred strong 
^-I reached Jettersville some little time before 
the Fifth Corps, and having nothing else at 
hand I at once deployed this handful of men to 
cover the crossroads till the arrival of the corps. 
Just as the troopers were deploying, a man on a 
mule, heading for Burkeville, rode into my pickets. 
He was arrested, of course, and being searched 
there was found in his boots this telegram in du- 
plicate, signed by Lee's Commissary - General. 
•* The army is at Amelia Court House, short of 
provisions. Send 300,000 rations quickly to Burke- 
ville Junction." One copy was addressed to the 
supply department at Danville, and the other to 
that at Lynchburg. I surmised that the telegraph 
lines north of Burkeville had been broken by 
Crook after the despatches were written, which 
would account for their being transmitted by mes- 
senger. There was thus revealed not only the 
important fact that Lee was concentrating at 
Amelia Court House, but also a trustworthy basis 
for estimating his troops, so I sent word to Crook 
to strike up the railroad toward me, and to Merritt 
— who, as I have said, had followed on the heels 
of the enemy — to leave Mackenzie there and him- 
self close in on Jettersville. StafiF - officers were 
also despatched to hurry up Griffin with the 


Fifth Corps, and his tired men redoubled their 

My troops too were hard up for rations, for in 
the pursuit we could not wait for our trains, so I 
concluded to secure if possible these provisions 
intended for Lee. To this end I directed Young^ 
to send four of his best scouts to Burkeville Junc- 
tion. There they were to separate, two taking the 
railroad toward Lynchburg and two toward Dan- 
ville, and as soon as a telegraph station was reached 
the telegram was to be transmitted as it had been 
written and the provisions thus hurried forward. 

Although the Fifth Corps arrived at Jettersville 
the evening of April 4, as did also Crook's and 
Merritt's cavalry, yet none of the army of the Po- 
tomac came up till about 3 o'clock the afternoon 
of the 5th, the Second Corps, followed by the 
Sixth, joining us then. General Meade arrived at 
Jettersville an hour earlier, but being ill, requested 
me to put his troops in position. The Fifth Corps 
being already intrenched across the Amelia 
Court House road facing north, I placed the Sixth 
on its right and the Second on its left as they 
reached the ground. 

As the enemy had been feeling us ever since 
morning, to learn what he was up to I directed 
Crook to send Davies's brigade on a reconnois- 
sance to Paine's crossroads. Davies soon found 



out that Lee was trying to escape by that flank, 
for at the crossroads he found the Confederate 
trains and artillery moving rapidly westward. 
Having driven away the escort, Davies succeeded 
in burning nearly two hundred wagons, and 
brought off five pieces of artillery. Among these 
wagons were some belonging to General Lee's 
and to General Fitzhugh Lee's headquarters. This 
work through, Davies withdrew and rejoined 
Crook, who, with Smith and Gregg, was estab- 
lished near Flat Creek. 

It being plain that Lee would attempt to escape 
as soon as his trains were out of the way, I was 
most anxious to attack him when the Second 
Corps began to arrive, for I felt certain that un- 
less we did so he would succeed in passing by 
our left flank, and would thus again make our 
pursuit a stern-chase ; but General Meade, whose 
plan of attack was to advance his right flank on 
Amelia Court House, objected to assailing before 
all his troops were up. 

I then sent despatches to General Grant, explain- 
ing what Davies had done, and telling him that 
the Second Corps was arriving, and that I wished 
he himself was present. I assured him of my con- 
fidence in our capturing Lee if wc properly exert- 
ed ourselves, and informed him, finally, that I 
would put all my cavalry, except Mackenzie, on my 

Vol. n.— 12. 


left, and that, with such a disposition of my forces, 
I could see no escape for Lee. I also inclosed 
him this letter, which had just been captured : 

"Amelia C. H., April 5, 1865. 
** Dear Mamma : 

*'Our army is ruined, I fear. We are all safe as yet. Shyron 
left us sick. John Taylor is well — saw him yesterday. We are 
in line of battle this morning. General Robert Lee is in the field 
near us. My trust is still in the justice of our cause, and that 
of God. General Hill is killed. I saw Murray a few minutes 
since. Bernard, Terry said, was taken prisoner, but may yet get 
out. I send this by a negro I see passing up the railroad to Mech- 
lenburg. Love to all. 

" Your devoted son, 

«« Wm. B. Taylor, Colonel." 

General Grant, who on the 5th was accompa- 
nying General Ord's column toward Burkeville 
Junction, did not receive this intelligence till 
nearly nightfall, when within about ten miles of 
the Junction. He set out for Jettersville imme- 
diately, but did not reach us till near midnight, 
too late of course to do anything that night. Tak- 
ing me with him, we went over to see Meade, 
whom he then directed to advance early in the 
morning on Amelia Court House. In this inter- 
view Grant also stated that the orders Meade had 
already issued would permit Lee's escape, and 
therefore must be changed, for it was not the aim 
only to follow the enemy, but to get ahead of 
him, remarking during the conversation that **he 


liad no doubt Lee was moving right then.'* On 
this same occasion Meade expressed a desire to 
have in the proposed attack all the troops of the 
Army of the Potomac under his own command, 
and asked for the return of the Fifth Corps. I 
made no objections, and it was ordered to report 
to him. 

When, on the morning of the 6th, Meade ad- 
vanced toward Amelia Court House, he found, as 
predicted, that Lee was gone. It turned out that 
the retreat began the evening of the 5th and con- 
tinued all night. Satisfied that this would be the 
case, I did not permit the cavalry to participate in 
Meade's useless ad vance, but shifted it out toward 
the left to the road running from Deatonsville to 
Rice's station, Crook leading and Merritt close 
up. Before long the enemy's trains were discov- 
ered on this road, but Crook could make but lit- 
tle impression on them, they were so strongly 
guarded; so, leaving Stagg's brigade and Miller's 
battery about three miles southwest of Deatons- 
ville — where the road forks, with a branch leading 
north toward the Appomattox — to harass the re- 
treating column and find a vulnerable point, I 
again shifted the rest of the cavalry toward the 
left, across-country, but still keeping parallel to 
the enemy's line of march. 

Just after crossing Sailor's Creek, a favorable 


Opportunity offering, both Merritt and Crook at- 
tacked vigorously, gained the Rice's Station road, 
destroyed several hundred wagons, made many 
prisoners, and captured sixteen pieces of artillery. 
This was important, but more valuable still was 
the fact that we were astride the enemy's line of 
retreat, and had cut oflf from joining Longstreet, 
waiting at Rice's Station, a corps of Confederate 
infantry under General Ewell, composed of An- 
derson's, Kershaw's, and Custis Lee's divisions. 
Stagg's brigade and Miller's battery, which, as I 
have said, had been left at the forks of the Dea- 
tonsville road, had meanwhile broken in between 
the rear of EwcU's column and the head of Gor- 
don's, forcing Gordon to abandon his march for 
Rice's Station, and to take the right-hand road at 
the forks, on which he was pursued by General 

The complete isolation of Ewell from Long- 
street in his front and Gordon in his rear led to 
the battle of Sailor's Creek, one of the severest 
conflicts of the war, for the enemy fought with 
desperation to escape capture, and we, bent on 
his destruction, were no less eager and determined. 
The capture of Ewell, with six of his generals 
and most of his troops, crowned our success, but 
the fight was so overshadowed by the stirring 
events of the surrender three days later, that the 


battle has never been accorded the prominence it 

The small creek from which the field takes its 
name flows in a northwesterly direction across 
the road leading from Deatonsville to Rice's Sta- 
tion. By shifting to the left, Merritt gained the 
Rice's Station road west of the creek, making 
havoc of the wagon-trains, while Crook struck 
them further on and planted himself square 
across the road. This blocked Ewell, who, advan- 
cing Anderson to some high ground west of the 
creek, posted him behind barricades, with the in- 
tention of making a hard fight there, while the 
main body should escape through the woods in a 
westerly direction to roads that led to Farmville. 
This was prevented, however, by Crook forming 
his division, two brigades dismounted and one 
mounted, and at once assaulting all along Ander- 
son's front and overlapping his right, while Merritt 
fiercely attacked to the right of Crook. The ene- 
my being thus held, enabled the Sixth Corps — 
which in the meantime I had sent for — to come 
upon the ground, and Ewell, still contending with 
the cavalry, found himself suddenly beset by this 
new danger from his rear. To meet it, he placed 
Kershaw to the right and Custis Lee to the left 
of the Rice's Station road, facing them north tow- 
ard and some little distance from Sailor's Creek, 


supporting Kershaw with Commander Tucker's 
Marine brigade. Ewell's skirmishers held the line 
of Sailor's Creek, which runs through a gentle val- 
ley, the north slope of which was cleared ground. 

By General Grant's directions the Sixth Corps 
had been following my route of march since the 
discovery, about 9 o'clock in the morning, that Lee 
had decamped from Amelia Court House. Grant 
had promptly informed me of this in a note, say- 
ing, '* The Sixth Corps will go in with a vim any 
place you may dictate," so when I sent word to 
Wright of the enemy's isolation, and asked him 
to hurry on with all speed, his gallant corps came 
as fast as legs could carry them, he sending to me 
successively Major McClellan and Colonel Frank- 
lin, of his staflf, to report his approach. 

I was well advised as to the position of the 
enemy through information brought me by an in- 
telligent young soldier, William A. Richardson, 
Company '* A," Second Ohio, who, in one of the 
cavalry charges on Anderson, had cleared the bar- 
ricades and made his way back to my front 
through EwelTs line. Richardson had told me 
just how the main body of the enemy was posted, 
so as Seymour^s division arrived I directed Gen- 
eral Wright to put it on the right of the road, while 
Wheaton's men, coming up all hot and out of 
breath, promptly formed on Seymour's left. Both 


<livisions thus aligned faced southwest toward 
Sailor's Creek, and the artillery of the corps being 
massed to the left and front of the Hibbon house, 
-without waiting for Getty's division — for I feared 
that if wp delayed longer the enemy might effect 
his escape toward Farmville — the general attack 
was begun. Seymour and Wheaton, moving for- 
ward together, assailed the enemy's front and left, 
and Stagg's brigade, too, which in the mpan time 
had been placed between Wheaton's left and 
Devin's right, went at him along with them, Mer- 
ritt and Crook resuming the fight from their posi- 
tions in front of Anderson. The enemy, seeing 
little chance of escape, fought like a tiger at bay, 
but both Seymour and Wheaton pressed him vig- 
orously, gaining ground at all points except just 
to the right of the road, where Seymour's left was 
checked. Here the Confederates burst back on us 
in a counter-charge, surging down almost to the 
creek, but the artillery, supported by Getty, who 
in the mean time had come on the ground, opened 
on them so terribly that this audacious and furi- 
ous onset was completely broken, though the gal- 
lant fellows fell back to their original line dog- 
gedly, and not until after they had almost gained 
the creek. Ewell was now hemmed in on every 
side, and all those under his immediate command 
were captured. Merritt and Crook had also broken 


Up Anderson by this time, but he himself, and 
about two thousand disorganized men escaped by 
making their way through the woods toward the 
Appomattox River before they could be entirely 
enveloped. Night had fallen when the fight was 
entirely over, but Devin was pushed on in pursuit 
for about two miles, part of the Sixth Corps fol- 
lowing to clinch a victory which not only led to 
the annihilation of one corps of Lee's retreating 
army, but obliged Longstreet to move up to Farm- 
ville, so as to take a road north of the Appomat- 
tox River toward Lynchburg instead of continu- 
ing toward Dan\ille. 

At the close of the battle I sent one of my staff 
— Colonel Redwood Price — to General Grant to 
report what had been done ; that we had taken 
six generals and from nine to ten thousand pris- 
oners. On his way Price stopped at the head- 
quarters of General Meade, where he learned that 
not the slightest intelligence of the occurrence on 
my line had been received, for I not being under 
Meade's command, he had paid no attention to my 
movements. Price gave the story of the battle, 
and General Meade, realizing its importance, sent 
directions immediately to General Wright to make 
his report of the engagement to the headquarters 
of the Army of the Potomac, assuming that Wright 
was operating independently of me in the face 


of Grant's despatch of 2 o'clock, which said th 
Wright was following the cavalry and would " g 
in with a vim " wherever I dictated. Wright cou 
not do else than comply with Meade's orders 
the case, and I, being then in ignorance of Meade 
reasons for the assumption, could say nothin] 
But General Grant plainly intending, and eve 
directing, that the corps should be under my con 
mand, remedied this phase of the matter, whe 
informed of what had taken place, by requirin 
Wright to send a report of the battle through m^ 
What he then did, and what his intentions an 
orders were, are further confirmed by a referenc 
to the episode in his ** Memoirs,"* where he give 
his reasons for ordering the Sixth Corps to abai 
don the move on Amelia Court House and pa; 
to the left of the army. On the same page he als 
says, referring to the 6th of April : ** The Sixt 
Corps now remained with the cavalry under She 
idan*s direct command until after the surrender 
He unquestionably intended all of this, but h 
purpose was partly frustrated by General Meade 
action next morning in assuming direction of th 
movements of the corps; and before General Grar 
became aware of the actual conditions the su 
render was at hand. 

♦ Page 473, Vol. II., Grant's ** Memoirs." 


Lincoln's laconic despatch— capturing lee's sup- 




" I "HE first report of the battle of Sailor's Creek 
that General Grant received was, as already 
Stated, an oral message carried by Colonel Price, 
of my staff. Near midnight I sent a despatch giv- 
ing the names of the generals captured. These 
were Ewell, Kershaw, Barton, Corse, Dubose, and 
Custis Lee. In the same despatch I wrote : " If 
the thing is pressed, I think that Lee will surren- 
der." When Mr. Lincoln, at City Point, received 
this word from General Grant, who was transmit- 
ting every item of news to the President, he tele- 
graphed Grant the laconic message : *' Let the 
thing be pressed." The morning of the 7th we 
moved out at a very early hour. Crook's division 
marching toward Farmville in direct pursuit, 
while Merritt and Mackenzie were ordered to 

Prince Edward's Court House to anticipate any 


1 88 PERSON At MBMO/RS OP P. tt. SfiEkWAlf. 

effort Lee might make to escape through that 
place toward Danville, since it had been discov- 
ered that Longstreet had slipped away already 
from the front of General Ord's troops at Rice's 
Station. Crook overtook the main body of the 
Confederates at Farmville, and promptly attacked 
their trains on the north side of the Appomattox 
with Gregg's brigade, which was fiercely turned 
upon and forced to recross the river with the loss of 
a number of prisoners, among them Gregg himself. 

When Crook sent word of this fight, it was 
clear that Lee had abandoned all effort to escape 
to the southwest by way of Danville. Lynchburg 
was undoubtedly his objective point now ; so, 
resolving to throw my cavalry again across his 
path, and hold him till the infantry could over- 
take him, I directed everything on Appomattox 
depot, recalling Crook the night of the 7th to 
Prospect Station, while Merritt camped at Buffalo 
Creek, and Mackenzie made a reconnoissance 
along the Lynchburg railroad. 

At break of day, April 8, Merritt and Mackenzie 
united with Crook at Prospect Station, and the 
cavalry all moved then toward Appomattox de- 
pot. Hardly had it started when one of the scouts 
— Sergeant White — informed me that there were 
four trains of cars at the depot loaded with sup- 
plies for Lee's army; these had been sent from 


Lynchburg, in compliance with the telegram of 
Lee's commissary-general, which message, it will 
be remembered, was captured and transmitted to 
Lynchburg by two of Young's scouts on the 4th. 
Sergeant White, who had been on the lookout for 
the trains ever since sending the despatch, found 
them several miles west of Appomattox depot, 
feeling their way along, in ignorance of Lee's ex- 
act position. As he had the original despatch 
with him, and took pains to dwell upon the pitia- 
ble condition of Lee's army, he had little diflBculty 
in persuading the men in charge of the trains to 
bring them east of Appomattox Station, but fear- 
ing that the true state of affairs would be learned 
before long, and the trains be returned to Lynch- 
burg, he was painfully anxious to have them cut 
ofiF by breaking the track west of the station. 

The intelligence as to the trains was immedi- 
ately despatched to Crook, and I pushed on to join 
him with Merritt's command. Custer having the 
advance, moved rapidly, and on nearing the station 
detailed two regiments to make a detour south- 
ward to strike the railroad some distance beyond 
and break the track. These regiments set oflf at a 
gallop, and in short order broke up the railroad 
enough to prevent the escape of the trains, Custer 
meanwhile taking possession of the station, but 
none too soon, for almost at the moment he did so 



the advance-guard of Lee's army appeared, beni 
on securing the trains. Without halting to lool 
after the cars further, Custer attacked this ad 
vance-guard and had a spirited fight, in which h( 
drove the Confederates away from the station 
captured twenty-five pieces of artillery, a hospita 
train, and a large park of wagons, which, in th( 
hope that they would reach Lynchburg next day 
were being pushed ahead of Lee's main body. 

Devin coming up a little before dusk, was put iti 
on the right of Custer, and one of Crook's bri 
gades was sent to our left and the other two helc 
in reserve. I then forced the enemy back on the 
Appomattox road to the vicinity of the Couri 
House, and that the Confederates might have nc 
rest, gave orders to continue the skirmishing 
throughout the night. Meanwhile the captured 
trains had been taken charge of by locomotive 
engineers, soldiers of the command, who were de 
lighted evidently to get back at their old calling. 
They amused themselves by running the trains tc 
and fro, creating much confusion, and keeping up 
such an unearthly screeching with the whistles 
that I was on the point of ordering the cars 
burned. They finally wearied of their fun, how- 
ever, and ran the trains off to the east toward 
General Ord's column. 

The night of the 8th I made my headquarters 


at a little frame house just south of the station. 
I did not sleep at all, nor did anybody else, the en- 
tire command being up all night long; indeed, 
there had been little rest in the cavalry for the 
past eight days. The necessity of getting Ord's 
column up was so obvious now that staflF-oflBcer 
after stafiF-officer was sent to him and to General 
Grant requesting that the infantry be pushed on, 
for if it could get to the front, all knew that the 
rebellion would be ended on the morrow. Merritt, 
Crook, Custer, and Devin were present at frequent 
intervals during the night, and everybody was 
overjoyed at the prospect that our weary work 
was about to end so happily. Before sun-up Gen- 
eral Ord arrived, and informed me of the approach 
of his column^ it having been marching the whole 
night. As he ranked me, of course I could give 
him no orders, so after a hasty consultation as to 
where his troops should be placed we separated, 
I riding to the front to overlook my line near Ap- 
pomattox Court House, while he went back to 
urge along his weary troops. 

The night before General Lee had held a coun- 
cil with his principal generals, when it was ar- 
ranged that in the morning General Gordon should 
undertake to break through my cavalry, and 
when I neared my troops this movement was be- 
ginning, a heavy line of infantry bearing down 


on US from the direction of the village. In front 
of Crook and Mackenzie firingfhad already begun, 
so riding to a slight elevation where a good view 
of the Confederates could be had, I there came to 
the conclusion that it would be unwise to offei 
more resistance than that necessary to give Ord 
time to form, so I directed Merritt to fall back, 
and in retiring to shift Devin and Custer to the 
right so as to make room for Ord, now in the 
woods to my rear. Crook, who with his own and 
Mackenzie's divisions was on my extreme left cov- 
ering some by-roads, was ordered to hold his 
ground as long as practicable without sacrificing 
his men, and, if forced to retire, to contest with 
obstinacy the enemy s advance. 

As already stated, I could not direct General 
Ord's cours^, he being my senior, but hastily gal- 
loping back to where he was, at the edge of the 
timber, I explained to him what was taking place 
at the front. Merritt's withdrawal inspired the 
Confederates, who forthwith began to press 
Crook, their line of battle advancing with con- 
fidence till it reached the crest whence I had 
reconnoitred them. From this ground they could 
see Ord's men emerging from the woods, and the 
hopelessness of a further attack being plain, the 
gray lines instinctively halted, and then began to 
retire toward a ridge immediately fronting Appo- 



i^iciattox Count House, while Ord, joined on his 
:iright by the Fifth Corps, advanced on them over 
the ground that Merritt had abandoned. 

I now directed my steps toward Merritt, who, 
leaving mounted his troopers, had moved them 
cz>flF to the right, and by the time I reached his 
Ineadquarters flag he was ready for work, so a 
move on the enemy's left was ordered, and every 
uidon was bent to the front. As the cavalry 
arched along parallel with the Confederate line, 
nd in toward its left, a heavy fire of artillery 
pened on us, but this could not check us at 
^uch a time, and we soon reached some high 
round about half a mile from the Court House, 
d from here I could see in the low valley 
1>eyond the village the bivouac undoubtedly of 
lee s army. The troops did not seem to be dis- 
posed in battle order, but on the other side of the 
hivouac was a line of battle — a heavy rear-guard 
— confronting, presumably. General Meade. 

I decided to attack at once, and formations 
were ordered at a trot for a charge by Custer's 
and Devin's divisions down the slope leading to 
the camps. Custer was soon ready, but Devin's 
division being in rear its formation took longer, 
since he had to shift further to the right ; Devin s 
preparations were, therefore, but partially com- 
pleted when an aide-de-camp galloped up to me 

Vol. IL— 13. 


with the word from Custer, "L^ has surren- 
dered ; do not charge ; the white fls^ is up. ** The 
enemy perceiving that Custer was forming for 
attack, had sent the flag out to his front and 
stopped the charge just in time. I at once sent 
word of the truce to General Ord, and hearing 
nothing more from Custer himself, I supposed 
that he had gone down to the Court House to 
join a mounted group of Confederates that I 
could see near there, so I, too, went toward them, 
galloping down a narrow ridge, staff and order- 
lies following ; but we had not got half way to 
the Court House when, from a skirt of timber to 
our right, not more than three hundred yards 
distant, a musketry fire was opened on us. This 
halted us, when, waving my hat, I called out to 
the firing party that we were under a truce, and 
they were violating it. This did not stop them, 
however, so we hastily took shelter in a ravine 
so situated as to throw a ridge between us and 
the danger. 

We traveled in safety down chis depression 
to its mouth, and thence by a gentle ascent ap- 
proached the Court House. I was in advance, 
followed by a sergeant carrying my battle-flag. 
When I got within about a hundred and fifty 
yards of the enemy's line, which was immediately 
in front of the Court House, some of the Confed- 


erates leveled their pieces at us, and I again halt 
ed. Their officers kept their men from firing, how 
ever, but meanwhile a single-handed contest ha 
begun behind me, for on looking back I heard 

Confederate soldier demanding my battle -flag^ 
from the color-bearer, thinking, no doubt, that w^ 
were coming in as prisoners. The sergeant hacL 
drawn his sabre and was about to cut the maiB^ 
down, but at a word from me he desisted ancL 
carried the flag back to my staff, his assailantz 
quickly realizing that the boot was on the 
other Ifeg. 

These incidents determined me to remain where 
I was till the return of a staff-officer whom I had 
sent over to demand an explanation from the 
group of Confederates for which I had been head- 
ing. He came back in a few minutes with apol- 
ogies for what had occurred, and informed me 
that General Gordon and General Wilcox were 
the superior officers in the group. As they washed 
me to join them I rode up with my staff, but we 
had hardly met when in front of Merritt firing 
began. At the sound I turned to General Gordon, 
who seemed embarrassed by the occurrence, and 
remarked: '* General, your men fired on me as I 
was coming over here, and undoubtedly they are 
treating Merritt and truster the same way. We 
might as well let them fight it out." He replied. 



** There must be some mistake." I then asked. 
'* Why not send a staff -officer and have your 
people cease firing ; they are violating the flag." 
He answered, ** I have no staff-officer to send." 
Whereupon I said that I would let him have one 
Df mine, and calling for Lieutenant Vanderbilt 
Allen, I directed him to carry General Gordon's 
Drders to General Geary, commanding a small 
brigade of South Carolina cavalry, to discontinue 
firing. Allen dashed off with the message and 
soon delivered it, but was made a prisoner. Geary 
saying, *' I do not care for white flags : South 
Carolinians never surrender." By this time Mer- 
ritt's patience being exhausted, he ordered an 
attack, and this in short order put an end to Gen- 
eral Geary s '' last ditch " absurdity, and extrica- 
ted Allen from his predicament. 

When quiet was restored Gordon remarked : 
-' General Lee asks for a suspension of hostilities 
pending the negotiations which he is having with 
General Grant." I rejoined : '* I have been con- 
stantly informed of the progress of the nego- 
tiations, and think it singular that while such 
discussions are going on. General Lee should 
have continued his march and attempted to break 
through my lines this morning. I will entertain 
no terms except that General Lee shall surrender 
to General Grant on his arrival here. If these 


terms are not accepted we will renew hostilities. - 
Gordon replied : " General Lee's army is ,e)^^ 
hausted. There is no doubt of his surrender t<^» 
General Grant." 

It was then that General Ord joined us, ancr^ 
after shaking hands all around, I related the situa 
tion to him, and Gordon went away agreeing tc^ 
meet us again in half an hour. When the tim^s 
was up he came back accompanied by Generaff 
Longstreet, who brought with him a despatch, thes: 
duplicate of one that had been sent General Grants 
through General Meade's lines back on the road, 
over which Lee had been retreating. 

General Longstreet renewed the assurances that 
already had been given by Gordon, and I sent 
Colonel Newhall with the despatch to find Gen- 
eral Grant and bring him to the front. When 
Newhall started, everything on our side of the 
Appomattox Court House was quiet, for inevi- 
table surrender was at hand, but Longstreet feared 
that Meade, in ignorance of the new conditions 
on my front might attack the Confederate rear- 
guard. To prevent this I offered to send Colonel 
J. W. Forsyth through the enemy's lines to let 
Meade know of my agreement, for he too was 
suspicious that by a renewed correspondence Lee 
was endeavoring to gain time for escape. My 
offer being accepted. Forsyth set out accompanied 



by Colonel Fairfax, of Longstreet's staflF, and had 
no difficulty in accomplishing his mission. 

About five or six miles from Appomattox, on 
the road toward Prospect Station near its inter- 
section with the Walker's Church road, my adju- 
tant-general. Colonel Newhall, met General Grant, 
he having started from north of the Appomattox 
River for my -front the morning of April 9, in 
consequence of the following despatches which 
liad been sent him the night before, after we had 
<:aptured Ap{>omattox Station and established a 
line intercepting Lee : 

"Cavalry Headquarters, April 8, 1865 — 9:20 p. m. 
"•'LiEUTEN ant-General U. S. Grant, 
•* Commanding Armies of the U. S. 
"General : I marched early this morning from Buffalo Creek 
.^md Prospect Station on Appomattox Station, where my scouts had 
:»eported trains of cars with supplies for Lee*s army. A short time 
1)efore dark General Custer, who had the advance, made a tiash at 
"•he station, capturing four trains of supplies,with locomotives. ( )ne 
of the trains was burned and the others were run back tovvanl 
Tarmville for security. Custer then pushed on toward Appomat- 
tox Court House, driving the enemy — who kept up a heavy (ire 
of artillery — charging them repeatedly and capturing, as far as 
reported, twenty-five pieces of artillery and a numl^er of prison- 
ers and wagons. The First Cavalry Division supported him on 
the right. A reconnoissance sent across the Appomattox reports 
the enemy moving on the Cumberland road to Appomattox Sta- 
tion, where they expect to get supplies. Custer is still pushing 
on. If General Gibbon and the Fifth Corps can get up to-night, 
we will perhaps finish the job in the morning. I do not think 
Lee means to surrender until compelled to do so. 

**P. H. Sheridan, Major-General." 


" Headquarters Cavalry, April 8, 1865 — 9:40 p. m. 

** Lieutenant-General U. S. Grant. 
" Commanding Armies U. S. 

«* General: Since writing tne accompanying despatch. General 
Custer reports that his command has captured in all thirty five 
pieces of artillery, one thousand prisoners — including one general 
officer — and from one hundred and fifty to two hundred wagons. 

•*P. H. Sheridan, Major-General." 

In attempting to conduct the lieutenant-general 
and staff back by a short route, Newhall lost his 
bearings for a time, inclining in toward the en- 
emy's lines too far, but regained the proper direc- 
tion without serious loss of time. General Grant 
arrived about i o'clock in the afternoon, Ord 
and I, dismounted, meeting him at the edge of the 
town, or crossroads, for it was little more. He re- 
maining mounted, spoke first to me, saying simply, 
*' How are you, Sheridan ? " I assured him with 
thanks that I was *' first-rate," when, pointing 
toward the village, he asked, " Is General Lee up 
there ? " and I replied, " There is his army down in 
that valley, and he himself is over in that house 
(designating McLean's house) waiting to surren- 
der to you." The General then said, '* Come, let 
us go over," this last remark being addressed to 
both Ord and me. We two then mounted and 
joined him, while our staff-officers followed, in- 
termingling with those of the general-in-chief as 
the cavalcade took its way to McLean's house 


near by, and where General Lee had arrived some 
time before, in consequence of a message from 
General Grant consenting to the interview asked 
for by Lee through Meade's front that morning — 
the consent having been carried by Colonel Bab- 

When I entered McLean s house General Lee 
was standing, as was also his military secretary, 
Colonel Marshall, his only staff-officer present. 
General Lee was dressed in a new uniform and 
wore a handsome sword. His tall, commanding 
form thus set off contrasted strongly with the 
short figure of General Grant, clothed as he was 
in a soiled suit, without sword or other insignia of 
his position except a pair of dingy shoulder-straps. 
After being presented, Ord and 1, and nearly all 
of General Grant's staff, withdrew to await the 
agreement as to terms, and in a little while Colonel 
Babcock came to the door and said, **The sur- 
render had been made; you can come in again." 

When we re-entered General Grant was writ- 
ing; and General Lee, having in his hand two de- 
spatches, which I that morning requested might be 
returned, as I had no copies of them, addressed me 
with the remark: '* I am sorry. It is probable that 
my cavalry at that point of the line did not fully 
understand the agreement." These despatches 
had been sent in the forenoon, after the fighting 


had been stopped, notifying General Lee that some 
of his cavalry in front of Crook was violating the 
suspension of hostilities by withdrawing. About 
3 o'clock in the afternoon the terms of surren- 
der were' written out and accepted, and General 
Lee left the house, as he departed cordially shak- 
ing hands with General Grant. A moment later 
he mounted his chunky gray horse, and lifting 
his hat as he passed out of the yard, rode ofiF 
toward his army, his arrival there being an- 
nounced to us by cheering, which, as it progressed, 
varying in loudness, told he was riding through 
the bivouac of the Army of Northern Virginia. 

The surrender of General Lee practically ended 
the war of the rebellion. For four years his army 
had been the main-stay of the Confederacy ; and 
the marked ability with which he directed its 
operations is evidenced both by his frequent suc- 
cesses and the length of time he kept up the con- 
test. Indeed, it may be said that till General 
Grant was matched against him, he never met an 
opponent he did not vanquish, for while it is true 
that defeat was inflicted on the Confederates at 
Antietam and Gettysburg, yet the fruits of these 
victories were not gathered, for after each of these 
battles Lee was left unmolested till he had a 
chance to recuperate. 

The assignment of General Grant to the com- 



mand of the Union armies in the winter of 1863-64 
g-ave presage of success from the start, for his 
eminent abilities had already been proved, and be- 
sides, he was a tower of strength to the Govern- 
ment, because he had the confidence of the people. 
T^hey knew that henceforth systematic direction 
"would be given to our armies in every section of 
the vast territory over which active operations 
^vere being prosecuted, and further, that this co- 
lierence, this harmony of plan, was the one thing 
:iieeded to end the war, for in the three preceding 
;years there had been illustrated most lamentable 
^flfects of the absence of system. From the mo- 
ment he set our armies in motion simultaneously, in 
the spring of 1864, it could be seen that we should 
be victorious ultimately, for though on different 
lines we were checked now and then, yet we were 
harassing the Confederacy at so many vital points 
that plainly it must yield to our blows. Against 
Lee's army, the forefront of the Confederacy, 
Grant pitted himself ; and it may be said that the 
Confederate commander was now, for the first 
time, overmatched, for against all his devices — the 
products of a mind fertile in defense — General 
Grant brought to bear not only the wealth of ex- 
pedient which had hitherto distinguished him, but 
also an imperturbable tenacity, particularly in the 
Wilderness and on the march to the James, with- 


out which the almost insurmountable obstacles of 
that campaign could not have been overcome. 
During it and in the siege of Petersburg he met 
with many disappointments — on several occasions 
the shortcomings of generals, when at the point of 
success, leading to wretched failures. But so far 
as he was concerned, the only apparent effect of 
these discomfitures was to make him all the more 
determined to discharge successfully the stupen- 
dous trust committed to his care, and to bring into 
play the manifold resources of his well - ordered 
military mind. He guided every subordinate then, 
and in the last days of the rebellion, with a fund 
of common sense and superiority of intellect, which 
have left an impress so distinct as to exhibit his 
great personality. When his military history is 
analyzed after the lapse of years, it will show, even 
more clearly than now, that during these as well 
as in his previous campaigns he was the steadfast 
centre about and on which everything else turned. 









" I "HE surrender at Appomattox put a stop to all 
military operations on the part of General 
Grant's forces, and the morning of April lo my 
cavalry began its march to Petersburg, the men 
anticipating that they would soon be mustered 
out and returned to their homes. At Nottoway 
Court House I heard of the assassination of the 
President. The first news came to us the night 
after the dastardly deed, the telegraph operator 
having taken it from the wires while in transmis- 
sion to General Meade. The despatch ran that 
Mr. Lincoln had been shot at lo o'clock that 
morning at Willard's Hotel, but as I could con- 
ceive of nothing to take the President there I set 

the story down as a canard, and went to bed with- 



out giving it further thought. Next morning, 
however, an official telegram confirmed the fact 
of the assassination, though eliminating the dis- 
torted circumstances that had been communicated 
the night before. 

When we reached Petersburg my column was 
halted, and instructions given me to march the 
cavalry and the Sixth Corps to Greensboro', North 
Carolina, for the purpose of aiding General Sher- 
man (the surrender of General Johnston having 
not yet been eflFected), so I made the necessary 
preparations and moved on the 24th of April, 
arriving at South Boston, on the Dan River, the 
28th, the Sixth Corps having reached Danville 
meanwhile. At South Boston I received a des- 
patch from General Halleck, who immediately 
after Lee's surrender had been assigned to com- 
mand at Richmond, informing me that General 
Johnston had been brought to terms. The neces- 
sity for going farther south being thus obviated 
we retraced our steps to Petersburg, from which 
place I proceeded by steamer to Washington, leav- 
ing the cavalry to be marched thither by easy 

The day after my arrival in Washington an im- 
portant order was sent me, accompanied by the 
following letter of instructions, transferring me 
to a new field of operations ; 


" Headquarters Armies of the United States. 
"Washington, D. C, May 17, 1865. 

** General : Under the orders relieving you from the com- 
mand of the Middle Military Division and assigning you to 
command west of the Mississippi, you will proceed without delay 
to the West to arrange all preliminaries for your new field of 

" Your duty is to restore Texas, and that part of Louisiana 
held by the enemy, to the Union in the shortest practicable time, 
in a way most effectual for securing permanent peace. 

** To do this, you will be given all the troops that can be sjxired 
by Major-General Canby, probably twenty- five thousand men of 
all arms ; the troops with Major-General J. J. Reynolds, in Ar- 
kansas, say twelve thousand, Reynolds to command ; the Fourth 
Army Corps, now at Nashville, Tennessee, awaiting orders ; and 
the Twenty-Fifth Army Corps, now at City Point, Virginia, ready 
to embark. 

" I do not wish to trammel you with instructions ; I will state, 
however, that if Smith holds out, without even an ostensible gov- 
ernment to receive orders from or to report to, he and his men 
are not entitled to the considerations due to an acknowledged 
belligerent. Theirs are the conditions of outlaws, making war 
against the only Government having an existence over the terri- 
tory where war is now being waged. 

"You may notify the rebel commander west of the Missis- 
sippi — holding intercourse with him in person, or through such 
officers of the rank of major-general as you may select — that 
he will be allowed to surrender all his forces on the same terms 
as were accorded to Lee and Johnston. If he accedes, proceed 
to garrison the Red River as high up as Shreveport, the sea- 
board at Galveston, Malagorda Bay, Corpus Christi, and mouth 
of the Rio Grande. 

** Place a strong force on the Rio Grande, holding it at least 
to a point opposite Camargo, and above that if supplies can be 

"In case of an active campaign (a hostile one) I think a heavy 
force should be put on the Rio Grande as a first preliminary. 
Troops for this might be started at oncv. The Twenty-Fifth 


Corps is now available, and to it should be added a force of white 
troops, say those now under Major- General Steele. 

*' To be clear on this last point, I t|iink the Rio Grande should 
be strongly held, whether the forces in Texas surrender or not, 
and that no time should be lost in getting troops there. If war 
is to be made, they will be in the right place; if Kirby Smith sur- 
renders, they will be on the line which is to be strongly garrisoned. 

" Should any force be necessary other than those designated, 

they can be had by calling for them on Army Headquarters. 

** U. S. Grant, 

" Lieutenant-General. 
•*To Major-General P. H. Sheridan, 

'* United States Army." 

On receipt of these instructions I called at once 
on General Grant, to see if they were to be consid- 
ered so pressing as to preclude my remaining in 
Washington till after the Grand Review, which 
was fixed for the 23d and 24th of May, for natu- 
rally I had a strong desire to head my command 
on that great occasion. But the General told me 
that it was absolutely necessary to go at once to 
force the surrender of the Confederates under 
Kirby Smith. He also told me that the States 
lately in rebellion would be embraced in two 
or three military departments, the commanders 
of which would control civil affairs until Con- 
gress took action about restoring them to the 
Union, since that course would not only be eco- 
nomical and simple, but would give the Southern 
people confidence, and encourage them to go to 
work, instead of distracting them with politics. 

Vol. n.— 14. 


At this same interview he informed me that 
there was an additional motive in sending me to 
the new command, a motive not explained by the 
instructions themselves, and went on to say that, 
as a matter of fact, he looked upon the invasion 
of Mexico by Maximilian as a part of the rebellion 
itself, because of the encouragement that invasion 
had received from the Confederacy, and that our 
success in putting down secession would never be 
complete till the French and Austrian invaders 
were compelled to quit the territory of our sister 
republic. With regard to this matter, though, he 
said it would be necessary for me to act with g^eat 
circumspection, since the Secretary of State, Mr. 
Seward, was much opposed to the use of our 
troops along the border in any active way that 
would be likely to involve us in a war with Euro- 
pean powers. 

Under the circumstances, my disappointment at 
not being permitted to participate in the review 
had to be submitted to, and I left Washington 
without an opportunity of seeing again in a body 
the men who, while under my command, had gone 
through so many trials and unremittingly pursued 
and assailed the enemy, from the beginning of the 
campaign of 1864 till the white flag came into 
their hands at Appomattox Court House. 

I went first to St. Louis, and there took the 


steamboat for New Orleans, and when near the 
mouth of the Red River received word from Gen- 
eral Canby that Kirby Smith had surrendered un- 
der terms similar to those accorded Lee and John- 
ston. But the surrender was not carried out in 
good faith, particularly by the Texas troops, though 
this I did not learn till some little time afterward, 
when I was informed that they had marched oflF 
to the interior of the State in several organized 
bodies, carrying with them their camp equipage, 
arms, ammunition, and evei. some artillery, with 
the ultimate purpose of going to Mexico. In con- 
sequence of this, and also because of the desire of 
the Government to make a strong showing of force 
in Texas, I decided to traverse the State with two 
columns of cavalry, directing one to San Antonio 
under Merritt, the other to Houston under Custer. 
Both commands were to start from the Red 
River — Shreveport and Alexandria being the re- 
spective initial points — and in organizing the 
columns, to the mounted force already on the Red 
River were added several regiments of cavalry 
from the east bank of the Mississippi, and in a 
singular way one of these fell upon the trail of my 
old antagonist. General Early. While crossing 
the river somewhere below Vicksburg some of the 
men noticed a suspicious looking party being fer- 
ried over in a rowboat, behind which two horses 


were swimming in tow. Chase was given, and 
the horses, being abandoned by the party, fell into 
the hands of our troopers, who, however, failed to 
capture or identify the people in the boat. As 
subsequently ascertained, the men were compan- 
ions of Early, who was already across the Missis- 
sippi, hidden in the woods, on his way with two 
or three of these followers to join the Confederates 
in Texas, not having heard of Kirby Smith's sur- 
render. A week or two later I received a letter 
from Early describing the affair, and the capture 
of the horses, for which he claimed pay, on the 
ground that they were private property, because 
he had taken them in battle. The letter also said 
that any further pursuit of Early would be useless, 
as he " expected to be on the deep blue sea " by 
the time his communication reached me. The un- 
fortunate man was fleeing from imaginary dan- 
gers, however, for striking his trail was purely ac- 
cidental, and no eff*ort whatever was being made 
to arrest him personally. Had this been specially 
desired it might have been accomplished very 
readily just after Lee's surrender, for it was an 
open secret that Early was then not far away, 
pretty badly disabled with rheumatism. 

By the time the two columns were ready to set 
out for San Antonio and Houston, General Frank 
Herron, with one division of the Thirteenth Corps, 



occupied Galveston, and another division under 
General Fred Steele had gone to Brazos Santiago, 
to hold Brownsville and the line of the Rio Grande, 
the object being to prevent, as far as possible, the 
escaping Confederates from joining Maximilian. 
With this purpose in view, and not forgetting 
Grant s conviction that the French invasion of 
Mexico was linked with the rebellion, I asked for 
an increase of force to send troops into Texas — in 
fact, to concentrate at available points in the State 
an army strong enough to move against the in- 
vaders of Mexico if occasion demanded. The 
Fourth and Twenty-fifth army corps being or- 
dered to report to me accordingly, I sent the 
Fourth Corps to Victoria and San Antonio, and 
the bulk of the Twenty-fifth to Brownsville. Then 
came the feeding and caring for all these troops 
— a difficult matter — for those at Victoria and San 
Antonio had to be provisioned overland from 
Indianola across the " hog-wallow prairie," while 
the supplies for the forces at Brownsville and 
along the Rio Grande must come by way of 
Brazos Santiago, from which point I was obliged 
to construct, with the labor of the men, a railroad 
to Clarksville, a distance of about eighteen miles. 
The latter part of June I repaired to Browns- 
ville myself to impress the Imperialists, as much 
as possible, with the idea that we intended hos- 


tilities, and took along my chief of scouts — Major 
Young — and four of his most trusty men, whom I 
had had sent from Washington. From Brownsville 
I despatched all these men to important points in 
northern Mexico, to glean information regarding 
the movements of the Imperial forces, and also 
to gather intelligence about the ex-Confederates 

who had crossed the Rio Grande. On informa- 
tion furnished by these scouts, I caused General 
Steele to make demonstrations all along the lower 
Rio Grande, and at the same time demanded the 
return of certain munitions of war that had been 
turned over by ex-Confederates to the Imperial 
General (Mejia) commanding at Matamoras. 
These demands, backed up as they were by such 
a formidable show of force, created much agita- 
tion and demoralization among the Imperial 
troops, and measures looking to the abandon- 
ment of northern Mexico were forthwith adopt- 
ed by those in authority — a policy that would 
have resulted in the speedy evacuation of the en- 
tire country by Maximilian, had not our Govern- 
ment weakened ; contenting itself with a few 
pieces of the contraband artillery varnished over 
with the Imperial apologies. A golden opportu- 
nity was lost, for we had ample excuse for crossing 
the boundary, but Mr. Seward, being, as I have 
already stated, unalterably opposed to any act 



likely to involve us in war, insisted on his course 
of negotiation with Napoleon. 

As the summer wore away, Maximilian, under 
Mr. Seward's policy, gained in strength till finally 
all the accessible sections of Mexico were in his 
possession, and the Republic under President 
Juarez almost succumbed. Growing impatient at 
this, in the latter part of September I decided to 
try again what virtue there might be in a hostile 
demonstration, and selected the upper Rio Grande 
for the scene of my attempt. Merritt's cavalry 
and the Fourth Corps still being at San Antonio, 
I went to that place and reviewed these troops, 
and having prepared them with some ostentation 
for a campaign, of course it was bruited about 
that we were going to invade Mexico. Then, es- 
corted by a regiment of horse I proceeded hastily 
to Fort Duncan, on the Rio Grande just opposite 
the Mexican town of Piedras Negras. Here I 
opened communication with President Juarez, 
through one of his staflF, taking care not to do this 
in the dark, and the news, spreading like wildfire, 
the greatest significance was ascribed to my ac- 
tion, it being reported most positively and with 
many specific details that I was only awaiting the 
arrival of the troops, then under marching orders 
at San Antonio, to cross the Rio Grande in behalf 
of the Liberal cause. 


Ample corroboration of the reports then circu- 
lated was found in my inquiries regarding the 
quantity of forage we could depend upon getting 
in Mexico, our arrangements for its purchase, and 
my sending a pontoon train to Brownsville, to- 
gether with which was cited the renewed activity 
of the troops along the lower Rio Grande. These 
reports and demonstrations resulted in alarming 
the Imperialists so much that they withdrew the 
French and Austrian soldiers from Matamoras, 
and practically abandoned the whole of northern 
Mexico as far down as Monterey, with the excep- 
tion of Matamoras, where General Mejia contin- 
ued to hang on with a garrison of renegade Mexi- 

The abandonment of so much territory in north- 
ern Mexico encouraged General Escobedo and 
other Liberal leaders to such a degree that they 
collected a considerable army of their followers 
at Comargo, Mier, and other points. At the same 
time that unknown quantity, Cortinas, suspend- 
ed his f reebooting for the nonce, and stoutly harass- 
ing Matamoras, succeeded in keeping its Imperial 
garrison within the fortifications. Thus counte- 
nanced and stimulated, and largely supplied with 
arms and ammunition, which we left at convenient 
places on our side of the river to fall into their 
hands, the Liberals, under General Escobedo — a 


man of much force of character — were enabled in 
northern Mexico to place the affairs of the Repub- 
lic on a substantial basis. 

But in the midst of what bade fair to cause a 
final withdrawal of the foreigners, we were again 
checked by our Government, as a result of repre- 
sentations of the French Minister at Washington. 
In October, he wrote to Mr. Seward that the 
United States troops on the Rio Grande were act- 
ing ** in exact opposition to the repeated assurances 
Your Excellency has given me concerning the de- 
sire of the Cabinet at Washington to preserve the 
most strict neutrality in the events now taking 
place in Mexico," and followed this statement 
with an emphatic protest against our course. 
Without any investigation whatever by our State 
Department, this letter of the French Minister was 
transmitted to me, accompanied by directions to 
preserve a strict neutrality ; so, of course, we 
were again debarred from anything like active 

After this, it required the patience of Job to 
abide the slow and poky methods of our State 
Department, and, in truth, it was often very diffi- 
cult to restrain officers and men from crossing the 
Rio Grande with hostile purpose. Within the 
knowledge of my troops, there had gone on for- 
merly the transfer of organized bodies of ex-Con- 


federates to Mexico, in aid of the Imperialists, and 
at this period it was known that there was in prep- 
aration an immigration scheme having in view the 
colonizing, at Cordova and one or two other 
places, of all the discontented elements of the 
defunct Confederacy — Generals Price, Magruder, 
Maury, and other high personages being promot 
ers of the enterprise, which Maximilian took to 
readily. He saw in it the possibilities of a staunch 
support to his throne, and therefore not only sanc- 
tioned the project, but encouraged it with large 
grants of land, inspirited the promoters with titles 
of nobility, and, in addition, instituted a system 
of peonage, expecting that the silver hook thus 
baited would be largely swallowed by the South- 
ern people. 

The announcement of the scheme was followed 
by the appointment of commissioners in each of 
the Southern States to send out emigrants ; but 
before any were deluded into starting, I made to 
General Grant a report of what was going on, 
with the recommendation that measures be taken, 
through our State Department, looking to the sup- 
pression of the colony ; but, as usual, nothing 
could be effected through that channel ; so, as an 
alternative, I published, in April, 1866, by author- 
ity of General Grant, an order prohibiting the 
embarkation from ports in Louisiana and Texas, 


for ports in Mexico, of any person without a per- 
mit from my headquarters. This dampened the 
ardor of everybody in the Gulf States who had 
planned to go to Mexico ; and although the pro- 
jectors of the Cordova Colonization Scheme — the 
name by which it was known — secured a few in- 
nocents from other districts, yet this set-back led 
ultimately to failure. 

Among the Liberal leaders along the Rio Grande 
during this period there sprang up many factional 
differences from various causes, some personal, 
others political, and some, I regret to say, from 
downright moral obliquity — as, for example, those 
between Cortinas and Canales — who, though gen- 
erally hostile to the Imperialists, were freebooters 
enough to take a shy at each other frequently, 
and now and then even to join forces against 
Escobedo, unless we prevented them by coaxing 
or threats. A general who could unite these sev- 
eral factions was therefore greatly needed, and 
on my return to New Orleans I so telegraphed 
General Grant, and he, thinking General Carava- 
jal (then in Washington seeking aid for the Re- 
public) would answer the purpose, persuaded him 
to report to me in New Orleans. Caravajal 
promptly appeared, but he did not impress me 
very favorably. He was old and cranky, yet, as 
he seemed anxious to do his best, I sent him over 


to Brownsville, with credentials, authorizing him 
to cross into Mexico, and followed him myself 
by the next boat. When I arrived in Brownsville, 
matters in Matamoras had already reached a 
crisis. General Mejia, feeling keenly the moral 
support we were giving the Liberals, and hard 
pressed by the harassing attacks of Cortinas and 
Canales, had abandoned the place, and Caravajal, 
because of his credentials from our side, was in 
command, much to the dissatisfaction of both 
those chiefs whose diflferences it was intended he 
should reconcile. 

The day after I got to Brownsville I visited 
Matamoras, and had a long interview with Carava- 
jal. The outcome of this meeting was, on my 
part, a stronger conviction than ever that he was 
unsuitable, and I feared that either Canales or Cor- 
tinas would get possession of the city. Caravajal 
made too many professions of what he would do 
— in short, bragged too much — but as there was no 
help for the situation, I made the best of it by try- 
ing to smooth down the ruffled feathers of Canales 
and Cortinas. In my interview with Caravajal I 
recommended Major Young as a confidential man, 
whom he could rely upon as a ** go-between " for 
communicating with our people at Brownsville, 
and whom he could trust to keep him informed of 
the affairs of his own country as well. 


A day or two afterward I recrossed the Gulf to 
New Orleans, and then, being called from my 
headquarters to the interior of Texas, a fortnight 
passed before I heard anything from Brownsville. 
In the meanwhile Major Young had come to New 
Orleans, and organized there a band of men to 
act as a body-guard for Caravajal, the old wretch 
having induced him to accept the proposition by 
representing that it had my concurrence. I at 
once condemned the whole business, but Young, 
having been furnished with seven thousand dollars 
to recruit the men and buy their arms, had already 
secured both, and was so deeply involved in the 
transaction, he said, that he could not withdraw- 
without dishonor, and with tears in his eyes he be- 
sought me to help him. He told me he had enter- 
ed upon the adventure in the firm belief that I 
would countenance it ; that the men and their 
equipment were on his hands ; that he must make 
good his word at all hazards; and that while I need 
not approve, yet I must go far enough to consent 
to the departure of the men, and to loan him the 
money necessary to provision his party and hire a 
schooner to carry them to Brazos. It was hard in- 
deed to resist the appeals of this man. who had 
served me so long and so well, and the result of 
his pleading was that I gave him permission to 
sail, and also loaned him the sum asked for ; but 


I have never ceased to regret my consent, for mis- 
fortune fell upon the enterprise almost from its 

By the time the party got across the Gulf and 
over to Brownsville, Caravajal had been deposed 
by Canales, and the latter, would not accept their 
services. This left Young with about fifty men to 
whom he was accountable, and as he had no money 
to procure them subsistence, they were in a bad 
fix. The only thing left to do was to tender their 
services to General Escobedo, and with this in 
view the party set out to reach the General's 
camp, marching up the Rio Grande on the Ameri- 
can side, intending to cross near Ringgold Bar- 
racks. In advance of them, however, had spread 
far and wide the tidings of who they were, what 
they proposed to do, and where they were going, 
and before they could cross into Mexico they were 
attacked by a party of ex-Confederates and rene- 
gade Mexican rancheros. Being on American 
soil, Young forbade his men to return the fire, and 
bent all his eCForts to getting them over the river; 
but in this attempt they were broken up, and be- 
came completely demoralized. A number of the 
men were drowned while swimming the river. 
Young himself was shot and killed, a few were 
captured, and those who escaped — about twenty 
in all — finally joined Escobedo, but in such a 


plight as to be of little use. With this distressing 
affair came to an end pretty much all open partici- 
pation of American sympathizers with the Liberal 
cause, but the moral support afforded by the pres- 
ence of our forces continued, and this was fre- 
quently supplemented with material aid in the 
shape of munitions of war, which we liberally sup- 
plied, though constrained to do so by the most 
secret methods. 

The term of office of Juarez as President of the 
Mexican Republic expired in December, 1865, but 
to meet existing exigencies he had continued him- 
self in office by proclamation, a course rendered 
necessary by the fact that no elections could be 
held on account of the Imperial occupation of 
most of the country. The official who, by the 
Mexican Constitution, is designated for the suc- 
cession in such an emergency, is the President of 
the Supreme Court, and the person then eligible 
under this provision was General Ortega, but in 
the interest of the Imperialists he had absented 
himself from Mexico, hence the patriotic course 
of Juarez in continuing himself at the head of 
affairs was a necessity of the situation. This 
action of the President gave the Imperialists little 
concern at first, but with the revival of the Liberal 
cause they availed themselves of every means to 
divide its supporters, and Ortega, who had been 


lying low in the United States, now came forward 
to claim the Presidency. Though ridiculously 
late for such a step, his first act was to issue a 
manifesto protesting against the assumption of 
the executive authority by Juarez. The protest 
had little eCFect, however, and his next proceeding 
was to come to New Orleans, get into correspond- 
ence with other disaffected Mexicans, and thus 
perfect his plans. When he thought his intrigue 
ripe enough for action, he sailed for Brazos, in- 
tending to cross the Rio Grande and assert his 
claims with arms. While he was scheming in 
New Orleans, however, I had learned what he 
was up to, and in advance of his departure had 
sent instructions to have him arrested on Ameri- 
can soil. Colonel Sedgwick, commanding at 
Brownsville, was now temporary master of Mata- 
moras also, by reason of having stationed some 
American troops there for the protection of neu- 
tral merchants, so when Ortega appeared at Brazos, 
Sedgwick quietly arrested him and held him till 
the city of Matamoras was turned over to General 
Escobcdo, the authorized representative of Juarez ; 
then Escobedo took charge of Ortega, and with 
ease prevented his further machinations. 

During the winter and spring of 1866 we con- 
tinued covertly supplying arms and ammunition 
to the Liberals — sending as many as 30,000 mus- 

^ ^^j^H^-fxff^ 


kets from Baton Rouge Arsenal alone — and by 
mid-summer Juarez, having organized a pretty 
good sized army, was in possession of the whole 
line of the Rio Grande, and, in fact, of nearly the 
whole of Mexico down to San Louis Potosi. Then 
thick and fast came rumors pointing to the totter- 
ing condition of Maximilian's Empire — first, that 
Orizaba and Vera Cruz were being fortified ; then, 
that the French were to be withdrawn ; and later 
came the intelligence that the Empress Carlotta 
had gone home to beg assistance from Napoleon, 
the author of all of her husband's troubles. But 
the situation forced Napoleon to turn a deaf ear 
to Carlotta's prayers. The broken-hearted woman 
besought him on her knees, but his fear of losing 
an army made all pleadings vain. In fact, as I 
ascertained by the following cablegram which 
came into my hands, Napoleon's instructions for 
the French evacuation were in Mexico at the 
very time of this pathetic scene between him and 
Carlotta. The despatch was in cipher when I re- 
ceived it, but was translated by the telegraph 
operator at my headquarters, who long before 
had mastered the key of the French cipher : 

*' Paris, January lo, 1867. 
** French Consul, New Orleans, La. 

** To General Castelnau, at Mexico. 
** Received your despatch of the 9th December. Do not com- 
pel the Emperor to abdicate, but do not delay the departure of 



the troops ; bring back all those who will not remain there. Most 
of the fleet has left. 

** Napoleon." 

This meant the immediate withdrawal of the 
French. The rest of the story — which has neces- 
sarily been but an outline — is soon told. Maximil- 
ian, though deserted, determined to hold out to 
the last, and with the aid of disloyal Mexicans 
stuck to his cause till the spring. When taken 
prisoner at Queretaro, he was tried and executed 
under circumstances that are well known. From 
promptings of humanity Secretary Seward tried 
hard to save the Imperial prisoner, but without 
success. The Secretary's plea for mercy was sent 
through me at New Orleans, and to make speed 
I hired a steamer to proceed with it across the 
Gulf to Tampico. The document was carried by 
Sergeant White, one of my scouts, who crossed 
the country from Tampico, and delivered it to 
Escobedo at Queretaro ; but Mr. Seward's repre- 
sentations were without avail — refused probably 
because little mercy had been shown certain Lib- 
eral leaders unfortunate enough to fall into Max- 
imilian's hands during the prosperous days of his 

At the close of our war there was little hope for 
the Republic of Mexico. Indeed, till our troops 
were concentrated on the Rio Grande there was 


none. Our appearance in such force along the ] 
border permitted the Liberal leaders, refugees 
from their homes, to establish rendezvous whence 
they could promulgate their plans in safety, while 
the countenance thus given the cause, when hope 
was wellnigh gone, incited the Mexican people 
to renewed resistance. Beginning again with very 
scant means, for they had lost about all, the Liber- 
als saw their cause, under the influence of such 
signiflcant and powerful backing, progress and 
steadily grow so strong that within two years 
Imperialism had received its death-blow. I doubt 
very much whether such results could have been 
achieved without the presence of an American 
army on the Rio Grande, which, be it remember- 
ed, was sent there because, in General Grant's 
words, the French invasion of Mexico was so 
closely related to the rebellion as to be essentially 
a part of it. 










A LTHOUGH in 1865-66 much of my attention 
was directed to international matters along 
the Rio Grande, the civil affairs of Texas and 
Louisiana required a certain amount of military 
supervision also in the absence of regularly es- 
tablished civil authority. At the time of Kirby 
Smith's surrender the National Government had 
formulated no plan with regard to these or the 
other States lately in rebellion, though a provis- 
ional Government had been set up in Louisiana as 
early as 1864. In consequence of this lack of sys- 
tem, Governor Pendleton Murray, of Texas, who 

was elected under Confederate rule, continued to 




discharge the duties of Governor till President 
Johnson, on June 1 7, in harmony with his amnesty 
proclamation of May 29. 1865, appointed A. J. 
Hamilton provisional Governor. Hamilton was 
empowered by the President to call a Constitu- 
tional convention, the delegates to which were to 
be elected, under certain prescribed qualifications, 
for the purpose of organizing the political affairs 
of the State, the Governor to be guided by in- 
structions similar to those given the provisional 
Governor of North Carolina (W. W. Hoiden). 
when appointed in May. 

The convening of this body gave rise (o much 
dissatisfaction among the people of Texas. They 
had assumed that affairs were to go on as of old, 
and that the reintegration of the State was to take 
place under the administration of Governor Mur- 
ray, who, meanwhile, had taken it upon himself, 
together with the Legislature, to authorize the 
election of delegates to a State Convention, with- 
out restriction as to who should be entitled to 
vote. Thus encouraged, the element but lately in 
armed rebellion was now fully bent on restoring 
the State to the Union without any intervention 
whatever of the Federal Government; but the 
advent of Hamilton put an end to such illusions, 
since his proclamation promptly disfranchised the 
■element in question, whose consequent disappoint- 



ment and chagrin were so great as to render this 
factor of the community almost uncontrollable. 
The provisional Governor at once rescinded the 
edict of Governor Murray, prohibited the assem- 
bling of his convention, and shortly after called 
one himself, the delegates to which were to be 
chosen by voters who could take the amnesty 
oath. The proclamation convening this assem- 
blage also announced the policy that would be pur- 
-sued in governing the State until its affairs were 
satisfactorily reorganized, defined in brief the 
course to be followed by the Judiciary, and pro- 
vided for the appointment, by the Governor, of 
county officials to succeed those known to be 
disloyal. As this action of Hamilton's disfran- 
chised all who could not take the amnesty oath, 
and of course deprived them of the offices, it met 
at once with pronounced and serious opposition, 
and he quickly realized that he had on his hands 
an arduous task to protect the colored people, 
particularly as in the transition state of society 
just after the close of the war there prevailed 
much lawlessness, which vented itself chiefly on 
the freedmen. It was greatly feared that politi- 
cal rights were to be given those so recently in 
servitude, and as it was generally believed that 
such enfranchisement would precipitate a race war 
unless the freedmen were overawed and kept in a 



State of subjection, acts of intimidaiion were soon 
reported from all parts of the State. 

Hamilton, an able, determined, and fearless 
man, tried hard to curb this terrorism, but pub- 
lic opinion being strong against him, he could 
accomplish little without military aid. As depart- 
ment commander, I was required, whenever call- 
ed upon, to assist his government, and as these 
requisitions for help became necessarily very 
frequent, the result was that shortly after he 
assumed his duties, detachments of troops were 
stationed in nearly every county of the State. By 
such disposition of my forces fairly good order 
was maintained under the administration of Ham- 
ilton, and all went well till the inauguration of 
J. \V. Throckmorton, who. elected Governor in 
pursuance of an authorization granted by the 
convention which Hamilton had called together, 
assumed the duties of the office August 9, 1866. 

One of Governor Throckmorton's first acts was 
to ask the withdrawal or non-interference of the 
military. This was not all granted, but under his 
ingenious persuasion President Johnson, on the 
13th of August, 1866, directed that the new State 
officials be entrusted with the unhampered con- 
trol of civil affairs, and this was more than 
enough to revive the bulldozing methods that 
had characterized the beginning of Hamilton's 


administration. Oppressive legislation in the 
shape of certain apprentice and vagrant laws 
quickly followed, developing a policy of gross 
injustice toward the colored people on the part 
of the courts, and a reign of lawlessness and dis- 
order ensued which, throughout the remote dis- 
tricts of the State at least, continued till Con- 
gress, by what are known as the Reconstruction 
Acts, took into its own hands the rehabilitation of 
the seceded States. 

In the State of Louisiana a provisional gov- 
ernment, chosen by the loyal element, had been 
put in operation, as already mentioned, as early 
as 1864. This was effected under encouragement 
given by President Lincoln, through the medium 
of a Constitutional convention, which met at 
New Orleans in April, 1864, and adjourned in 
July. The constitution then agreed upon was 
submitted to the people, and in September, 1864, 
was ratified by a vote of the few loyal residents 
of the State. 

The government provided under this constitu- 
tion being looked upon as provisional merely, was 
never recognized by Congress, and in 1865 the 
returned Confederates, restored to citizenship by 
the President's amnesty proclamation, soon got 
control of almost all the State. The Legislature 
was in their hands, as well as most of the State 


and municipal offices; so, when the President, on 
the 20th of August, 1866, by proclamation, ex- 
tended his previous instructions regarding civil 
affairs in Texas so as to have them apply to all 
the seceded States, there at once began in Louis- 
iana a system of discriminative legislation directed 
against the freedmen, that led to flagrant wrongs 
in the enforcement of labor contracts, and in the 
remote parishes to numbers of outrages and mur- 

To remedy this deplorable condition of things, 
it was proposed, by those who had established 
the government of 1864, to remodel the constitu- 
tion of the State; and they sought to do this by 
reassembling the convention, that body before 
its adjournment having provided for reconvening 
under certain conditions, in obedience to the call 
of its president. Therefore, early in the summer 
of 1866, many members of this convention met in 
conference at New Orleans, and decided that a 
necessity existed for reconvening the delegates, 
and a proclamation was issued accordingly by 
B. K. Howell, President /;'d7 tempore. 

Mayor John T. Monroe and the other officials 
of New Orleans looked upon this proposed action 
as revolutionary, and by the time the convention 
assembled (July 30), such bitterness of feeling 
prevailed that efforts were made by the mayor 



and city police to suppress the meeting. A bloody 
riot followed, resulting in the killing and wound- 
ing of about a hundred and sixty persons. 

I happened to be absent from the city at the 
time, returning from Texas, where I had been 
called by affairs on the Rio Grande- On my way 
up from the mouth of the Mississippi I was met 
on the night of July 30 by one of my staff, who 
reported what had occurred, giving the details of 
the massacre — no milder term is fitting — and in- 
forming me that, to prevent further slaughter. 
General Baird, the senior military officer present, 
had assumed control of the municipal govern- 
ment. On reaching the city I made an investiga- 
tion, and that night sent the following report of 
the affair : 

" Headquarters Military Division of the Gulf, 
"New Orleans, La., Aug. i, 1866. 

*• General U. S. Grant : 

" You are doubtless aware of the serious riot which occurred 
in this city on the 30th. A political body, styling themselves the 
Convention of 1864, met on the 30th, for, as it is alleged, the 
purpose of remodeling the present constitution of the State. 
The leaders were political agitators and revolutionary men, and 
the action of the convention was liable to produce breaches oT 
the public peace. I had made up my mind to arrest the head 
men, if the proceedings of the convention were calculated to dis- 
turb the tranquility of the Department ; but I had no cause for 
action until they committed the overt act. In the meantime 
official duty called me to Texas, and the mayor of the city, dur- 
ing my absence, suppressed the convention by the use of the 


police force, and in so doing attacked the members of the con- 
vention, and a party of two hundred negroes, with fire-arms, clubs, 
and knives, in a manner so unnecessary and atrocious as to com- 
pel me to say that it was murder. About forty whites and blacks 
were thus killed, and about one hundred and sixty wounded. 
Everything is now quiet, but I deem it best to maintam a mili- 
tary supremacy in the city for a few days, until the aifair is fully 
investigated. I believe the sentiment of the general community 
is great regret at this unnecessary cruelty, and that the police 
could have made any arrest ihey saw fit without sacrificing lives. 
"P. H. Sheridan, 

" Major-General Commanding." 

On receiving the telegram. General Grant im- 
mediately submitted it to the President. Much 
clamor being made at the North for the publica- 
tion of the despatch, Mr. Johnson pretended to 
give it to the newspapers. It appeared in the 
issues of August 4, but with this paragraph omit- 
ted, viz. : , 

" I had made up my mind to arrest the head men, if the pro- 
ceedings of the convention were calculated to disturb the tran- 
quility of the Department, but I had no cause for action until 
they committed the overt act. In the mean time official duty 
called me to Texas, and the mayor of the city, during my at)sence, 
suppressed the convention by the use of the police force, and in 
so doing attacked the members of the convention, and a party 
0/ two hundred negroes, with fire-arms, clubs, and knives, in a 
manner so unnecessary and atrocious as to compel me to say it 
was murder." 

Against this garbling of my report — done by 
the President's own order — I strongly demurred; 
and this emphatic protest marks the beginning of 


Mr. Johnson's well-known personal hostility tow- 
ard me. In the mean time I received (on Au- 
gust 3) the following despatch from General Grant 
approving my course : 

" Headquarters Armies of the United States, 
" War Dept., Washington, D. C, 
"August 3, 1866 — 5 p. M. 

" Major-General p. H. Sheridan, 

" Commanding Mil. Div. of the Gulf, 

** New Orleans, La. : 
** Continue to enforce martial law, so far as may be necessary 
to preserve the peace ; and do not allow any of the civil author- 
ities to act, if you deem such action dangerous to the public 
safety. Lose no time in investigating and reporting the causes 
that led to the riot, and the facts which occurred. 

"U. S. Grant, 

** Lieutenant-General." 

In obedience to the President's directions, my 
report of August i was followed by another, 
more in detail, which I give in full, since it tells 
the whole story of the riot : 

** Headquarters Military Division of the Gulf, 
" New Orleans, La., August 6, 1866. 

'* His Excellency Andrew Johnson, 

" President United States : 
** I have the honor to make the following reply to your des- 
patch of August 4. A very large number of colored people 
marched in procession on Friday night, July twenty-seven (27), 
and were addressed from the steps of the City Hall by Dr. Dos- 
tie, ex-Governor Hahn, and others. The speech of Dostie was 
intemperate in language and sentiment. The speeches of the 
others, so far as I can learn, were characterized by moderation. 



I have not given you the words of Dostie's speech, as the veraoa 
published was denied ; but from what I have learned of the man, 
I believe they were intemperate. 

''The convention assembled at twelve (la) m. on the thirtieth 
(30), the timid members absenting themselves because the tone 
of the general public was ominous of trouble. I think there were 
about twenty-six (26) members present In front of the Mechan- 
ics Institute, where the meeting was held, there were assembled 
some colored men, women, and children, perhaps eighteen (18) or 
twenty (ao), and in the Institute a number of colored men, prob- 
ably one hundred and fifty (150). Among those outside and in* 
side there might have been a pistol in the possession of every 
tenth (10) man. 

'' About one (i) p. m. a procession of say from sixty (60) to 
one hundred and thirty (130) colored men marched up Burgundy 
Street and across Canal Street toward the convention, carrying 
an American flag. These men had about one pistol to every 
ten men, and canes and clubs in addition. While crossing Canal 
Street a row occurreci. There were many spectators on the street, 
and their manner and tone toward the procession unfriendly. 
A shot was fired, by whom I am not able to state, but believe it 
to have been by a policeman, or some colored man in the proces- 
sion. This led to other shots and a rush after the procession. 
On arrival at the front of the Institute there was some throwing 
of brickbats by both sides. The police, who had been held well 
in hand, were vigorously marched to the scene of disorder. The 
procession entered the Institute with the flag, about six (6) or 
eight (8) remaining outside. A row occurred between a police- 
man and one of these colored men, and a shot was again fired by 
one of the parties, which led to an indiscriminate fire on the build- 
ing through the windows by the policemen. This had been going 
on for a short time, when a white flag was displayed from the 
windows of the Institute, whereupon the firing ceased, and the 
police rushed into the building. 

** From the testimony of wounded men, and others who were 
inside the building, the policemen opened an indiscriminate fire 
upon the audience until they had emptied their revolvers, when 
they retired, and those inside barricaded the doors. The door 



was broken in, and the firing again commenced, when many of 
the colored and white people either escaped throughout the door 
or were passed out by the policemen inside ; but as they came 
out the policemen who formed the circle nearest the building 
fired upon them, and they were again fired upon by the citizens 
that formed the outer circle. Many of those wounded and taken 
prisoners, and others who were prisoners and not wounded, were 
fired upon by their captors and by citizens. The wounded were 
stabbed while lying on the ground, and their heads beaten with 
brickbats. In the yard of the building, whither some of the 
colored men had escaped and partially secreted themselves, they 
were fired upon and killed or wounded by policemen. Some 
were killed and wounded several squares from the scene. Mem- 
bers of the convention were wounded by the police while in their 
hands as prisoners — some of them mortally. 

" The immediate cause of this terrible affair was the assemblage 
of this Convention ; the remote cause was the bitter and antag- 
onistic feeling which has been growing in this community since 
the advent of the present Mayor, who, in the organization of his 
police force, selected many desperate men, and some of them 
known murderers. People of clear views were overawed by want 
of confidence in the Mayor, and fear of the thugs, many of which 
he had selected for his police force. I have frequently been 
spoken to by prominent citizens on this subject, and have heard 
them express fear, and want of confidence in Mayor Monroe. 
Ever since the intimation of this last convention movement I 
must condemn the course of several of the city papers for sup)- 
porting, by their articles, the bitter feeling of bad men. As to 
the merciless manner in which the convention was broken up, I 
feel obliged to confess strong repugnance. 

** It is useless to disguise the hostility that exists on the part 
of a great many here toward Northern men, and this unfortunate 
affair has so precipitated matters that there is now a test of what 
shall be the status of Northern men — whether they can live here 
without being in constant dread or not, whether they can be pro- 
tected in life and property, and have justice in the courts If 
this matter is permitted to pass over without a thorough and de- 
termined prosecution of those engaged in it, we may look out 


i6t frequent scenes of the same kind, not only here, but in other 
places. No steps have as yet been taken by the civil authorities 
to arrest citizens who were engaged in this massacre, or police- 
men who perpetrated such cruelties. The members of the con- 
vention have been indicted by the grand jury, and many of them 
arrested and held to bail. As to whether the civil authorities 
can mete out ample justice to the guilty parties on both sides, I 
must say it is my opinion, unequivocally, that they cannot Judge 
Abell, whose course I have closely watched for nearly a year, I 
now consider one of the most dangerous men that we have here 
to the peace and quiet of the city. The leading men of the con- 
vention — King, Cutler, Hahn, and others — ^have been politica] 
agitators, and are bad men. I regret to say that the course of 
Governor Wells has been vacillating, and that during the late 
trouble he has shown very little of the man. 

" P. H. Sheridan, 

<< Major-General Commanding." 

Subsequently a military commission investigat- 
ed the subject of the riot, taking a great deal of 
testimony. The commission substantially con- 
firmed the conclusions given in my despatches, 
and still later there was an investigation by a 
select committee of the House of Representatives, 
of which the Honorables Samuel Shellabarger, of 
Ohio, H. L. Elliot, of Massachusetts, and B. M. 
Boyer, of Pennsylvania, were the members. The 
majority report of the committee also corrobo^a^ 
ted, in all essentials, my reports of the distressing 
occurrence. The committee likewise called atten- 
tion to a violent speech made by Mr. Johnson at 
St. Louis in September, 1866, charging the origin 


of the riot to Congress, and went on to say of the 
speech that " it was an unwarranted and unjust 
expression of hostile feeling, without pretext or 
foundation in fact." A list of the killed and 
wounded was embraced in the committee's report, 
and among other conclusions reached were the 
following : **That the meeting of July 30 was a 
meeting of quiet citizens, who came together with- 
out arms and with intent peaceably to discuss 
questions of public concern. . . . There has 
been no occasion during our National history 
when a riot has occurred so destitute of justifiable 
cause, resulting in a massacre so inhuman and 
fiendlike, as that which took place at New Orleans 
on the 30th of July last. This riotous attack upon 
the convention, with its terrible results of mas- 
sacre and murder, was not an accident. It was 
the determined purpose of the mayor of the city 
of New Orleans to break up this convention by 
armed force." 

The statement is also made, that ** He [the 
President] knew that * rebels ' and * thugs ' and 
disloyal men had controlled the election of Mayor 
Monroe, and that such men composed chiefly his 
police force." 

The committee held that no legal government 
existed in Louisiana, and recommended the tem- 
porary establishment of a provisional government 

Vol. II.— 16. 


therein; the report concluding that ''in the 
meantime the safety of all Union men within 
the State demands that such government be 
formed for their protection, for the well being 
of the nation and the permanent peace of the 

The New Orleans riot agitated the whole coun- 
try, and the official and other reports served to 
intensify and concentrate the opposition to Presi- 
dent Johnson's policy of reconstruction, a policy 
resting exclusively on and inspired solely by the 
executive authority — for it was made plain, by 
his language and his acts, that he was seeking to 
rehabilitate the seceded States under conditions 
differing not a whit from those existing before the 
rebellion ; that is to say, without the slightest 
constitutional provision regarding the status of 
the emancipated slaves, and with no assurances 
of protection for men who had remained loyal in 
the war. 

In December, 1866, Congress took hold of the 
subject with such vigor as to promise relief from 
all these perplexing disorders, and, after much in- 
vestigation and a great deal of debate, there 
resulted the so-called ** Reconstruction Laws," 
which, for a clear understanding of the powers 
conferred on the military commanders, I deem 
best to append in full : 


AN ACT to provide for the more efficient government of the 

rebel States. 

Whereas, no legal State governments or adequate protection 
for life or property now exist in the rebel States of Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, 
Louisiana, Florida, Texas, and Arkansas; and whereas, it is nec- 
essary that peace and good order should be enforced in said 
States until loyal and republican State governments can be legally 
established; therefore. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled^ That said rebel 
States shall be divided into military districts and made subject 
to the military authority of the United States as hereinafter pre- 
scribed; and for that purpose Virginia shall constitute the first 
district; North Carolina and South Carolina, the second district; 
Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, the third district; Mississippi 
and Arkansas, the fourth district; and Louisiana and Texas, the 
fifth district. 

Sec. 2. And be it further emuted^ That it shall be the duty of 
the President to assign to the command of each of said districts 
an officer of the army not below the rank of brigadier-general, 
and to detail a sufficient military force to enable such officer to 
perform his duties and enforce his authority within the district to 
which he is assigned. 

Sec. 3. And be it further emutedy That it shall be the duty of 
each officer assigned as aforesaid to protect all persons in their 
rights of person and property, to suppress insurrection, disorder, 
and violence, and to punish, or cause to be punished, all disturb- 
ers of the public peace and criminals, and to this end he may 
allow local civil tribunals to take jurisdiction of and to try 
offenders, or, when in his judgment it may be necessary for the 
trial of offenders, he shall have power to organize military com- 
missions or tribunals for that purpose, and all interference, under 
cover of State authority, with the exercise of military authority 
under this act, shall be null and void. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted^ That all persons put under 
military arrest by virtue of this act shall be tried without unnec- 
essary delay, and no cruel or unjust punishment shall be inflicted; 


and no sentence of any military commission or tribunal hereby 
authorized affecting the life or liberty of any person, shall be 
executed until it is approved by the officer in command of the 
district; and the laws and regulations for the government ot the 
army shall not be affected by this act, except in so tar as they 
conflict with its provisions: Provided^ That no sentence of death, 
under the provisions of this act, shall be carried into e£fect with* 
out the approval of the President. 

Sec. 5. And be it further enactedy That when the people of any 
one of said rebel States shall have formexl a constitution of gov- 
ernment in conformity with the Constitution of the United States 
in all respects, framed by a convention of delegates elected by 
the male citizens of said State twenty-one jrears old and upward, 
of whatever race, color, or previous condition, who have been 
resident in said State for one year previous to the day of such 
election, except such as may be disfranchised for participation in 
the rebellion, or for felony at common law; and when such con- 
stitution shall provide that the elective franchise shall be enjoyed 
by all such persons as have the qualifications herein stated for elect- 
ors of delegates; and when such constitution shall be ratified by 
a majority of the persons voting on the question of ratification 
who are qualified as electors for delegates, and when such con- 
stitution shall have been submitted to Congress for examination 
and approval, and Congress shall have approved the same; and 
when said State, by a vote of its legislature elected under said 
constitution, shall have adopted the amendment to the Constitu- 
tion or the United States proposed by the Thirty-ninth Congress, 
and known as article fourteen; and when said article shall have 
become a part of the Constitution of the United States, said 
State shall be declared entitled to representation in Congress, 
and senators and representatives shall be admitted therefrom on 
their taking the oath prescribed by law; and then and thereafter 
the preceding sections of this act shall be inoperative in said 
State: Provided, That no person excluded from the privilege of 
holding office by said proposed amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States shall be eligible to election as a member of 
the convention to frame a constitution for any of said rebel States, 
nor shall any such person vote for members of such convention. 


Sec. 6. And be it further enacted^ That until the people of said 
rebel States shall be by law admitted to representation in the 
Congress of the United States, any civil government which may 
exist therein shall be deemed provisional only, and in all respects 
subject to the paramount authority of the United States at any 
time to abolish, modify, control, or supersede the same; and in 
all elections to any office under such provisional governments all 
persons shall be entitled to vote, and none others, who are 
entitled to vote under the fifth section of this act; and no person 
shall be eligible to any office under any such provisional govern- 
ments who would be disqualified from holding office under the 
provisions of the third article of said constitutional amendment. 

Schuyler Colfax, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, 

Lafayette S. Foster, 
President of the Senate pro tempore. 

AN ACT supplementary to an act entitled "An act to provide 
for the more efficient government of the rebel States," passed 
March second, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, and to facil- 
itate restoration. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled^ That before the 
first day of September, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, the 
commanding general in each district defined by an act entitled 
** An act to provide for the more efficient government of the rebel 
States," passed March second, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, 
shall cause a registration to be made of the male citizens of the 
United States, twenty-one years of age and upwards, resident in 
each county or parish in the State or States included in his dis- 
trict, which registration shall include only those persons who are 
qualified to vote for delegates by the act aforesaid, and who shall 
have taken and subscribed the following oath or affirmation : 

** I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm), in the presence of the 

Almighty God, that I am a citizen of the State of ; that 

I have resided in said State for months next preceding 

this day, and now reside in the county of , or the parish 

of , in said State, (as the case may be); that I am twenty- 


one years old ; that I have not been disfranchised for participa^ 
tion in any rebellion or civil war against the United States, nor 
for felony committed against the laws of any State or of the 
United States ; that I have never been a member of any State 
Legislature, nor held any executive or judicial office in any State, 
and afterwards engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof ; 
that I have never taken an oath as a member of Congress of the 
United States, or as an officer of the United States, or as a mem- 
ber of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer 
of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, 
and afterwards engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof ; 
that I will faithfully support the Constitution and obey the laws 
of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, encour- 
age others so to do : so help me God "; which oath or affirmation 
may be administered by any registering officer. 

Sec. 2. Andbt it further enacted^ That after the completion of the 
registration hereby provided for in any State, at such time and 
places therein as the commanding general shall appoint and direct, 
of which at least thirty days' public notice shall be given, an elec- 
tion shall be held of delegates to a convention for the purpose of 
establishing a constitution and civil government for such State 
loyal to the Union, said convention in each State, except Vir- 
ginia, to consist of the same number of members as the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislature of such State in the 
year eighteen hundred and sixty, to be apportioned among the 
several districts, counties, or parishes of such State by the com- 
manding general, giving each representation in the ratio of voters 
registered as aforesaid as nearly as may be. The convention in 
Virginia shall consist of the same number of members as repre- 
sented the territory now constituting Virginia in the most numer- 
ous branch of the Legislature of said State in the year eighteen 
hundred and sixty, to be apportioned as aforesaid. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted^ That at said election the reg- 
istered voters of each State shall vote for or against a conven- 
tion to form a constitution therefor under this act. Those voting 
in favor of such a convention shall have written or printed on the 


ballots by which they vote for delegates, as aforesaid, the words 
** For a convention," and those voting against such a convention 
shall have written or printed on such ballot the words ** Against 
a convention." The persons appointed to superintend said elec- 
tion, and to make return of the votes given thereat, as herein 
provided, shall count and make return of the votes given for and 
against a convention ; and the commanding general to whom the 
same shall have been returned shall ascertain and declare the 
total vote in each State for and against a convention. If a major- 
ity of the votes given on that question shall be for a convention, 
then such convention shall be held as hereinafter provided ; but 
if a majority of said votes shall be against a convention, then no 
such convention shall be held under this act: Provided^ That such 
convention shall not be held unless a majority of all such regis- 
tered voters shall have voted on the question of holding such con- 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted^ That the commanding general 
of each district shall appoint as many boards of registration as 
may be necessary, consisting of three loyal officers or persons, to 
make and complete the registration, superintend the election, 
and make return to him of the votes, list of voters, and of the 
persons elected as delegates by a plurality of the votes cast at 
said election ; and upon receiving said returns he shall open the 
same, ascertain the persons elected as delegates, according to 
the returns of the officers who conducted said election, and make 
proclamation thereof ; and if a majority of the votes given on 
that question shall be for a convention, the commanding general, 
within sixty days from the date of election, shall notify the dele- 
gates to assemble in convention, at a time and place to be men- 
tioned in the notification, and said convention, when organized, 
shall proceed to frame a constitution and civil government 
according to the provisions of this act, and the act to which it is 
supplementary ; and when the same shall have been so framed, 
said constitution shall be submitted by the convention for ratifi- 
cation to the persons registered under the provisions of this act 
at an election to be conducted by the officers or persons appoint- 
ed or to be appointed by the commanding general, as herein- 
before provided, and to be held after the expiration of thirty days 







nPHE first of the Reconstruction laws was passed 
March 2, 1867, and though vetoed by the 
President, such was the unanimity of loyal senti- 
ment and the urgency demanding the measure, 
that the bill became a law over the veto the day 
the President returned it to Congress. March the 
nth this law was published in General Orders 
No. 10, from the Headquarters of the Army, the 
same order assigning certain officers to take charge 
of the five military districts into which the States 
lately in rebellion were subdivided, I being an- 
nounced as the commander of the Fifth Military 
District, which embraced Louisiana and Texas, a 
territory that had formed the main portion of my 

command since the close of the war. 



Between the date of the Act and that of my as- 
gnment, the Louisiana Legislature, then in special 
^ssion, had rejected a proposed repeal of an Act 

had previously passed providing for an election 
f certain municipal officers in New Orleans. This 
action was set for March 1 1 , but the mayor and 
le chief of police, together with General Mower, 
^mmanding the troops in the city, having ex- 
ressed to me personally their fears that the public 
eace would be disturbed by the election, I, in this 
mergency, though not yet assigned to the district, 
ssuming the authority which the Act conferred 
n district commanders, declared that the election 
hould not take place ; that no polls should be 
•pened on the day fixed ; and that the whole mat- 
er would stand postponed till the district com- 
aander should be appointed, or special instructions 
>e had. This, my first official act under the Re- 
onstruction laws, was rendered necessary by the 
ourse of a body of obstructionists, who had al- 
eady begun to give unequivocal indications of 
heir intention to ignore the laws of Congress. 

A copy of the order embodying the Reconstruct 
ion law, together with my assignment, having 
cached me a few days after, I regularly assumed 
lontrol of the Fifth Military District on March 19, 
)y an order wherein I declared the State and 
Qunicipal governments of the district to be pro- 


visional only, and, under the proviiicms of th^^A 
sixth section of the Act, subject to be contrcdied, ^^ 
modified, superseded, or abolished. X'also an — -»^ 
nounced that no removals from office, would b^^M 
made unless the incumbents failed to carry ouflk^-it 
the provisions of the law or in^>eded reorganiza— -s* 
tion, or unless willful delays should necessitate a^^ 
change, and added : " Pending the reorganization... 
it is desirable and intended to create as little dis — - 
turbance in the machinery of the various branche^E' 
of the provisional governments as possible, con — 
sistent with the law of Congress and its suc^tssfuL 
execution, but this condition is dependent upon 
the disposition shown by the people, and upon the 
Ijength of time required for reoiganization." 

Under these limitations Louisiana and Texas 
retained their former designations as military dis- 
tricts, the o£Gcers in command exercising their 
military powers as heretofore. In addition, these 
officers were to carry out in their respective com- 
mands all provisions of the law except those 
specially requiring the action of the district com- 
mander, and in cases of removals from and ap- 
pointment to office. 

In the course of legislation the first Reconstruc- 
tion act, as I have heretofore noted, had been 
vetoed. On the very day of the veto, however, 
despite the President's adverse action, it passed 


*ach House of Congress by such an overwhelm- 
ng majority as not only to give it the eflfect of 
aw, but to prove clearly that the plan of reconstruc- 
ion presented was, beyond question, the policy 
ndorsed by the people of the country. It was, 
herefore, my determination to see to the law's 
;ealous execution in my district, though I felt 
rertain that the President would endeavor to em- 
>arrass me by every means in his power, not only 
>n account of his pronounced personal hostility, 
Dut also because of his determination not to execute 
3ut to obstruct the measures enacted by Congress. 

Having come to this conclusion, I laid down, as 
a rule for my guidance, the principle of non-inter- 
ference with the provisional State governments, 
and though many appeals were made to have me 
rescind rulings of the courts, or interpose to fore- 
stall some presupposed action to be taken by 
them, my invariable reply was that I would not 
take cognizance of such matters, except in cases 
of absolute necessity. The same policy was an- 
nounced also in reference to municipal aflfairs 
throughout the district, so long as the action of 
the local officers did not conflict with the law. 

In a very short time, however, I was obliged to 
interfere in municipal matters in New Orleans, 
for it had become clearly apparent that several 
of the officials were, both by acts of omission and 


commission, ignoring the law, so on the 27th of 
March I removed from office the Mayor, John T. 
Monroe ; the Judge of the First District Court, 
E. Abell ; and the Attorney-General of the State, 
Andrew S. Herron ; at the same time appointing 
to the respective offices thus vacated Edward 
Heath, W. W. Howe, and B. L. Lynch. The 
officials thus removed had taken upon themselves 
from the start to pronounce the Reconstruction 
acts unconstitutional, and to advise such a course 
of obstruction that I found it necessary at an 
early day to replace them by men in sympathy 
with the law, in order to make plain my deter- 
mination to have its provisions enforced. The 
President at once made inquiry, through General 
Grant, for the cause of the removal, and I replied : 

** Headquarters Fifth Military District, 
" New Orleans, La., April 19, 1867. 

" General : On the 27th day of March last I removed from 
office Judge E. Abell, of the Criminal Court of New Orleans; 
Andrew S. Herron, Attorney-General of the State of Louisiana ; 
and John T. Monroe, Mayor of the City of New Orleans. These 
removals were made under the powers granted me in what is 
usually termed the * military bill,* passed March 2, 1867, by the 
Congress of the United States. 

•* I did not deem it necessary to give any reason for the re- 
moval of these men, especially after the investigations made by 
the military board on the massacre of July 30, 1866, and the re- 
port of the congressional committee on the same massacre ; but 
as some inquiry has been made for the cause of removal, I 
would respectfully state as follows : 

" The court over which Judge Abell presided is the only crim- 


inal court in the city of New Orleans, and for a period of at least 
nine months previous to the riot of July 30 he had been educat- 
ing a large portion of the community to the perpetration of this 
outrage, by almost promising no prosecution in his court against 
the offenders, in case such an event occurred. The records of 
his court will show that he fulfilled his promise, as not one of 
the guilty has been prosecuted. 

"In reference to Andrew J. Herron, Attorney-General of the 
State of Louisiana, I considered it his duty to indict these men 
before this criminal court. This he failed to do, but went so far 
as to attempt to impose on the good sense of the whole nation 
by indicting the victims of the riot instead of the rioters ; in 
other words, making the innocent guilty and the guilty innocent 
He was therefore, in my belief, an able coadjutor with Judge 
Abell in bringing on the massacre of Jiily 30. 

" Mayor Monroe controlled the element engaged in this riot, 
and when backed by an attorney-general who would not pro- 
secute the guilty, and a judge who advised the grand jury to find 
the innocent guilty and let the murderers go free, felt secure in 
engaging his police force in the riot and massacre. 

"With these three men exercising a large influence over the 
worst elements of the population of this city, giving to those 
elements an immunity for riot and bloodshed, the general -in- 
chief will see how insecurely I felt in letting them occupy their 
respective positions in the troubles which might occur in registra- 
tion and voting in the reorganization of this State. 

" I am. General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" P. H. Sheridan, 

" Major-General U. S. A. 
" General U. S. Grant, 

" Commanding Armies of the United States, 

"Washington, D. C." 

To General Grant my reasons were satisfactory, 
but not so to the President, who took no steps, 
however, to rescind my action, for he knew that 
the removals were commended by wellnigh the 


entire community In th( 
stood that Mr. Johnson 
and adherents in Louisi 
stantly advised of every 
of these persons were at 
of mine, while others we 
so secretly and quickly 
son knew of my official 
them to General Grant. 
The supplemental Rec 
fined the method of rect 
despite the President's 
was a curative act, authc 
scribing methods of regis 
me officially I began me? 
provisions, and on the : 
order to the effect that n 
parish, or municipal ofi 
Louisiana until the provi 
gross entitled " An act 
efficient government of i 
the act supplemental th 
complied with. I also ai 
tions were held in accord 
law of the Legislature of 
the holding over of thost 
office otherwise would ha 
in all cases excepting on 



which I myself might take action. There was 
one parish, Livingston, which this order did not 
reach in time to prevent the election previously 
ordered there, and which therefore took place, but 
by a supplemental order this election was declared 
null and void. 

In April I began the work of administering the 
Supplemental Law, which, under certain conditions 
of eligibility, required a registration of the voters 
of the State, for the purpose of electing delegates 
to a Constitutional convention. It therefore be- 
came necessary to appoint Boards of Registration 
throughout the election districts, and on April 10 
the boards for the Parish of Orleans were given 
out, those for the other parishes being appointed 
ten days later. Before announcing these boards, 
I had asked to be advised definitely as to what 
persons were disfranchised by the law, and was 
directed by General Grant to act upon my own 
interpretation of it, pending an opinion expected 
shortly from the Attorney-General — Mr. Henry 
Stanbery — so, for the guidance of the boards, I 
gave the following instructions : 

" Headquarters Fifth Military District. 
"New Orleans, La., April 10, 1867. 
"Special Orders, No. 15. 

" 2. In obedience to the directions contained in the first sec- 
tion of the Law of Congress entitled * An Act supplemental to 
Vol. II.— -17. 



an Act entitled " An Act to provide for the more efficient govern- 
ment of the rebel States/" the registration of the legal voters, 
according to that law in the Parish of Orleans, will be commenced 
on the 15th instant, and must be completed by the 15th of May. 
'< The four municipal districts of the City of New Orleans and 
the Parish of Orleans, right bank (Algiers), will each constitute 
a Registration district. Election precincts will remain as at pres- 
ent constituted. 

** Each member of the Board of Registers, before commencing 
his duties, will file in the office of the Assistant-Inspector-General 
at these headquarters, the oath required in the sixth section of 
the Act referred to, and be governed in the execution of his duty 
by the provisions of the first section of that Act, faithfully ad- 
ministering the oath therein prescribed to each person registered. 

'' Boards of Registers will immediately select suitable offices 
within their respective districts, having reference to convenience 
and facility of registration, and will enter upon their duties on 
the day designated. Each Board will be entitled to two clerks. 
•Office-hours for registration will be from 8 o'clock till 12 a. m., 
and from 4 till 7 p. m. 

** When elections are ordered, the Board of Registers for each 
district will designate the number of polls and the places where 
they shall be opened in the election precincts within its district, 
appoint the commissioners and other officers necessary for prop- 
erly conducting the elections, and will superintend the same. 

" They will also receive from the commissioners of elections of 
the different precincts the result of the vote, consolidate the 
same, and forward it to the commanding general. 

** Registers and all officers connected with elections will be 
held to a rigid accountability and will be subject to trial by 
military commission for fraud, or unlawful or improper conduct 
in the performance of their duties. Their rate of compensation 
and manner of payment will be in accordance with the provisions 
of sections six and seven of the supplemental act. 

" Every male citizen of the United States, twenty-one years 
old and upward, of whatever race, color, or previous condition, 



who has been resident in the State of Louisiana for one year and 
Parish of Orleans for three months previous to the date at which 
he presents himself for registration, and who has not been dis- 
franchised by act of Congress or for felony at common law, shall, 
after having taken and subscribed the oath prescribed in the 
first section of the act herein referred to, be entitled to be, and 
shall be, registered as a legal voter in the Parish of Orleans and 
State of Louisiana. 

** Pending the decision of the Attorney-General of the United 
States on the question as to who are disfranchised by law, regis- 
ters will give the most rigid interpretation to the law, and exclude 
from registration every person about whose right to vote there 
may be a doubt. Any person so excluded who may, under the 
decision of the Attorney-General, be entitled to vote, shall be 
permitted to register after that decision is received, due notice 
of which will be given. 

** By command of Major-General P. H. Sheridan, 

"Geo. L. Hartsuff, 

** Assistant Adjutant-General." 

The parish Boards of Registration were com- 
posed of three members each. Ability to take 
urhat was known as the ** iron-clad oath" was the 
qualification exacted of the members, and they 
were prohibited from becoming candidates for 
office. In the execution of their duties they were 
to be governed by the provisions of the supple- 
mental act. It was also made one of their func- 
tions to designate the number and location of the 
polling-places in the several districts, to appoint 
commissioners for receiving the votes and in 
general to attend to such other matters as were 
necessary, in order properly to conduct the vot- 


ing, and afterward to receive from the commis- 
sioners the result of the vote and forward it to 
my headquarters. These registers, and all other 
oflScers having to do with elections, were to be 
held to a rigid accountability, and be subject to 
trial by military commission for fraud or unlaw- 
ful or improper conduct in the performance of 
their duties ; and in order to be certain that the 
Registration Boards performed their work faith- 
fully and intelligently, oflBcers of the army were 
appointed as supervisors. To this end the par- 
ishes were grouped together conveniently in tem- 
porary districts, each officer having from three to 
five parishes to supervise. The programme thus 
mapped out for carrying out the law in Louisiana 
was likewise adhered to in Texas, and indeed was 
followed as a model in some of the other military 

Although Military Commissions were fully 
authorized by the Reconstruction acts, yet I did 
not favor their use in governing the district, and 
probably would never have convened one had 
these acts been observed in good faith. I much 
preferred that the civil courts, and the State and 
municipal authorities already in existence, should 
perform their functions without military control 
or interference, but occasionally, because the civil 
authorities neglected their duty, I was obliged to 


resort to this means to ensure the punishment of 
oflFenders. At this time the condition of the ne- 
groes in Texas and Louisiana was lamentable, 
though, in fact, not worse than that of the few 
white loyalists who had been true to the Union 
during the war. These last were singled out as 
special objects of attack, and were, therefore, ob- 
liged at all times to be on the alert for the pro- 
tection of their lives and property. This was the 
natural outcome of Mr. Johnson's defiance of 
Congress, coupled with the sudden conversion to 
his cause of persons in the North who but a short 
time before had been his bitterest enemies ; for 
all this had aroused among the disaffected ele- 
ment new hopes of power and place, hopes of be- 
ing at once put in political control again, with a 
resumption of their functions in State and Na- 
tional matters without any preliminary authoriza- 
tion by Congress. In fact, it was not only hoped, 
but expected, that things were presently to go on 
just as if there had been no war. 

In the State of Texas there were in 1865 about 
200,000 of the colored race — roughly, a third of 
the entire population — while in Louisiana there 
were not less than 350,000, or more than one-half 
of all the people in the State. Until the enact- 
ment of the Reconstruction laws these negroes 
were without rights, and though they had been 


liberated by the war, Mr. Johnson's policy now 
proposed that they should have no political status 
at all, and consequently be at the mercy of a peo- 
ple who, recently their masters, now seemed to 
look upon them as the authors of all the misfor- 
tunes that had come upon the land. Under these 
circumstances the blacks naturally turned for pro- 
tection to those who had been the means of their 
liberation, and it would have been little less^than 
inhuman to deny them sympathy. Their freedom 
had been given them, and it was the plain duty of 
those in authority to make it secure, and screen 
them from the bitter political resentment that be- 
set them, and to see that they had a fair chance in 
the battle of life. Therefore, when outrages and 
murders grew frequent, and the aid of the mili- 
tary power was an absolute necessity for the pro- 
tection of life, I employed it unhesitatingly — the 
guilty parties being brought to trial before mili- 
tary commissions — and for a time, at least, there 
occurred a halt in the march of terrorism inau- 
gurated by the people whom Mr. Johnson had 

The first Military Commission was convened 
to try the case of John W. Walker, charged with 
shooting a negro in the parish of St. John. The 
proper civil authorities had made no eflFort to ar- 
rest Walker, and even connived at his escape, so I 


had him taken into custody in New Orleans, and 
ordered him tried, the commission finding him 
guilty, and sentencing him to confinement in the 
penitentiary for six months. This shooting was 
the third occurrence of the kind that had taken 
place in St. John's parish, a negro being wounded 
in each case, and it was plain that the intention 
was to institute there a practice of intimidation 
which should be eflfective to subject the freedmen 
to the will of their late masters, whether in making 
labor contracts, or in case these newly enfranchis- 
ed negroes should evince a disposition to avail 
themselves of the privilege to vote. 

The trial and conviction of Walker, and of one 
or two others for similiar outrages, soon put a stop 
to every kind of ** bull-dozing " in the country par- 
ishes; but about this time I discovered that many 
members of the police force in New Orleans were 
covertly intimidating the freedmen there, and 
preventing their appearance at the registration 
offices, using milder methods than had obtained 
in the country, it is true, but none the less effect- 

Early in 1866 the Legislature had passed an act 
which created for the police of New Orleans a resi- 
dence qualification, the object of which was to dis- 
charge and exclude from the force ex-Union sol- 
diers. This of course would make room for the 


appointment of ex-Ctmfederates, and May<M- Mon- 
roe had not been slow in enforcing the provisions of 
the law. It was, in fact, a result of this enactment 
that the police was so reorganized as to become the 
willing and efficient tool which it proved to be in 
the riot of 1866 ; and having still the same person- 
nel, it was now in shape to [K'event registration by 
threats, unwarranted arrests, and by various other 
influences, all operating to keep the timid blacks 
away from the registration places. 

That the police were taking a hand in this prac- 
tice of repression, I first discovered by the conduct 
of the assistant to the chief of the body, and at 
once removed the offender, but finding this inef- 
fectual I annulled that part of the State law fixing 
the five years' residence restriction, and restored 
the two years' qualification, thus enabling Mayor 
Heath, who by my appointment had succeeded 
Monroe, to organize the force anew, and take 
about one-half of its members from ex-Union sol- 
diers who when discharged had settled in New 
Orleans. This action put an end to intimidation 
in the parish of Orleans ; and now were put in 
operation in all sections the processes provided by 
the supplemental Reconstruction law for the sum- 
moning of a convention to form a Constitution 
preparatory to the readmission of the State, and 
I was full of hope that there would now be much 



less difficulty in administering the trust imposed 
by Congress. 

During the two years previous great damage 
had been done the agricultural interests of Louis- 
iana by the overflow of the Mississippi, the levees 
being so badly broken as to require extensive re- 
pairs, and the Legislature of 1866 had appropriated 
for the purpose $4,000,000, to be raised by an issue 
of bonds. This money was to be disbursed by a 
Board of Levee Commissioners then in existence, 
but the term of service of these commissioners, 
and the law creating the board, would expire in 
the spring of 1867. In order to overcome this 
diflSculty the Legislature passed a bill continuing 
the commissioners in office, but as the act was 
passed inside of ten days before the adjournment 
of the Legislature, Governor Wells pocketed the 
bill, and it failed to become a law. The Governor 
then appointed a board of his own, without any 
warrant of law whatever. The old commissioners 
refused to recognize this new board, and of course 
a conflict of authority ensued, which, it was clear, 
would lead to vicious results if allowed to continue ; 
so, as the people of the State had no confidence in 
either of the boards, I decided to end the conten- 
tion summarily by appointing an entirely new 
commission, which would disburse the money 
honestly, and further the real purpose for which it 


had been appropriated. When I took this course 
the legislative board acquiesced, but Governor 
Wells immediately requested the President to re- 
voke my order, which, however, was not done, but 
meanwhile the Secretary of War directed me to 
suspend all proceedings in the matter, and make 
a report of the facts. 1 compUed in the following 
telegram : 

** Headquarters Fifth Military District, 
" New Orleans, La., June 3, 1867. 

** Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
telegram of this date in reference to the Levee Commissioners in 
this State. 

" The following were my reasons for abolishing the two former 
boards, although I intended that my order should be sufficiently 

" Previous to the adjournment of the Legislature last winter it 
passed an act continuing the old Levee board in office, so that the 
four millions of dollars ($4,000,000) in bonds appropriated by 
the Legislature might be disbursed by a board of rebellious ante- 

" After its adjournment the Governor of the State appointed a 
board of his own, in violation of this act, and made the acknowl- 
edgment to me in person that his object was to disburse the 
money in the interest of his own party by securing for it the vote 
of the employes at the time of election. 

" The board continued in office by the Legislature refused to 
turn over to the Governor's board, and each side appealed to me 
to sustain it, which I would not do. The question must then 
have gone to the courts, which, according to the Governor's judg- 
ment when he was appealing to me to be sustained, would require 
one year for decision. Meantime the State was overflowed, the 
Levee boards tied up by p)olitical chicanery, and nothing done to 
relieve the poor people, now fed by the chirity of the Government 
and charitable associations of the Noith. 



**To obviate this trouble, and to secure to the overflowed dis- 
tricts of the State the immediate relief which the honest disburse- 
ment of the four millions ($4,000,000) would give, my order 
dissolving both boards was issued. 

" I say now, unequivocally, that Governor Wells is a political 
trickster and a dishonest man. I have seen him myself, when I 
first came to this command, turn out all the Union men who had 
supported the Government, and put in their stead rebel soldiers 
who had not yet doffed their gray uniform, t have seen him 
again, during the July riot of 1866, skulk away where I could 
not find him to give him a guard, instead of coming out as a 
manly representative of the State and joining those who were 
preserving the peace. I have watched him since, and his conduct 
has been as sinuous as the mark left in the dust by the movement 
of a snake. 

*'I say again that he is dishonest, and that dishonesty is more 

than must be expected of me. 

"P. H. Sheridan, 

* 'Major-General, U. S. A. 
** Hon. E. M. Stanton, 

" Secretary of War, Washington, D. C." 

The same day that I sent my report to the 
Secretary of War I removed from office Governor 
Wells himself, being determined to bear no longer 
with the many obstructions he had placed in the 
way of reorganizing the civil affairs of the State. 
I was also satisfied that he was unfit to retain 
the place, sirtce he was availing himself of every 
opportunity to work political ends beneficial to 
himself. In this instance Wells protested to me 
against his removal, and also appealed to the 
President for an opinion of the Attorney-General 
as to my power in the case ; and doubtless he 


would have succeeded in retaining his oflSce, but 
for the fact that the President had been informed 
by General James B. Steadman* and others placed 
to watch me that Wells was wholly unworthy. 

I appointed Mr. Thomas J. Durant as Wells's 
successor, but he declining, I then appointed Mr. 
Benjamin F. Flanders, who, after I had sent a 
staff -officer to forcibly eject Wells in case of 
necessity, took possession of the Governor's office. 
Wells having vacated. Governor Flanders began 
immediately the exercise of his duties in sympathy 
with the views of Congress, and I then notified 
General Grant that I thought he need have no 
further apprehension about the condition of affairs 
in Louisiana, as my appointee was a man of such 
integrity and ability that I already felt relieved of 
half my labor. I also stated in the same despatch 
that nothing would answer in Louisiana but a 

• "New Orleans, June 19, 1867. 
*• Andrew Johnson, President United States, 
** Washington City : 

** Lewis D. Campbell leaves New Orleans for home this evening. Want of 
respect for Governor Wells personally, alone represses the expression of in- 
dignation felt by all honest and sensible men at the unwarranted usurpation of 
General Sheridan in removing the civil officers of Louisiana. It is believed 
here that you will reinstate Wells. He is a bad man, and has no influence. 

•/ I believe Sheridan made the removals to embarrass you, believing the feel- 
ing at the North would sustain him. My conviction is that on account of the 
bad character of Wells and Monroe, you oughi not to reinstate any who have 
been removed, because you cannot reinstate any without reinstating all, but 
you ought to jirohibit the exercise of this power in the future. 

** Respectfully yours, 

"James B. Steadman.'* 


bold and firm course, and that in taking such a 
one I felt that I was strongly supported ; a state- 
ment that was then correct, for up to this period 
the better classes were disposed to accept the 
Congressional plan of reconstruction. 

During the controversy over the Levee Com- 
missioners, and the correspondence regarding the 
removal of Governor Wells, registration had gone 
on under the rules laid down for the boards. The 
date set for closing the books was the 30th of 
June, but in the parish of Orleans the time was 
extended till the 15th of July. This the President 
considered too short a period, and therefore 
directed the registry lists not to be closed before 
the ist of August, unless there was some good 
reason to the contrary. This was plainly designed 
to keep the books open in order that under the 
Attorney-Generars interpretation of the Recon- 
struction laws, published June 20, many persons 
who had been excluded by the registration boards 
could yet be registered, so I decided to close the 
registration, unless required by the President un- 
conditionally, and in specific orders, to extend the 
time. My motives were manifold, but the main 
reasons were that as two and a half months had 
been given already, the number of persons who, 
under the law, were qualified for registry was 
about exhausted, and because of the expense I 



did not feel warranted in keeping up the boards 
longer, as I said, ** to suit new issues coming in at 
the eleventh hour," which would but open a 
** broad macadamized road for perjury and 

When I thus stated what I intended to do, the 
opinion of the Attorney-General had not yet been 
received. When it did reach me it was merely in 
the form of a circular signed by Adjutant-General 
Townsend, and had no force of law. It was not 
even sent as an order, nor was it accompanied by 
any instructions, or by anything except the state- 
ment that it was transmitted to the '* respective 
military commanders for their information, in 
order that there might be uniformity in the execu- 
tion *' of the Reconstruction acts. To adopt Mr. 
Stanbery s interpretation of the law and reopen 
registration accordingly, would defeat the purpose 
of Congress, as well as add to my perplexities. 
Such a course would also require that the officers 
appointed by me for the performance of specified 
duties, under laws which I was empowered to in- 
terpret and enforce, should receive their guidance 
and instructions from an unauthorized source, so 
on communicating with General Grant as to how 
I should act, he directed me to enforce my own 
construction of the military bill until ordered to 
do otherwise. 



Therefore the registration continued as I had 
originally directed, and nothing having been defi- 
nitely settled at Washington in relation to my 
extending the time, on the loth of July I ordered 
all the registration boards to select, immediately, 
suitable persons to act as commissioners of elec- 
tion, and at the same time specified the number 
of each set of commissioners, designated the poll- 
ing-places, gave notice that two days would be 
allowed for voting, and followed this with an 
order discontinuing registration the 31st of July, 
and then another appointing the 27th and 28th of 
September as the time for the election of delegates 
to the State convention. 

In accomplishing the registration there had been 
little opposition from the mass of the people, but 
the press of New Orleans, and the oflSce-holders 
and oflSce-seekers in the State generally, antago- 
nized the work bitterly and violently, particularly 
after the promulgation of the opinion of the Attor- 
ney-General. These agitators condemned every- 
body and everything connected with the Congres- 
sional plan of reconstruction ; and the pernicious 
influence thus exerted was manifested in various 
ways, but most notably in the selection of persons 
to compose the jury lists in the country parishes. 
It also tempted certain municipal officers in New 
Orleans to perform illegal acts that would seri- 



ously have affected the credit of the city had 
matters not been promptly corrected by the sum- 
mary removal from office of the comptroller and 
the treasurer, who had already issued a quarter of 
a million dollars in illegal certificates. On learn- 
ing of this unwarranted and unlawful proceeding, 
Mayor Heath demanded an investigation by the 
Common Council, but this body, taking its cue 
from the evident intention of the President to 
render abortive the Reconstruction acts, refused 
the mayor's demand. Then he tried to have the 
treasurer and comptroller restrained by injunction, 
but the city attorney, under the same inspiration 
as the council, declined to sue out a writ, and the 
attorney being supported m this course by nearly 
all the other officials, the mayor was left helpless in 
his endeavors to preserve the city's credit. Under 
such circumstances he took the only step left him 
— recourse to the military commander ; and after 
looking into the matter carefully I decided, in the 
early part of August, to give the mayor ofiScials 
who would not refuse to make an investigation 
of the illegal issue of certificates, and to this end 
I removed the treasurer, surveyor, comptroller, 
city attorney, and twenty-two of the aldermen ; 
these officials, and all of their assistants, having 
reduced the financial credit of New Orleans to a 
disordered condition, and also having made efforts 



— and being then engaged in such — to hamper the 
execution of the Reconstruction laws. 

This action settled matters in the city, but sub- 
sequently I had to remove some oflBcials in the 
parishes — among them a justice of the peace and 
a sheriff in the parish of Rapides ; the justice for 
refusing to permit negro witnesses to testify in a 
certain murder case, and for allowing the mur- 
derer, who had foully killed a colored man, to 
walk out of his court on bail in the insignificant 
sum of five hundred dollars ; and the sherifiF, for 
conniving at the escape from jail of another 
alleged murderer. Finding, however, even after 
these removals, that in the country districts mur- 
derers and other criminals went unpunished, pro- 
vided the offenses were *against negroes merely 
(since the jurors were selected exclusively from 
the whites, and often embraced those excluded 
from the exercise of the election franchise), I, hav- 
ing full authority under the Reconstruction laws, 
directed such a revision of the jury lists as would 
reject from them every man not eligible for regis- 
tration as a voter. This order* was issued August 

• <' Headquarters Fifth Military District, 
« New Orleans, La., August 24, 1867. 
** Special Orders, No. 125. 

** The registration of voters of the State of Louisiana, according to the law 
of Congress, being complete, it is hereby ordered that no person who is not 
registered in accordance with said law shall be considered as ' a duly qualified 



24, and on its promulgation the President re- 
lieved me from duty and assigned General Han- 
cock as my successor. 

Pending the arrival of General Hancock, I 
turned over the command of the district Septem- 
ber I to General Charles Griffin ; but he dying 
of yellow fever, General J. A. Mower succeeded 
him, and retained command till November 29, 
on which date General Hancock assumed control. 
-Immediately after Hancock took charge, he re- 
"voked my order of August 24 providing for a 
evision of the jury lists ; and, in short. President 
ohnson's policy now became supreme, till Han- 
ock himself was relieved in March, 1868. 
My oflScial connection with the reconstruction 
f Louisiana and Texas practically closed with 
"fthis order concerning the jury lists. In my judg- 
^mnent this had become a necessity, for the disaf- 
:£ected element, sustained as it was by the open 
sympathy of the President, had grown so deter- 
mined in its opposition to the execution of the Re- 
<:onstruction acts that I resolved to remove from 

"voter of the State of Louisiana.* All persons duly registered as above, and no 
others, are consequently eligible, under the laws of the State of Louisiana, to 
ser v e as jurors in any of the courts of the State. 

" The necessary revision of the jury lists will immediately be made by the 
proper officers. n 

" All the laws of the State respecting exemptions, &c., from jury duty will 

remain in force. 

"By command of Major-General P. H. Sheridan. 

**Geo. L. Hartsuff, Asst. Adj't-General." 


place and power all obstacles ; for the summer^s 
experience had . convinced me that in no other 
way could the law be faithfully administered. 

The President had long been dissatisfied with 
my course; indeed, he had harbored personal 
enmity against me ever since he perceived that 
he could not bend me to an acceptance of the 
false position in which he had tried to place me 
by garbling my report of the riot of 1866. When 
Mr. Johnson decided to remove me, General Grant 
protested in these terms, but to no purpose : 

** Headquarters Armies op the United States^ 
*' Washington, D. C, August 17, 1867. 

<< Sir : I am in receipt of your order of this date directing the 
assignment of General G. H. Thomas to the command of the 

Fifth Military District, General Sheridan to the Department of the 
Missouri, and General Hancock to the Department of the Cum- 
berland ; also your note of this date (enclosing these instruc- 
tions), saying : * Before you issue instructions to carry into effect 
the enclosed order, I would be pleased to hear any suggestions 
you may deem necessary respecting the assignments to which the 
order refers.' 

** I am pleased to avail myself of this invitation to urge— ear- 
nestly urge — urge in the name of a patriotic people, who have 
sacrificed hundreds of thousands of loval lives and thousands of 
millions oi treasure to pnf>er\"e the integrity and union of this 
countr}- — that this orvier be not insisted on. It is unmistakably 
the expressed ^*ish of the country that General Sheridan should 
not Ixi rfmo\"ed from h:s 'orx^sen: v\"^nimand. 

•* This is a rvpuMio where ihe wil- of the people is the law of 
the lanii, 1 beg thai their vo:oe may be heard. 

•' i»cneral SheriiSan has performed his civil duties faithfully 
an\t inier.i^ntiV* H:s removal w:ll only be regarded as an effort 



to defeat the laws of Congress. It will be interpreted by the 
unreconstructed element in the South — those who did all they 
could to break up this Government by arms, and now wish to be 
the only element consulted as to the method of restoring order 

as a triumph. It will embolden them to renewed opposition 

to the will of the loyal masses, believing that they have the Exec- 
utive with them. 

•* The services of General Thomas in battling for the Union 
entitle him to some consideration. He has repeatedly entered 
bis protest against being assigned to either of the five military 
<listricts, and especially to being assigned to relieve General 

** There are military reasons, pecuniary reasons, and above all, 
-patriotic reasons, why this should not be insisted upon. 

I beg to refer to a letter marked * private,* which I wrote to 
President when first consulted on the subject of the change 
1.11 the War Department It bears upon the subject of this 
^K-emoval, and I had hoped would have prevented it. 

" I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient 


<«U. S. Grant, 

"General U. S. A., Secretary of War ad interim. 

*•* His Excellency A. Johnson, 

"President of the United States." 

I was ordered to command the Department of 
'the Missouri (General Hancock, as already noted, 
finally becoming my successor in the Fifth Mili- 
tary District), and left New Orleans on the 5th of 
September. I was not loath to go. The kind of 
duty I had been performing in Louisiana and Tex- 
as was very trying under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances, but all the more so in my case, since 
I had to contend against the obstructions which 
the President placed in the way from persistent 


opposition to the acts of Congress as well as from 
antipathy to me — which obstructions he interpos- 
ed with all the boldness and aggressiveness of his 
peculiar nature. 

On more than one occasion while I was exercis- 
ing this command, impurity of motive was imput- 
ed to me, but it has never been truthfully shown 
(nor can it ever be) that political or corrupt influ- 
ences of any kind controlled me in any instance. 
I simply tried to carry out, without fear or favor, 
the Reconstruction acts as they came to me. 
They were intended to disfranchise certain per- 
sons, and to enfranchise certain others, and, till 
decided otherwise, were the laws of the land ; and 
it was my duty to execute them faithfully, with- 
out regard, on the one hand, for those upon 
whom it was thought they bore so heavily, nor, 
on the other, for this or that political party, and 
certainly without deference to those persons sent 
to Louisiana to influence my conduct of aff'airs. 

Some of these missionaries were high officials, 
both military and civil, and I recall among others 
a visit made me in 1866 by a distinguished friend 
of the President, Mr. Thomas A. Hendricks. The 
purpose of his coming was to convey to me assur- 
ances of the very high esteem in which I was 
held by the President, and to explain personally 
Mr. Johnson's plan of reconstruction, its flawless 

constitutionality, and so on. But being on the 
ground, I had before me the exhibition of its prac- 
tical working, saw the oppression and excesses 
growing out of it, and in the face of these expe- 
riences even Mr. Hendricks's persuasive eloquence 
was powerless to convince me of its beneficence. 
Later General Lovell H. Rousseau came down on 
a like mission, but was no more successful than 
!Mr. Hendricks. 

Ekiring the whole period that I commanded in 
^Louisiana and Texas my position was a most un- 
enviable one. The service was unusual, and the 
xiature of it scarcely to be understood by those 
not entirely familiar with the conditions existing 
immediately after the war. In administering the 
afiPairs of those States, I never acted except by au- 
thority, and always from conscientious motives. 
I tried to guard the rights of everybody in ac- 
cordance with the law. In this I was supported 
by General Grant and opposed by President 
Johnson. The former had at heart, above every 
other consideration, the good of his country, and 
always sustained me with approval and kind sug- 
gestions. The course pursued by the President 
was exactly the opposite, and seems to prove that 
in the whole matter of reconstruction he was gov- 
erned less by patriotic motives than by personal 
ambitions. Add to this his natural obstinacy of 



character and personal enmity toward me, and 
surprise should be occasioned when I say thati I 
heartily welcomed the order that lifted from nr» 
my unsought burden. 











FORSYTH's gallant fight RESCUED. 

HE headquarters of the military department 
to which I was assigned when relieved from 
^uty at New Orleans was at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas, and on the 5 th of September I started 
i'or that post. In due time I reached St. Louis, and 
stopped there a day to accept an ovation tender- 
ed in approval of the course I had pursued in the 
Fifth Military District — a public demonstration 
apparently of the most sincere and hearty char- 

PVom St. Louis to Leavenworth took but one 
night, and the next day I technically complied 
with my orders far enough to permit General Han- 
cock to leave the department, so that he might go 

immediately to New Orleans if he so desired, but 




on account of the yellow fever epidemic then pre- 
vailing, he did not reach the city till late in No- 

My new command was one of the four military 
departments that composed the geographical divi- 
sion then commanded by Lieutenant - General 
Sherman. This division had been formed in 1 866, 
with a view to controlling the Indians west of the 
Missouri River, they having become very rest- 
less and troublesome because of the building of 
the Pacific railroads through their hunting-grounds, 
and the encroachments of pioneers, who began set- 
tling in middle and western Kansas and eastern 
Colorado immediately after the war. 

My department embraced the States of Missouri 
and Kansas, the Indian Territory, and New Mexico. 
Part of this section of country — western Kansas 
particularly — had been frequently disturbed and 
harassed during two or three years past, the sav- 
ages every now and then massacring an isolated 
family, boldly attacking the surveying and con- 
struction parties of the Kansas-Pacific railroad, 
sweeping down on emigrant trains, plundering and 
burning stage - stations and the like along the 
Smoky Hill route to Denver and the Arkansas 
route to New Mexico. 

However, when I relieved Hancock, the depart- 
ment was comparatively quiet. Though some 


military operations had been conducted against 
the hostile tribes in the early part of the previous 
summer, all active work was now suspended in the 
attempt to conclude a permanent peace with the 
Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, and Comanches, 
in compliance with the act of Congress creating 
what was known as the Indian Peace Commission 
Df 1867. 

Under these circumstances there was little ne- 
:essity for my remaining at Leavenworth, and as 
[ was much rup down in health from the Louis- 
iana climate, in which I had been obliged to live 
continuously for three summers (one of which 
brought epidemic cholera, and another a scourge 
of yellow fever), I took a leave of absence for a 
few months, leaving Colonel A. J. Smith, of the 
Seventh Cavalry, temporarily in charge of my 

On this account I did not actually go on duty 
in the department of the Missouri till March, 1868. 
On getting back I learned that the negotiations 
of the Peace Commissioners — held at Medicine 
Lodge, about seventy miles south of Fort Larned 
— had resulted in a treaty with the Cheyennes, 
Arapahoes, Kiowas, and Comanches, by which 
agreement it was supposed all troubles had been 
settled. The compact, as concluded, contained 
numerous provisions, the most important to us 


being one which practically relinquished the 
country between the Arkansas and Platte rivers 
for white settlement ; another permitted the 
peaceable construction of the Pacific railroads 
through the same region ; and a third requiring 
the tribes signing the treaty to retire to reserva- 
tions allotted them in the Indian Territory. Al- 
though the chiefs and head-men were wellnigh 
unanimous in ratifying these concessions, it was 
discovered in the spring of 1868 that many of 
the young men were bitterly opposed to what had 
been done, and claimed that most of the signatures 
had been obtained by misrepresentation and 
through proffers of certain annuities, and promises 
of arms and ammunition to be issued in the spring 
of 1868. This grumbling was very general in ex- 
tent, and during the winter found outlet in occa- 
sional marauding, so, fearing a renewal of the pil- 
laging and plundering at an early day, to prepare 
myself for the work evidently ahead the first 
thing I did on assuming permanent command 
*was to make a trip to Fort Larned and Fort 
Dodge, near which places the bulk of the Indians 
had congregated on Pawnee and Walnut creeks. 
I v/anted to get near enough to the camps to find 
out for myself the actual state of feeling among 
the savages, and also to familiarize myself with the 
characteristics of the Plains Indians, for my pre- 


vious experience had been mainly with mountain 
tribes on the Pacific coast. Fort Larned I found 
too near the camps for my purpose, its proximity 
too readily inviting unnecessary ** talks," so I re- 
mained here but a day or two, and then went on 
to Dodge, which, though considerably farther 
a.way from the camps, was yet close enough to 
enable us to obtain easily information of all that 
"was going on. 

It took but a few days at Dodge to discover 

*:hat great discontent existed about the Medicine 

X-^dge concessions, to see that the young men 

"xvere chafing and turbulent, and that it would 

"■require much tact and good management on the 

;part of the Indian Bureau to persuade the four 

bribes to go quietly to their reservations, under 

a.n agreement which, when entered into, many of 

them protested had not been fully understood. 

A few hours after my arrival a delegation of 
prominent chiefs called on me and proposed a 
council, where they might discuss their griev- 
ances, and thus bring to the notice of the Govern- 
ment the alleged wrongs done them ; but this I 
refused, because Congress had delegated to the 
Peace Commission the whole matter of treating 
with them, and a council might lead only to addi- 
tional complications. My refusal left them with- 
out hope of securing better terms, or of even 


delaying matters longer ; so henceforth they were 
more than ever reckless and defia&L Denuncia- 
tions of the treaty became outspoken, and as the 
young braves grew more and more insolent every 
day, it amounted to conviction that, unless by 
some means the irritation was allayed, hostilities 
would surely be upon us when the buflPalo return- 
ed to their summer feeding-grounds between the 
Arkansas and the Platte. 

The principal suflFerers in this event would be 
the settlers in middle and western Kansas, who, 
entirely ignorant of the dangers hanging over 
them, were laboring to build up homes in a new 
country. Hence the maintenance of peace was 
much to be desired, if it could be secured without 
too great concessions, and although I would not 
meet the different tribes in a formal council, yet, 
to ward off from settlers as much as possible the 
horrors of savage warfare, I showed, by resorting 
to persuasive methods, my willingness to tem- 
porize a good deal. An abundant supply of rations 
is usually eflFective to keep matters quiet in such 
cases, so I fed them pretty freely, and also endeav- 
ored to control them through certain men who, I 
found, because of former associations, had their 
confidence. These men, employed as scouts or 
interpreters, were Mr. William Comstock, Mr. Ab- 
ner S. Grover, and Mr. Richard Parr. They had 

lived on the Plains for many years with different 

tribes of Indians, had trapped and hunted with 

them, and knew all the principal chiefs and head- 

mmen. Through such influences, I thought I saw 

ood chances of preserving peace, and of in- 

ucing the discontented to go quietly to their 

-■reservations in the Indian Territory as soon as 

^3eneral Hazen, the representative of the Peace 

^Commissioners, was ready to conduct them there 

:tfrom Fort Larned. 

Before returning to Leavenworth I put my medi- 
2.tors (as I may call them) under charge of an 
ofl&cer of the army, Lieutenant F. W. Beecher, a 
^ery intelligent man, and directed him to send 
them out to visit among the different tribes, in 
order to explain what was intended by the treaty 
of Medicine Lodge, and to make every effort pos- 
sible to avert hostilities. Under these instructions 
Comstock and Grover made it their business to 
go about among the Cheyennes — the most war- 
like tribe of all — then camping about the head- 
waters of Pawnee and Walnut creeks, and also to 
the north and west of Fort Wallace, while Parr 
spent his time principally with the Kiowas and 

From the different posts — Wallace, Dodge, and 
Larned — Lieutenant Beecher kept up communica- 
tion with all three scouts, and through him I heard 


from them at least once a week. Every now and 
then some trouble along the railroad or stage 
routes would be satisfactorily adjusted and quiet 
restored, and matters seemed to be going on very 
well, the warm weather bringing the grass and 
bufifalo in plenty, and still no* outbreak, nor any 
act of downright hostility. So I began to hope 
that we should succeed in averting trouble till the 
favorite war season of the Indians was over, but 
the early days of August rudely ended our fancied 

In July the encampments about Fort Dodge be- 
gan to break up, each band or tribe moving oflP to 
some new location north of the Arkansas, instead 
of toward its proper reservation to the south of 
that river. Then f learned presently that a party 
of Cheyennes had made a raid on the Kaws — 2, 
band of friendly Indians living near Council Grove 
— and stolen their horses, and also robbed the 
houses of several white people near Council Grove. 
This raid was the beginning of the Indian war of 
1868. Immediately following it, the Comanches 
and Kiowas came to Fort Lamed to receive their 
annuities, expecting to get also the arms and am- 
munition promised them at Medicine Lodge, but 
the raid to Council Grove having been reported 
to the Indian Department, the issue of arms was 
suspended till reparation was made. This action 


of the Department greatly incensed the savages, 
^nd the agent's ofifer of the annuities without guns 
,^nd pistols was insolently refused, the Indians 
sulking back to their camps, the young men giv- 
ing themselves up to war -dances, and to pow- 
-^vows with *' medicine-men," till all hope of control 
^^vas gone. 

Brevet Brigadier- General Alfred Sully, an offi- 
<:er of long experience in Indian matters, who at 
^his time was in command of the District of the 
Arkansas, which embraced Forts Larned and 
Dodge, having notified me of these occurrences 
at Larned, and expressed the opinion that the 
Indians were bent on mischief, I directed him 
there immediately to act against them. After he 
reached Larned, the chances for peace appeared 
more favorable. The Indians came to see him, and 
protested that it was only a few bad young men 
who had been depredating, and that all would be 
well and the young men held in check if the agent 
would but issue the arms and ammunition. Believ- 
ing their promises. Sully thought that the delivery 
of the arms would solve all the difficulties, so on 
his advice the agent turned them over along with 
the annuities, the Indians this time condescend- 
ingly accepting. 
This issue of arms and ammunition was a fatal 

mistake ; Indian diplomacy had overreached Sul- 
voL. n. — 19. 


ly's experience, and even while the delivery was 
in progress a party of warriors had already begun 
a raid of murder and rapine, which for acts of 
devilish cruelty perhaps has no parallel in savage 
warfare- The party consisted of about two hun- 
dred Cheyennes and a few Arapahoes, with 
twenty Sioux who had been visiting their friends, 
the Cheyennes. As near as could be ascertained, 
they organized and left their camps along Pawnee 
Creek about the 3d of August. Traveling north- 
east, they skirted around Fort Marker, and made 
their first appearance among the settlers in the 
Saline Valley, about thirty miles north of that 
post. Professing friendship and asking food at 
the farm-houses, they saw the unsuspecting occu- 
pants comply by giving all they could spare from 
their scanty stores. Knowing the Indian's inordi- 
nate fondness for coffee, particularly when well 
sweetened, they even served him this luxury 
freely. With this the demons began their devilish 
work. Pretending to be indignant because it was 
served them in tin cups, they threw the hot con- 
tents into the women's faces, and then, first mak- 
ing prisoners of the men, they, one after another, 
ravished the women till the victims became 
insensible. For some inexplicable reason the two 
farmers were neither killed nor carried oflF, so 
after the red fiends had gone, the unfortunate 



women were brought in to Fort Harker, their 
arrival being the first intimation to the military 
that hostilities had actually begun. 

Leaving the Saline, this war-party crossed over to 
the valley of the Solomon, a more thickly settled 
region, and where the people were in better circum- 
stances, their farms having been started two or 
three vears before. Unaware of the hostile charac- 
ter of the raiders, the people here received them in 
the friendliest way, providing food, and even giv- 
ing them ammunition, little dreaming of what was 
impending. These kindnesses were requited with 
murder and pillage, and worse, for all the women 
who fell into their hands were subjected to hor- 
rors indescribable by words. Here also the first 
murders were committed, thirteen men and two 
women being killed. Then, after burning five 
houses and stealing all the horses they could find, 
they turned back toward the Saline, carrying 
away as prisoners two little girls named Bell, 
who have never been heard of since. 

It was probably the intention to finish, as they 
marched back to the south, the devilish work 
begun on the Saline, but before they reached that 
•valley on the return, the victims left there origi- 
nally had fled to Fort Harker, as already explain- 
ed, and Captain Benteen was now nearing the 
little settlement with a troop of cavalry, which 



he had hurriedly marched from Fort Zarah. The 
savages were attacking the house of a Mr. Scher- 
merhorn, where a few of the settlers had collected 
for defense, when Benteen approached. Hearing 
the firing, the troopers rode toward the sound at 
a gallop, but when they appeared in view, coming 
over the hills, the Indians fled in all directions, 
escaping punishment through their usual tactics 
of scattering over the Plains, so as to leave no dis- 
tinctive trail. 

When this frightful raid was taking place, Lieu- 
tenant Beecher, with his three scouts — Comstock, 
Grover, and Parr — was on Walnut Creek. Indefi- 
nite rumors about troubles on the Saline and 
Solomon reaching him, he immediately sent Com- 
stock and Grover over to the headwaters of the 
Solomon, to the camp of a band of Cheyennes, 
whose chief was called ** Turkey Leg," to see if 
any of the raiders belonged there ; to learn the 
facts, and make explanations, if it was found that 
the white people had been at fault. For years 
this chief had been a special friend of Comstock 
and Grover. They had trapped, hunted, and lived 
with his band, and from this intimacy they felt 
confident of being able to get ** Turkey Leg " to 
quiet his people, if any of them were engaged in 
the raid ; and, at all events, they expected, through 
him and his band, to influence the rest of the 


Cheyennes. From the moment they arrived in 
the Indian village, however, the two scouts met 
with a very cold reception. Neither friendly pipe 
nor food was offered them, and before they could 
recover from their chilling reception, they were 
peremptorily ordered out of the village, with the 
intimation that when the Cheyennes were on the 
war-path the presence of whites was intolerable. 
The scouts were prompt to leave, of course, and for 
a few miles were accompanied by an escort of seven 
young men, who said they were sent with them 
to protect the two from harm. As the party rode 
along over the prairie, such a depth of attachment 
was professed for Comstock and Grover that, 
notwithstanding all the experience of their past 
lives, they were thoroughly deceived, and in the 
midst of a friendly conversation some of the 
young warriors fell suddenly to the rear and 
treacherously fired on them. 

At the volley Comstock fell from his horse, 
instantly killed. Grover, badly wounded in the 
shoulder, also fell to the ground near Comstock. 
Seeing his comrade was dead, Grover made use of 
his friend's body to protect himself, lying close 
behind it. Then took place a remarkable contest, 
Grover, alone and severely wounded, obstinately 
fighting the seven Indians, and holding them at 
bay for the rest of the day. Being an expert shot. 


and having a long-range repeating rifle, he " stood 
off " the savages till dark. Then cautiously crawl- 
ing away on his belly to a deep ravine, he lay 
close, suffering terribly from his wound, till the 
following night, when, setting out for Fort Wal- 
lace, he arrived there the succeeding day, almost 
crazed from pain and exhaustion. 
^ Simultaneously with the fiendish atrocities com- 
mitted on the Saline and Solomon rivers and the 
attack on Comstock and Grover. the pillaging and 
murdering began on the Smoky Hill stage-route, 
along the upper Arkansas River and on the head- 
waters of the Cimarron. That along the Smoky 
Hill and north of it was the exclusive work of \ 
the Cheyennes, a part of the Arapahoes. and the 
few Sioux allies heretofore mentioned, while the 
raiding on the Arkansas and Cimarron was done 
principally by the Kiowas under their chief, Sa- 
tanta. aided by some of the Comanches. The 
young men of these tribes set out on their bloody 
work just after the annuities and guns were issued 
at Larned, and as soon as they were well on the 
road the rest of the Comanches and Kiowas 
escaped from the post and fled south of the Ar- 
kansas. They were at once pursued by General 
Sully with a small force, but by the time he 
reached the Cimarron the war-party had finished 
its raid on the upper Arkansas, and so many Ind- 



ians combined against .Sully that he was com- 
pelled to withdraw -to Fort Dodge, which he 
reached not without considerable difficulty, and 
after three severe fights. 

These, and many minor raids which followed, 
made it plain that a general outbreak was upon us. 
The only remedy, therefore, was to subjugate the 
savages immediately engaged in the forays by 
forcing the several tribes to settle down on the 
reservations set apart by the treaty of Medicine 
Lodge. The principal mischief-makers were the 
Cheyennes. Next in deviltry were the Kiowas, 
and then the Arapahoes and Comanches. Some 
few of these last two tribes continued friendly, or 
at least took no active part in the raiding, but 
nearly all the young men of both were the con- 
stant allies of the Cheyennes and Kiowas. All 
four tribes together could put on the war-path a 
formidable force of about 6,000 warriors. The 
subjugation of this number of savages would be 
no easy task, so to give the matter my undivided 
attention I transferred my headquarters from 
Leavenworth to Fort Hays, a military post near 
which the prosperous town of Hays City now 

Fort Hays was just beyond the line of the most 
advanced settlements, and was then the terminus 
of the Kansas-Pacific railroad. For this reason it 


could be made a d^pdt of supplies, and was a good 
point from which to supervise matters in the sec- 
tion of country to be operated in, which district is 
a part of the Great American Plains, extending 
soutli from the Platte River in Nebraska to the 
Red River in the Indian Territory, and westward 
from the line of frontier settlements to the foot- 
hills of the Rocky Mountains, a vast region em- 
bracing an area of about 150,000 square miles. 
With the exception of a half-dozen military posts 
and a few stations on the two overland emigrant 
routes — the Smoky Hill to Denver, and the Ar- 
kansas to New Mexico — this country was an un- 
settled waste known only to the Indians and a 
few trappers. There were neither roads nor well- 
marked trails, and the only timber to be found — 
which generally grew only along the streams — 
was so scraggy and worthless as hardly to deserve 
the name. Nor was water by any means plentiful, 
even though the section is traversed by important 
streams, the Republican, the Smoky Hill, the Ar- 
kansas, the Cimarron, and the Canadian all flow- 
ing eastwardly, as do also their tributaries in the 
main. These feeders are sometimes long and 
crooked, but as a general thing the volume of 
water is insignificant except after rain-falls. Then, 
because of unimpeded drainage, the little streams 
fill up rapidly with torrents of water, which quickly 


flows ofiF or sinks into the sand, leaving only an 
occasional pool without visible inlet or outlet. 

At the period of which I write, in 1868, the Plains 
were covered with vast herds of buffalo — the num- 
ber has been estimated at 3,000,000 head — and with 
such means of subsistence as this everywhere at 
hand, the 6,000 hostiles were wholly unhampered 
by any problem of food-supply. The savages 
were rich too according to Indian standards, many 
a lodge owning from twenty to a hundred ponies ; 
and consciousness of wealth and power, aided 
by former temporizing, had made them not 
only confident but defiant. Realizing that their 
thorough subjugation would be a difficult task, I 
made up my mind to confine operations during 
the grazing and hunting season to protecting the 
people of the new settlements and on the overland 
routes, and then, when winter came, to fall upon 
the savages relentlessly, for in that season their 
ponies would be thin, and weak from lack of food, 
and in the cold and snow, without strong ponies 
to transport their villages and plunder, their move- 
ments would be so much impeded that the troops 
could overtake them. 

At the outbreak of hostilities I had in all, east 
of New Mexico, a force of regulars numbering 
about 2,600 men — 1,200 mounted and 1,400 foot 
troops. The cavalry was composed of the Seventh 


and Tenth regiments ; the infantry, of the Third 
and Fifth regiments and four companies of the 
Thirty-Eighth. With these few troops all the 
posts along the Smoky Hill and Arkansas had to 
be garrisoned, emigrant trains escorted, and the 
settlements and routes of travel and the construc- 
tion parties on the Kansas-Pacific railway pro- 
tected. Then, too, this same force had to furnish 
for the field small movable columns, that were 
always on the go, so it will be rightly inferred 
that every available man was kept busy from the 
middle of August till November ; especially as 
during this period the hostiles attacked over forty 
widely dispersed places, in nearly all cases stealing 
horses, burning houses, and killing settlers. It was 
of course impossible to foresee where these de- 
scents would be made, but as soon as an attack 
was heard of assistance was always promptly ren- 
dered, and every now and then we succeeded in 
killing a few savages. As a general thing, though, 
the raiders escaped before relief arrived, and when 
they had a few miles the start, all efforts to catch 
them were futile. I therefore discouraged long 
pursuits, and, in fact, did not approve of making 
any at all unless the chances of obtaining paying 
results were very evident, otherwise the troops 
would be worn out by the time the hard work of 
the winter was demanded from them. 



To get ready for a winter campaign of six 
months gave us much to do. The thing most 
needed was more men, so I asked for additional 
cavalry, and all that could be spared — ^seven 
troops of the Fifth Cavalry — was sent to me. Be- 
lieving this reinforcement insufficient, to sup- 
plement it I applied for a regiment of Kansas 
>rolunteers, which request being granted, the 
organization of the regiment was immediately 
l>egun at Topeka. It was necessary also to pro- 
vide a large amount of transportation and ac- 
<:umulate quantities of stores, since the campaign 
probably would not end till spring. Another 
important matter was to secure competent guides 
for the diflFerent columns of troops, for, as I have 
said, the section of country to be operated in was 
comparatively unknown. 

In those days the railroad town of Hays City 
was filled with so-called ''Indian scouts," whose 
common boast was of having slain scores of red- 
skins, but the real scout — that is, a guide and 
trailer knowing the habits of the Indians — was 
very scarce, and it was hard to find anybody 
familiar with the country south of the Arkansas, 
where the campaign was to be made. Still, about 
Hays City and the various military posts there 
was some good material to select from, and we 
managed to employ several men, who, from their 


experience on the Plains in various capacities, o^ 
from natural instinct and aptitude, soon beca«:^^ 
excellent guides and courageous and valua^B^le 
scouts, some of them, indeed, gaining much c3iis- 
tinction. Mr. William F. Cody (" BuflFalo Bill '*), 
whose renown has since become world-wide, vw^^s 
one of the men thus selected. He received 
sobriquet from his marked success in killin 
buflFaloes for a contractor, to supply fresh meat t 
the construction parties on the Kansas-Pacific raiP 
way. He had given up this business, however, 
and was now in the employ of the quartermaster's 
department of the army, and was first brought to 
my notice by distinguishing himself in bringing 
me an important despatch from Fort Larned to 
Fort Hays, a distance of sixty-five miles, through 
a section infested with Indians. The despatch 
informed me that the Indians near Larned were 
preparing to decamp, and this intelligence required 
that certain orders should be carried to Fort 
Dodge, ninety-five miles south of Hays. This 
too being a particularly dangerous route — several 
couriers having been killed on it — it was impos- 
sible to get one of the various '' Petes," ''Jacks," 
or '* Jims" hanging around Hays City to take my 
communication. Cody learning of the strait I was 
in, manfully came to the rescue, and proposed to 
make the trip to Dodge, though he had just 


finished his long and perilous ride from Larned. I 

gratefully accepted his oflFer, and after four or five 

hours' rest he mounted a fresh horse and hastened 

on his journey, halting but once to rest on the 

^way, and then only for an hour, the stop being 

made at Coon Creek, where he got another mount 

from a troop of cavalry. At Dodge he took six 

hours' sleep, and then continued on to his own 

post — Fort Larned — with more despatches. After 

resting twelve hours at Larned, he was again in 

the saddle with tidings for me at Fort Hays, 

General Hazen sending him, this time, with word 

that the villages had fled to the south of the 

Arkansas. Thus, in all, Cody rode about 350 miles 

in less than sixty hours, and such an exhibition of 

endurance and courage was more than enough to 

convince me that his services would be extremely 

valuable in the campaign, so I retained him at 

Fort Hays till the battalion of the Fifth Cavalry 

arrived, and then made him chief of scouts for 

that regiment. 

The information brought me by Cody on his 
second trip from Larned indicated where the 
villages would be found in the winter, and I de- 
cided to move on them about the ist of Novem- 
ber. Only the women and children and the 
decrepit old men were Vith the villages, however 
—enough, presumably, to look after the plunder — 


most of the warriors remaining north of the Ar- 
^ kansas to continue their marauding. Many severe 
fights occurred between our troops and these 
marauders, and in these aflFairs, before November 
1 over a hundred Indians were killed, yet from 
the ease with which the escaping savages would 
disappear only to fall upon remote settlements 
with pillage and murder, the results were by no 
means satisfactory. One of the most noteworthy 
of these preliminary affairs was the gallant fight 
made on the Republican River the 1 7th of Sep- 
tember by my Aide, Colonel George A. Forsyth, 
and party, against about seven hundred Cheyen- 
nes and Sioux. Forsyth, with Lieutenant Bcecher, 
and Doctor J. H. Mooers as surgeon, was in 
charge of a company of citizen scouts, mostly ex- 
pert rifle-shots, but embracing also a few Indian 
fighters, among these Grover and Parr. The com- 
pany was organized the latter part of August for 
immediate work in defense of the settlements, and 
also for future use in the Indian Territory when 
the campaign should open there. About the time 
the company had reached its complement — it was 
limited to forty-seven men and three oflScers — a 
small band of hostiles began depredations near 
Sheridan City, one of the towns that grew up 
over-night on the Kansas-Pacific railway. Forsyth 
pursued this party, but failing to overtake ^t, 



made his way into Fort Wallace for rations, in- 
tending to return from there to Fort Hays. Before 
he started back, however, another band of Indians 
appeared near the post and stole some horses 
from the stage company. This unexpected raid 
made Forsyth hot to go for the marauders, and he 
telegraphed me for permission, which I as prompt- 
ly gave him. He left the post on the loth of Sep- 
tember, the command consisting of himself. Lieu- 
tenant Beecher, Acting Assistant Surgeon Mooers, 
and the full strength, forty -seven men, with a 
few pack mules carrying about ten days' rations. 
He headed north toward the Republican River. 
For the first two days the trail was indistinct and 
hard to follow. During the next three it continued 
to grow much larger, indicating plainly that the 
number of Indians ahead was rapidly increasing. 
Of course this sign meant a fight as soon as a 
large enough force was mustered, but as this was 
what Forsyth was after, he pushed ahead with 
confidence and alacrity. The night of the i6th of 
September he encamped on the Arickaree branch 
of the Republican, not far from the forks of the 
river, with the expectation of resuming the march 
as usual next day, for the indications were that 
the main body of the savages must be still a long 
way off, though in the preceding twenty-four 
hours an occasional Indian had been seen. 


But the enemy was much nearer than was 
thought, for at daybreak on the morning of the 
17th he made known his immediate presence by a 
sudden dash at Forsyth's horses, a few of which 
were stampeded and captured before the scouts 
could reach them. This dash was made by a 
small party only to get the horses, so those en- 
gaged in it were soon driven off, but a few min- 
utes later hundreds of savages — it was afterward 
learned that seven hundred warriors took part in 
the fight — hitherto invisible, showed themselves 
on the hills overlooking the camp and so men- 
acingly as to convince Forsyth that his defense 
must be one of desperation. The only place at 
hand that gave any hope of successful resistance 
was a small island in the Arickaree, the channel 
on one side being about a foot deep while on the 
other it was completely dry ; so to this position a 
hurried retreat was made. Ail the men and the 
remaining animals reached the island in safety, 
but on account of the heavy fire poured in from 
the neighboring hills the packs containing the ra- 
tions and medicines had to be abandoned. 

On seeing Forsyth's hasty move, the Indians, 
thinking they had him, prepared to overwhelm 
the scouts by swooping down on one side of the 
island with about five hundred mounted warriors, 
while about two hundred, covered by the tall 


grass in the river-bottom attacked the other side, 
dismounted. But the brave little band sadly dis- 
appointed them. When the charge came it was 
met with such a deadly fire that a large number of 
the fiends were killed, some of them even after 
gaining the bank of the island. This check had the 
eflfect of making the savages more wary, but they 
were still bold enough to make two more assaults 
before mid-day. Each of these ending like the 
first, the Indians thereafter contented themselves 
with shooting all the horses, which had been tied 
up to some scraggy little cottonwood-trees, and 
then proceeded to lay siege to the party. 

The first man struck was Forsyth himself. He 
was hit three times in all — twice in one leg, both 
serious wounds, and once on the head, a slight 
abrasion of the scalp. A moment later Beecher 
was killed and Doctor Mooers mortally wounded : 
and in addition to these misfortunes the scouts 
kept getting hit, till several were killed, and the 
whole number of casualties had reached twenty- 
one in a company of forty-seven. Yet with all 
this, and despite the seeming hopelessness of the 
situation, the survivors kept up their pluck undi- 
minished, and during a lull succeeding the third re- 
pulse dug into the loose soil till the entire party 
was pretty well protected by rifle - pits. Thus 
covered they stood off the Indians for the next 

Vol. IL— ao. 


three days, although of course their condition be- 
came deplorable from lack of food, while those 
who were hurt suflFered indescribable agony, since 
no means were at hand for dressing their wounds. 
By the third day the Indians, seeming to de- 
spair of destroying the beleaguered party before 
succor might arrive, began to draw oflF, and on 
the fourth wholly disappeared. The men were by 
this time nearly famished for food. Even now 
there was nothing to be had except horse-meat 
from the carcasses of the animals killed the first 
day, and this, though decidedly unpalatable, not 
to say disgusting, had to be put up with, and so 
on such unwholesome stuff they managed to 
live for four days longer, at the end of which time 
they were rescued by a column of troops under 
Colonel Bankhead, which had hastened from Fort 
Wallace in response to calls for help, carried there 
by two brave fellows — Stilwell and Truedell — who, 
volunteering to go for relief, had slipped through 
the Indians, and struck out for that post in the 
night after the first day's fight. 




BY A BLIZZARD— Custer's fight on the washita 
— defeat and death of black kettle — mas- 
sacre of Elliott's party — relief of colonel 

" I "HE end of October saw completed the most 
of my arrangements for the winter cam- 
paign, though the difficulties and hardships to be 
encountered had led several experienced oflScers 
of the army, and some frontiersmen like Mr. James 
Bridger, the famous scout and guide of earlier 
days, to discourage the project. Bridger even 
went so far as to come out from St. Louis to dis- 
suade me, but I reasoned that as the soldier was 
much better fed and clothed than the Indian, I 
had one great advantage, and that, in short, a suc- 
cessful campaign could be made if the operations 
of the diflferent columns were energetically con- 
ducted. To see to this I decided to go in person 
with the main column, which was to push down 
into the western part of the Indian Territory, 

having for its initial objective the villages which, 



at the beginning of hostilities, had fled toward 
the head-waters of the Red River, and those also 
that had gone to the same remote region after 
decamping from the neignoorhood of Larned at 
the time that General Hazen sent Buffalo Bill to 
me with the news. 

The column which was expected to do the main 
work was to be composed of the Nineteenth Kansas 
Volunteer Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Craw- 
ford ; eleven troops of the Seventh United States 
Cavalry, under General Custer, and a battalion of 
five companies of infantry under Brevet Major 
John H. Page. To facilitate matters. General 
Sully, the district commander, was ordered to 
rendezvous these troops and establish a supply 
d6p6t about a hundred miles south of Fort Dodge, 
as from such a point operations could be more read- 
ily conducted. He selected for the d^pdt a most 
suitable place at the confluence of Beaver and Wolf 
creeks, and on his arrival there with Custer's and 
Page's commands, named the place Camp Supply. 

In conjunction with the main column, two others 
also were to penetrate the Indian Territory. One 
of these, which was to march east from New 
Mexico by way of Fort Bascom, was to be com- 
posed of six troops of the Third Cavalry and two 
companies of infantry, the whole under Colonel 
A. W. Evans. The other, consisting of seven 


troops of the Fifth Cavalry, and commanded by- 
Brevet Brigadier-General Eugene A. Carr, was to 
march southeast from Fort Lyon ; the intention 
being that Evans and Carr should destroy or 
drive in toward old Fort Cobb any straggling 
bands that might be prowling through the country 
west of my own line of march ; Carr, as he ad- 
vanced, to be joined by Brevet Brigadier-General 
W. H. Penrose, with five troops of cavalry already 
in the field southeast of Lyon. The Fort Bascom 
column, after establishing a d^p6t of supplies at 
Monument Creek, was to work down the main 
Canadian, and remain out as long as it could feed 
itself from New Mexico ; Carr, having united with 
Penrose on the North Canadian, was to operate 
toward the Antelope Hills and head-waters of the 
Red River ; while I, with the main column was to 
move southward to strike the Indians along the 
Washita, or still farther south on branches of the 
Red River. 

It was no small nor easy task to outfit all these 
troops by the time cold weather set in, and provide 
for them during the winter, but by the ist of No- 
vember I had enough supplies accumulated at Forts 
Dodge and Lyon for my own and Carr's columns, 
and in addition directed subsistence and forage 
for three months to be sent to Fort Gibson for 
final delivery at Fort Arbuckle, as I expected to 


feed the command from this place when we ar- j 
rived in the neighborhood of old Fort Cobb, but \ 
through some mismanagement few of these stores ( 
got further than Gibson before winter came on. 

November i, all being ready. Colonel Crawford 
was furnished with competent guides, and, after 
sending two troops to Fort Dodge to act as my 
escort, with the rest of his regiment he started 
from Topeka November 5, under orders to march 1 
straight for the rendezvous at the junction of i 
Beaver and Wolf creeks. He was expected to 
reach his destination about the 20th, and there 
unite with the Seventh Cavalry and the battalion 
of infantry, which in the mean time were on the 
march from Dodge. A few days later Carr and 
Evans began their march also, and everything 
being now in motion, I decided to go to Camp 
Supply to give the campaign my personal atten- 
tion, determined to prove that operations could be 
successfully conducted in spite of winter, and 
bent on showing the Indians that they were not 
secure from punishment because of inclement 
weather — an ally on which they had hitherto re- 
lied with much assurance. 

We started from Fort Hays on the 15th of No- 
vember, and the first night out a blizzard struck 
us and carried away our tents; and as the gale 
was so violent that they could not be put up 



again, the rain and snow drenched us to the skin. 
Shivering from wet and cold, I took refuge under 
a wagon, and there spent such a miserable night 
that, when at last morning came, the gloomy pre- 
dictions of old man Bridger and others rose up 
before me with greatly increased force. As we 
took the road the sleet and snow were still falling, 
but we labored on to Dodge that day in spite of 
the fact that many of the mules played out on the 
way. We stayed only one night at Dodge, and 
then on the 1 7th, escorted by a troop of cavalry 
and Forsyth's scouts, now under the command of 
Lieutenant Lewis Pepoon, crossed the Arkansas 
and camped the night of the i8th at BluflF Creek, 
where the two troops of the Nineteenth Kansas, 
previously detailed as my escort, were awaiting 
our coming. As we were approaching this camp 
some suspicious looking objects were seen mov- 
ing oflF at a long distance to the east of us, but as 
the scouts confidently pronounced them buffalo, 
we were unaware of their true character till next 
morning, when we became satisfied that what we 
had seen were Indians, for immediately after 
crossing Beaver Creek we struck a trail, leading 
to the northeast, of a war party that evidently 
came up from the head-waters of the Washita 
The evening of November 21 we arrived at the 


Camp Supply d^pdt, having traveled all day in 
another snow-storm that did not end till twenty- 
four hours later. General Sully, with Custer's 
regiment and the infantry battalion, had reached 
the place several days before, but the Kansas 
regiment had not yet put in an appearance. All 
hands were hard at work trying to shelter the 
stores and troops, but from the trail seen that 
morning, believing that an opportunity oflFered to 
strike an effective blow, I directed Custer to call 
in his working parties and prepare to move im- 
mediately, without waiting for Crawford's regi- 
ment, unaccountably absent. Custer was ready 
to start by the 23d, and he was then instructed to 
march north to where the trail had been seen near 
Beaver Creek and follow it on the back track, for, 
being convinced that the war party had come 
from the Washita, I felt certain that this plan 
would lead directly to the villages. 

The difficulties attending a winter campaign 
were exhibited now with their full force, as the 
march had to be conducted through a snow-storm 
that hid surrounding objects, and so covered the 
country as to alter the appearance of the promi- 
nent features, making the task of the guides doub- 
ly troublesome ; but in spite of these obstacles 
fifteen miles had been traversed when Custer en- 
camped for the night. The next day the storm 


had ceased* and the weather was clear and cold. 
The heavy fall of snow had of course obliterated 
the trail in the bottoms, and everywhere on the 
level ; but, thanks to the wind, that had «wept 
comparatively bare the rough' places and high 
ground, the general direction could be traced 
without much trouble. The day's march, which 
was through a country abounding with buffalo, 
was unattended by any special incident at first, 
but during the afternoon, after getting the column 
across the Canadian River — an operation which, 
on account of the wagons, consumed considerable 
time — Custer's scouts (friendly Osages) brought 
back word that, some miles ahead, they had 
struck fresh signs, a trail coming into the old one 
from the north, which, in their opinion, indicated 
that the war party was returning to the villages. 
On the receipt of this news, Custer, leaving a 
guard with the wagons, hastily assembled the rest 
of his men, and pushing on rapidly, overtook the 
scouts and a detailed party from his regiment 
which had accompanied them, all halted on the 
new trail awaiting his arrival. A personal exam- 
ination satisfied Custer that the surmises of his 
scouts were correct ; and also that the fresh trail 
in the deep snow could at night be followed with 
ease. After a short halt for supper and rest the 
pursuit wa^ resumed, the Osage scouts in advance, 

314 pjutsoNAL Moumats ar^. m: smsMmMjr. 

and although the hostile Indians were presumed 
to be yet some distance off, every precaution was 
taken to prevent detection and to enable our 
troops to strike them unawares. The fresh trsul, 
which it was afterward ascertained had been 
made by raiders from Black Kettle's village of 
Cheyennes, and by some Arapahoes, led into the 
valley of the Washita, and growing fresher as the 
night wore on, finally brought the Osages upon a 
camp-fire, still smoldering, which, it was con- 
cluded, had been built by the Indian boys acting 
as herders of the ponies during the previous day. 
It was evident, then, that the village could be but 
a few miles off ; hence the pursuit was continued 
with redoubled caution until, a few hours before 
dawn of the 27th, as the leading scouts peered 
over a rise on the line of march, they discovered 
a large body of animals in the valley below. 

As soon as they reported this discovery, Custer 
determined to acquaint himself with the situation 
by making a reconnoissance in person, accompa- 
nied by his principal officers. So, sending back 
word to halt the cavalry, he directed the officers 
to ride forward with him ; then dismounting, the 
entire party crept cautiously to a high point which 
overlooked the valley, and from where, by the 
bright moon then shining, they saw just how the 
village was situated. It position was such as to 



admit of easy approach from all sides. So, to pre- 
clude an escape of the Indians, Custer decided to 
attack at daybreak, and from four different direc- 

The plan having been fully explained to the 
officers, the remaining hours of the night were 
employed in making the necessary dispositions. 
Two of the detachments left promptly, since they 
had to make a circuitous march of several miles 
to reach the points designated for their attack ; 
the third started a little later ; and then the fourth 
and last, under Custer himself, also moved into 
position. As the first light grew visible in the 
east, each column moved closer in to the village, 
and then, all dispositions having been made ac- 
cording to the prearranged plan, from their ap- 
pointed places the entire force — to the opening 
notes of ** Garry Owen," played by the regi- 
mental band as the signal for the attack — dashed 
at a gallop into the village. The sleeping and 
unsuspecting savages were completely surprised 
by the onset ; yet after the first confusion, during 
which the impulse to escape principally actuated 
them, they seized their weapons, and from behind 
logs and trees, or plungmg into the stream and 
using its steep bank as a breastwork, they poured 
upon their assailants a heavy fire, and kept on 
fighting with every exhibition of desperation. In 


such a combat mounted men were useless, so Cus- 
ter directed his troopers to fight on foot, and the 
Indians were successively driven from one point 
of vantage to another, until, finally, by 9 o'clock 
the entire camp was in his possession and the 
victory complete. Black Kettle and over one 
hundred of his warriors were killed, and about 
fifty women and children captured; but most of 
the non-combatants, as well as a few warriors 
and boys, escaped in the confusion of the fight. 
Making their way down the river, these fugitives 
alarmed the rest of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, 
and also the Kiowas and Comanches, whose vil- 
lages were in close proximity — ^the nearest not 
more than two miles ofiF. 

Then of course all the warriors of these tribes 
rallied to attack Custer, who meantime was en- 
gaged burning Black Kettle's camp and collecting 
his herds of ponies. But these new foes were 
rather wary and circumspect, though they already 
had partial revenge in an unlooked for way by 
cutting off Major Elliott and fifteen men, who had 
gone off in pursuit of a batch of young warriors 
when the fight was going on at the village. In 
fact, the Indians had killed Elliott's whole party, 
though neither the fate of the poor fellows, nor 
how they happened to be caught, was known till 
long afterward. It was then ascertained that the 



detachment pursued a course due south, nearly at 
right angles to the Washita River, and after gal- 
loping a couple of miles over the hills, crossing a 
small branch of the Washita on the way, they 
captured some of the fugitives. In bringing the 
prisoners back, Elliott was in turn attacked on 
the open prairie by a large number of savages 
from farther down the Washita, who by this time 
were swarming to the aid of Black Kettle's village. 
The little band fought its way gallantly to within 
rifle-range of the small creek referred to, but could 
get no farther, for the Indians had taken up a 
position in the bed of the stream, and from under 
cover of its banks Elliott and all his remaining 
men were quickly killed. No relief was sent them, 
for Custer, not having seen Elliott set out, knew 
nothing of the direction taken, and, besides, was 
busy burning the villages and securing the ponies, 
and deeply concerned, too, with defending him- 
self from the new dangers menacing him. Elliott 
and his brave little party were thus left to meet 
their fate alone. 

While Custer was burning the lodges and plun- 
der and securing the ponies, the Indians from 
the villages down the Washita were gathering 
constantly around him till by mid-day they had 
collected in thousands, and then came a new prob- 
lem as to what should be done. If he attacked 


the other villages, there was great danger of his 
being overwhelmed, and should he start back to 
Camp Supply by daylight, he would run the risk 
of losing his prisoners and the ponies, so, thinking 
the matter over, he decided to shoot all the ponies, 
and keep skirmishing with the savages till night- 
fall, and then, under cover of the darkness, return 
to Camp Supply ; a programme that was carried 
out successfully, but Custer's course received some 
severe criticism because no effort was made to 
discover what had become of Elliott. 

Custer had, in all, two o£Bcers and nineteen men 
killed, and two o£Bcers and eleven men wounded. 
The blow struck was a most effective one, and, 
fortunately, fell on one of the most villanous of 
the hostile bands that, without any provocation 
whatever, had perpetrated the massacres on the 
Saline and Solomon, committing atrocities too re- 
pulsive for recital, and whose hands were still red 
from their bloody work on the recent raid. Black 
Kettle, the chief, was an old man, and did not 
himself go with the raiders to the Saline and Solo- 
mon, and on this account his fate was regretted 
by some. But it was old age only that kept him 
back, for before the demons set out from Walnut 
Creek he had freely encouraged them by " making 
medicine," and by other devilish incantations that 
are gone through with at war and scalp dances. 


When the horrible work was over he undertook 
to shield himself by professions of friendship, but 
being put to the test by my ofiFering to feed and 
care for all of his band who would come in to Fort 
Dodge and remain there peaceably, he defiantly 
refused. The consequence of this refusal was a 
merited punishment, only too long delayed. 

I received the first news of Custer's fight on the 
Washita on the morning of November 29. It was 
brought to me by one of his white scouts, " Cali- 
fornia Joe," a noted character, who had been ex- 
periencing the ups and downs of pioneer life ever 
since crossing the Plains in 1849. Joe was an in- 
valuable guide and Indian fighter whenever the 
clause of the statute prohibiting liquors in the 
Indian country happened to be in full force. At 
the time in question the restriction was by no 
means a dead letter, and Joe came through in 
thirty-six hours, though obliged to keep in hiding 
during daylight of the 28th. The tidings brought 
were joyfully received by everybody at Camp 
Supply, and they were particularly agreeable to 
me, for, besides being greatly worried about the 
safety of the command in the extreme cold and 
deep snows, I knew that the immediate effect of 
a victory would be to demoralize the rest of the 
hostiles, which of course would greatly facilitate 
and expedite our ultimate success. Toward even- 

-atr ^sssOiXiL JiEmwts of p. h, sheridan. 

is^ ^>^ Civ alter Joe arrived the head of Cus- 

nuide Its appearance on the distant 

> ^<*.ll^iM 

jri^TSiess ia Jfcdvance- As they drew near, the 
^c.MCS began a wild and picturesque performance 
in c«ebniik«i of the victory, yelling, firing their 
^::«:?v d«v>wing themselves on the necks and sides 
.^^ ridr boc«s to exhibit their skill in riding, and 
^^X3^ iJarvHig^ all sorts of barbaric evolutions and 
^xrjL»«s^ which were continued till night, when 
r5< »>?«ctQgs were ended with the hideous scalp 

t^ ^iibappearance of Major Elliott and his party 
^jts thsr only damper upon our pleasure, and the 
>.HU\ si'rawback to the very successful expedition. 
!"hvMV wa::> uo definite information as to the de- 
uivSiutcut, and Custer was able to report nothing 
iiKHC thau that he had not seen Elliott since just 
IVKHV the fight began. His theory was, however, 
;lvu t'tlKHC and his men had strayed off on account 
vN \i\iug no guide, and would ultimately come 
-a ,ul vt^ht to Camp Supply or make their way 
-\jkv < iv^ Fort IX>dge ; a very unsatisfactory view 
o< uV matter, but as no one knew the direction 
h:iK^t hvid taken, it was useless to speculate on 
sN»Kt suppositions, and altogether too late to 
uvi^v .uiy :>earch for him. 
. ^os u%>w anxious to follow up Custer's stroke 


by an immediate move to the south with the en- 
tire column, but the Kansas regiment had not yet 
arrived. At first its non-appearance did not worry 
me much, for I attributed the delay to the bad 
weather, and supposed Colonel Crawford had 
wisely laid up during the worst storms. Further 
waiting, however, would give the Indians a chance 
to recover from the recent dispiriting defeat, so I 
sent out scouting parties to look Crawford up and 
hurry him along. After a great deal of searching, 
a small detachment of the regiment was found 
about fifty miles below us on the North Canadian, 
seeking our camp. This detachment was in a 
pretty bad plight, and when brought in, the ofl&cer 
in charge reported that the regiment, by not fol- 
lowing the advice of the guide sent to conduct 
it to Camp Supply, had lost its way. Instead of 
relying on the guides, Crawford had undertaken 
to strike through the cafions of the Cimarron by 
what appeared to him a more direct route, and in 
the deep gorges, filled as they were with snow, he 
had bfen floundering about for days without 
being able to extricate his command. Then, too, 
the men were out of rations, though they had been 
able to obtain enough buffalo meat to keep from 
starving. As for the horses, since they could get 
no grass, about seven hundred of them had already 
perished from starvation and exposure. Provi- 

Vou II. — 21. 



sions and guides were immediately sent out to the 
regiment, but before the relief could reach Craw- 
ford his remaining horses were pretty much all 
gone, though the men were brought in without 
loss of life. Thus, the regiment being dismounted 
by this misfortune at the threshold of the cam- 
paign, an important factor of my cavalry was lost 
to me. though as foot-troops the Kansas volunteers 
continued to render very valuable services till mus- 
tered out the next spring. 




BODIES OF Elliott's party — the abandoned 






A FEW days were necessarily lost setting up 
and refitting the Kansas regiment after its 
rude experience in the Cimarron canons. This 
through with, the expedition, supplied with thirty 
days' rations, moved out to the; south on the 7th 
of December, under my personal command. We 
headed for the Witchita Mountains, toward which 
rough region all the villages along the Washita 
River had fled after Custer's fight with Black 
Kettle. My line of march was by way of Custer's 
battle-field, and thence down the Washita, and if 
the Indians could not sooner be brought to terms, 
I intended to follow them into the Witchita 
Mountains from near old Fort Cobb. The snow 

was still deep everywhere, and when we started 



the thermometer was below zero, but the sky 
being clear and the day very bright, the command 
was in excellent spirits. The column was made 
up of ten companies of the Kansas regiment, dis- 
mounted ; eleven companies of the Seventh Caval- 
ry, Pepoon's scouts, and the Osage scouts. In 
addition to Pepoon's men and the Osages, there 
was ajso " California Joe," and one or two other 
frontiersmen besides, to act as guides and inter- 
preters. Of all these the principal one, the one 
who best knew the country, was Ben Clark, a 
young man who had lived with the Cheyennes 
during much of his boyhood, and who not only 
had a pretty good knowledge of the country, but 
also spoke fluently the Cheyenne and Arapahoe 
dialects, and was an adept in the sign language. 

The first day we made only about ten miles, 
which carried us. to the south bank of Wolf Creek. 
A considerable part of the day was devoted to 
straightening out matters in the command, and 
allowing time for equalizing the wagon loads, 
which as a general thing, on a first day's march, 
are unfairly distributed. And then there was an 
abundance of fire-wood at Wolf Creek ; indeed, 
here and on Hackberry Creek — where I intended 
to make my next camp — was the only timber north 
of the Canadian River ; and to select the halting 
places near a plentiful supply of wood was almost 


indispensable, for as the men were provided with 
only shelter-tents, good fires were needed in order 
to keep warm. 

The second day, after marching for hours 
through vast herds of buffalo, we made Hack- 
berry Creek ; but not, however, without sev- 
eral stampedes in the wagon-train, the buffalo 
frightening the mules so that it became necessary 
to throw out flankers to shoot the leading bulls 
and thus turn off the herds. In the wake of every 
drove invariably followed a band of wolves. This 
animal is a great coward usually, but hunger had 
made these so ravenous that they would come 
boldly up to the column, and as quick as a buffalo 
was killed, or even disabled, they would fall upon 
the carcass and eagerly devour it. Antelope also 
were very numerous, and as they were quite tame 
— being seldom chased — and naturally very inquis- 
itive, it was not an unf i^equent thing to see one of 
the graceful little creatures run in among the men 
and be made a prisoner. Such abundance of game 
relieved the monotony of the march to Hackberry 
Creek, but still, both men and animals were con- 
siderably exhausted by their long tramp, for we 
made over thirty miles that day. 

We camped in excellent shape on the creek, 
and it was well we did, for a '* Norther," or ** bliz- 
zard," as storms on the Plains are now termed. 


Struck US in the night. During the continuance of 
these blizzards, which is usually about three days, 
the cold wind sweeps over the Plains with great 
force, and, in the latitude of the Indian Territory, 
is weighted with great quantities of sleet and 
snow, through which it is often impossible to 
travel ; indeed, these " Northers " have many times 
proved fatal to the unprotected frontiersman. 
With our numbers the chance of any one's being 
lost, and perishing alone (one of the most com- 
mon dangers in a blizzard), was avoided ; but 
under any circumstances such a storm could but 
occasion intense suffering to all exposed to it, 
hence it would have been well to remain in camp 
till the gale was over, but the time could not 
be spared. We therefore resumed the march 
at an early hour next morning, with the expecta- 
tion of making the south bank of the main Cana- 
dian and there passing the night, as Clark assured 
me that timber was plentiful on that side of the 
river. The storm greatly impeded us, however, 
many of the mules growing discouraged, and 
some giving out entirely, so we could not get to 
Clark's *' good camp," for with ten hours of utmost 
eflFort only about half a day's distance could be 
covered, when at last, finding the struggle useless, 
we were forced to halt for the night in a bleak 
bottom on the north bank of the river. But no 


one could sleep, for the wind swept over us with 
unobstructed fury, and the only fuel to be had 
was a few green bushes. As night fell a decided 
change of temperature added much to our misery, 
the mercury, which had risen when the *' Norther " 
began, again falling to zero. It can be easily 
imagined that under such circumstances the con- 
dition of the men was one of extreme discomfort ; 
in truth, they had to tramp up and down the camp 
all night long to keep from freezing. Anything 
was a relief to this state of things, so at the first 
streak of day we quit the dreadful place and took 
up the march. 

A seemingly good point for crossing the Cana- 
dian was found a couple of miles down the stream, 
where we hoped to get our train over on the ice, 
but an experiment proving that it was not strong 
enough, a ford had to be made, which was done by 
inarching some of the cavalry through the river, 
which was about half a mile wide, to break up the 
large floes when they had been cut loose with axes. 
After much hard work a passage-way was thus 
opened, and by noon the command was crossed 
to the south bank, and after thawing out and 
drying our clothes before big fires, we headed for 
a point on the Washita, where Clark said there 
was plenty of wood, and good water too, to make 
us comfortable till the blizzard had blown over. 

338 PSKS^yAL MBMOaS OF p. a. SBBXWdir. 

We reached the valley of the Washita a little 
before dark, and camped some five or six nuks 
above the scene of Custer's fight, where 1 conclud- 
ed to remain at least a day, to rest the command 
and give it a chance to refit. In the mean time I 
visited the battle-field in company with Custer and 
several other officers, to see if there was a possi- 
tulity of discovering any traces of Elliott s party. 
On arriving at the site of the village, and learn- 
ing from Custer what dispositions had been made 
in approaching for the attack, the squadron of the 
escort was deployed and pushed across the river 
at the point where Elliott had crossed. Moving 
directly to the south, we had not gone far before 
we struck his trail, and soon the whole story wa s 
made plain by our findmg, on an open level spaa^J 
about two miles from the destroyed village, tnj^l 
dead and frozen bodies of the entire party. Tbe 
poor fellows were all lying within a circle not 
more than fifteen or twenty paces in diameter* 
and the little piles of empty cartridge shells near 
each body showed plainly that every man had 
made a brave fight. None were scalped, but most 
of them were otherwise horribly mutilated, which 
fiendish work is usually done by the squaws. All 
had been stripped of their clothing, but their 
comrades in the escort were able to identify the 
bodies, which being done, we gave them decent 



burial. Their fate was one that has overtaken 
many of our gallant army in their efforts to pro- 
tect the frontiersmen's homes and families from 
savages who give no quarter, though they have 
often received it, and where the possibility of de- 
feat in action carries with it the certainty of death 
and often of preceding torture. 

From the meadow where Elliott was found we 
rode to the Washita, and then down the river 
through the sites of the abandoned villages, that 
had been strung along almost continuously for 
about twelve miles in the timber skirting the 
stream. On every^hand appeared ample evidence 
that the Indians had intended to spend the winter 
here, for the ground was littered with jerked 
meat, bales of buffalo robes, cooking utensils, and 
all sorts of plunder usually accumulated in a per- 
manent Indian camp. There were, also, lying 
dead near the villages hundreds of ponies, that 
had been shot to keep them from falling into our 
hands, the scant grazing and extreme cold having 
made them too weak to be driven along in the 
flight. The wholesale slaughter of these ponies 
was a most cheering indication that our campaign 
would be ultimately successful, and we all prayed 
for at least a couple of months more of cold 
weather and plenty of snow. 

At the Kiowa village we found the body of a 


white woman — a Mrs. Blynn — and also that of 
her child. These captives had been taken by the 
Kio.was near Fort Lyon the previous summer, 
and kept close prisoners until the stampede began, 
the poor woman being reserved to gratify the bru- 
tal lust of the chief, Satanta ; then, however, Ind- 
ian vengeance * demanded the murder of the 
poor creatures, and after braining the little child 
against a tree, the mother was shot through the 
forehead, the weapon, which no doubt brought 
her welcome release, having been fired so close 
that the powder had horribly disfigured her face. 
The two bodies were wrapped in blankets and 
taken to camp, and afterward carried along in 
our march, till finally they were decently interred 
at Fort Arbuckle. 

At an early hour on December 12 the command 
pulled out from its cosy camp and pushed down 
the valley of the Washita, following immediately 
on the Indian trail which led in the direction of Fort 
Cobb, but before going far it was found that the 
many deep ravines and canons on this trail would 
delay our train very much, so we moved out of 
the valley and took the level prairie on the divide. 
Here the traveling was good, and a rapid gait was 
kept up till mid-day, when, another storm of sleet 
and snow coming on, it became extremely diffi- 
cult for the guides to make out the proper course ; 


and fearing that we might get lost, or caught on 
the open plain without wood or water — as we had 
been on the Canadian — I turned the command 
back to the valley, resolved to try no more short- 
cuts involving the risk of a disaster to the expedi- 
tion. But to get back was no slight task, for a 
dense fog just now enveloped us, obscuring all 
landmarks. However, we were headed right 
when the fog set in, and we had the good luck to 
reach the valley before night- fall, though there 
was a great deal of floundering about, and also 
much disputing among the guides as to where 
the river would be found Fortunately we struck 
the stream right at a large grove of timber, and 
established ourselves admirably. By dark the 
ground was covered with twelve or fifteen inches 
of fresh snow, and as usual the temperature rose 
very sensibly while the storm was on, but after 
night-fall the snow ceased and the skies cleared 
up. Daylight having brought zero weather 
again, our start on the morning of the 13th was 
painful work, many of the men freezing their 
fingers while handling the horse equipments, 
harness, and tents. However, we got off in fairly 
good season, and kept to the trail along the 
Washita notwithstanding the frequent digging 
and bridging necessary to get the wagons over 


Continuing on this line for three days, we 
at length came to a point on the Washita 
where all signs indicated that we were nearing 
some of the villages. Wishing to strike them as 
soon as possible, we made a very early start next 
morning, the 17th. A march of four or five miles 
brought us to a difficult ravine, and while we were 
making preparations to get over, word was 
brought that several Indians had appeared in our 
front bearing a white flag and making signs that 
they had a communication to deliver. We sig- 
naled back that they would be received, when 
one of the party came forward alone and deliver- 
ed a letter, which proved to be from General 
Hazen, at Fort Cobb. The letter showed that 
Hazen was carryiAg on negotiations with the Ind- 
ians, and stated that all the tribes between Fort 
Cobb and my column were friendly , but the in- 
timation was given that the Cheyennes and Ara- 
pahoes were still hostile, having moved oflF south- 
ward toward the Red River. It was added that 
Satanta and Lone Wolf — the chiefs of the Kiowas 
— would give information of the whereabouts of 
the hostiles ; and such a communication coming 
direct from the representative of the Indian De- 
partment, practically took the Kiowas — the village 
at hand was of that tribe — under its protection, 
and also the Comanches, who were nearer in to 



Cobb. Of course, under such circumstana 
was compelled to give up the intended attack, 
though I afterward regretted that I had paid any 
heed to the message, because Satanta and Lone 
Wolf proved, by trickery and double dealing, that 
they had deceived Hazen into writing the letter. 

When I informed the Kiowas that I would re- 
spect Hazen's letter provided they all came into 
Fort Cobb and gave themselves up, the two chiefs 
promised submission, and, as an evidence of good 
faith, proposed to accompany the column to Fort 
Cobb with a large body of warriors, while their 
villages moved to the same point by easy stages* 
along the opposite bank of the river — claimii^ 
this to be necessary from the poor condition of 
the ponies. I had some misgivings as to the sin- 
cerity of Satanta and Lone Wolf, but as I wanted 
to get the Kiowas where their surrender would 
be complete, so that the Cheyennes and Arapa- 
hoes could then be pursued, I agreed to the prop- 
osition, and the column moved on. All went well 
that day, but the next it was noticed that the 
warriors were diminishing, and an investigation 
showed that a number of them had gone off on 
various pretexts — the main one being to help 
along the women and children with the villages. 
With this I suspected that they were playing me 
false, and my suspicions grew into certainty when 



Satanta himself tried to make his escape by slip- 
ping beyond the flank of the column and putting 
spurs to his pony. Fortunately, several officers 
saw him, and quickly giving chase, overhauled 
him within a few hundred yards. I then arrested 
both him and Lone Wolf and held them as hos- 
tages — a measure that had the eflfect of bringing 
back many of the warriors already beyond our 

When we arrived at Fort Cobb we found some 
of the Comanches already there, and soon after 
the rest of them, excepting one band, came in to 
the post. The Kiowas, however, were not on 
hand, and there were no signs to indicate their 
coming. At the end of two days it was plain 
enough that they were acting in bad faith, and 
would continue to unless strong pressure was 
brought to bear. Indeed, they had already started 
for the Witchita Mountains, so I put on the screws 
at once by issuing an order to hang Satanta and 
Lone Wolf, if their people did not surrender at 
Fort Cobb within forty-eight hours. The two 
chiefs promised prompt compliance, but begged 
for more time, seeking to explain the non-arrival 
of the women and children through the weak 
condition of the ponies ; but I was tired of their 
duplicity, and insisted on my ultimatum. 

The order for the execution brought quick fruit. 


Runners were sent out with messages, by the two 
prisoners, appealing to their, people to save the 
lives of their chiefs, and the result was that the 
whole tribe came in to the post within the speci- 
fied time. The two manacled wretches thus saved 
their necks; but it is to be regretted that the exe- 
cution did not come off ; for some years afterward 
their devilish propensities led them into Texas, 
where both engaged in the most horrible butch- 

The Kiowas were now in our hands, and all the 
Comanches too, except one small band, which, 
after the Custer fight, had fled toward the head- 
waters of the Red River. This party was made 
up of a lot of very bad Indians^—outlaws from the 
main tribe — and we did not hope to subdue them 
except by a fight, and of this they got their fill; 
for Evans, moving from Monument Creek toward 
the western base of the Witchita Mountains on 
Christmas Day, had the good fortune to strike 
their village. In the snow and cold his approach 
was wholly unexpected, and he was thus enabled 
to deal the band a blow that practically annihi- 
lated it. Twenty-five warriors were killed out- 
right, most of the women and children captured, 
and all the property was destroyed. Only a few of 
the party escaped, and some of these made their 
way in to Fort Cobb, to join the rest of their tribe 



in confinement; while others, later in the season, 
surrendered at Fort Bascom. 

This sudden appearance of Evans in the Red 
River region also alarmed the Cheyennes and 
Arapahoes, and their thoughts now began to turn 
to submission. Food was growing scarce with 
them, too, as there was but little game to be 
found either in the Witchita Mountains or on the 
edge of the Staked Plains, and the march of Carr's 
column from Antelope Hills precluded their re- 
turning to where the buffalo ranged. Then, too, 
many of their ponies were dead or dying, most of 
their tepees and robes had been abandoned, and 
the women and children, having been kept con- 
stantly on the move in the winter's storms, were 
complaining bitterly of their sufferings. 

In view of this state of things they intimated, 
through their Comanche- Apache friends at Fort 
Cobb, that they would like to make terms. On 
receiving their messages I entered into negotia- 
tions with Little Robe, chief of the Cheyennes, 
and Yellow Bear, chief of the Arapahoes, and 
despatched envoys to have both tribes understand 
clearly that they must recognize their subjugation 
by surrendering at once, and permanently settling 
on their reservations in the spring. Of course 
the usual delays of Indian diplomacy ensued, and 
it was some weeks before I heard the result. 

You IL— 2a. 


Then one of my messengers returned with word 
that Little Robe and Yellow Bear were on their 
way to see me. They arrived a few days later* 
and, promptly acceding to the terms, promised to 
bring their people in, but as many of them would 
have to come on foot on account of the condition 
of the ponies, more time was solicited. Convinced 
of the sincerity of their professions I gave them 
a reasonable extension, and eventually Yellow 
Bear made good his word, but Little Robe, in 
spite of earnest and repeated efforts, was unable 
to deliver his people till further operations were 
begun against them. 

While these negotiations were in progess I came 
to the conclusion that a permanent military post 
ought to be established well down on the Kiowa 
and Comanche reservation, in order to keep an 
eye on these tribes in the future. Fort Cobb, being 
an unsuitable location, because too far to the 
north to protect the Texas frontier, and too far 
away from where it was intended to permanently 
place the Indians. With this purpose in view I 
had the country thoroughly explored, and after- 
ward a place was fixed upon not far from the base 
of the Witchita Mountains, and near the conflu- 
ence of Medicine Bluff and Cash creeks, where 
building stone and timber could be obtained in 
plenty, and to this point I decided to move. The 



place was named Camp Sill — now Fort Sill — in 
honor of my classmate, General Sill, killed at Stone 
River ; and to make sure of the surrendered Ind- 
ians, I required them all, Kiowas, Comanches, and 
Comanche-Apaches, to accompany us to the new 
post, so they could be kept under military control 
till they were settled. 

During the march to the new camp the weather 
was not so cold as that experienced in coming 
down from Camp Supply ; still, rains were frequent, 
and each vvas invariably followed by a depression 
of temperature and high winds, very destructive 
to our animals, much weakened by lack of food. 
The men fared pretty well, however, for on the 
rough march along the Washita, and during our 
stay at Fort Cobb, they had learned to protect 
themselves materially from the cold. For this 
they had contrived many devices, the favorite 
means being dugouts — that is, pits dug in the 
ground, and roofed over with shelter-tents, and 
having at one end a fire-place and chimney ingen- 
iously constructed with sod. In these they lived 
very snugly — four men in each — and would often 
amuse themselves by poking their heads out and 
barking at the occupants of adjacent huts in 
imitation of the prairie-dog, whose comforta- 
ble nests had probably suggested the idea of 
dugouts. The men were much better off, in 


fact, than many of the officers, for the high 
winds frequently made havoc with our wall- 
tents. The horses and mules suffered most of all. 
They could not be sheltered, and having neither 
grain nor grass, the poor beasts were in no con- 
dition to stand the chilling blasts. Still, by cut- 
ting down Cottonwood - trees, and letting the 
animals browse on the small soft branches, we 
managed to keep them up till, finally even this 
wretched food beginning to grow scarce, I had all 


except a few of the strongest sent to Fort Arbuckle, 
near which place we had been able, fortunately, 
to purchase some fields of corn from the half-civil- 
ized Chickasaw^ and Choctaws. 

Through mismanagement, as previously noted, 
the greater part of the supplies which I had ordered 
hauled to Arbuckle the preceding fall had not 
got farther on the way than Fort Gibson, which 
post was about four hundred miles off, and the 
road abominable, particularly east of Arbuckle, 
where it ran through a low region called " boggy 
bottom." All along this route were abandoned 
wagons, left sticking in the mud, and hence the 
transportation was growing so short that I began 
to fear trouble in getting subsistence up for the 
men. Still, it would not do to withdraw, so I 
made a trip to Arbuckle chiefly for the purpose 
of reorganizing the transportation, but also with 



a view to opening a new route to that post, the 
road to lie on high ground, so as to avoid the 
creeks and mud that had been giving us so much 
trouble. If such a road could be made, I hoped 
to get up enough rations and grain from the corn- 
fields purchased to send out a formidable expe- 
dition against the Cheyennes, so I set out for 
Arbuckle accompanied by my quartermaster. 
Colonel A. J. McGonigle. '* California Joe" also 
went along to guide us through the scrub-oaks 
covering the ridge, but even the most thorough 
exploration failed to discover any route more 
practicable than that already in use ; indeed, the 
high ground was, if anything, worse than the 
bottom land, our horses in the springy places and 
quicksands often miring to their knees. The 
ground was so soft and wet. in fact, that we had 
to make most of the way on foot, so by the time 
we reached Arbuckle I was glad to abandon the 
new road project. 

Finding near Arbuckle more fields of corn than 
those already purchased, I had them bought also, 
and ordered more of the horses back there to be 
fed. I next directed every available mule to be 
put to hauling rations, having discovered that the 
full capacity of the transportation had not yet 
been brought into play in forwarding stores from 
Gibson, and with this regulation of the supply 


to hear that his mission had been achieved I was 
astonished by the party's return. Inquiring as to 
the trouble, I learned that out toward the Staked 
Plains every sign of the Cheyennes had disappear- 
ed. Surprised and disappointed at this, and dis* 
couraged by the loneliness of his situation — for in 
the whole region not a trace of animal life was 
visible — Custer gave up the search, and none too 
soon, I am inclined to believe, to save his small 
party from perishing. 

This failure put a stop to all expeditions till 
the latter part of February, by which time I had 
managed to lay in enough rations to feed the 
command for about thirty days ; and the horses 
back at Arbuckle having picked up sufficiently 
for field service they were ordered to Sill, and 
this time I decided to send Custer out with his 
own and the Kansas regiment, with directions to 
insist on the immediate surrender of the Cheyen- 
nes, or give them a sound thrashing. He was 
ordered to get everything ready by March i, and 
then move to the mouth of Salt Creek, on the 
North Fork of the Red River, at which place I pro- 
posed to establish a new d^pot for feeding the 
command. Trains could reach this point from 
Camp Supply more readily than from Arbuckle, 
and wishing to arrange this part of the pro- 
gramme in person, I decided to return at once to 


i 'I 



to hear that his mission had been achieved \\ 
astonished by the party's return. Inquiring 
the trouble, I learned that out toward the StaB 
Plains every sign of the Cheyennes had disappa 
ed. Surprised and disappointed at this, and (^ 
couraged by theloneUness of his situation — fori 
the whole region not a trace of animal life wi 
visible — Custer gave up the search, and none tp| 
soon, I am inclined to believe, to save his smdi 
party from perishing. \ 

This failure put a stop to all expeditions till 
the latter part of February, by which time I ha.<* 
managed to lay in enough rations to feed tbc 
command for about thirty days ; and the horses 
back at Arbuckle having picked up sufficiently 
for field service they were ordered to Sill, and 
this time I decided to send Custer out with his 
own and the Kansas regiment, with directions to 
insist on the immediate surrender of the Cheyen- 
nes, or give them a sound thrashing. He was 
ordered to get everything ready by March i, and 
then move to the mouth of Salt Creek, on the 
North Fork of the Red River, at which place I pro- 
posed to establish a new d^pot for feeding the 
command. Trains could reach this point from 
Camp Supply more readily than from Arbuckle, 
and wishing to arrange this part of the pro- 
gramme in person, I decided to return at once to 





A FTER I had for a year been commanding the 
"^^ Division of the Missouri, which embraced 
the entire Rocky Mountain region, I found it neces- 
sary to make an inspection of the military posts 
in northern Utah and Montana, in order by per- 
sonal observation to inform myself of their loca- 
tion and needs, and at the same time become 
acquainted with the salient geographical and topo- 
graphical features of that section of my division. 
Therefore in May, 1870, 1 started west by the Union- 
Pacific railroad, and on arriving at Corinne Sta- 
tion, the next beyond Ogden, took passage by 
stage-coach for Helena, the capital of Montana 
Territory. Helena is nearly five hundred miles 
north of Corinne, and under ordinary conditions 

the journey was, in those days, a most tiresome 




one. As the stage kept jogging on day and night, 
there was little chance for sleep, and there being 
with me a sufficient number of staff-officers to 
justify the proceeding, we chartered the "outfit," 
stipulating that we were to stop over one night on 
the road to get some rest. This rendered the 
journey more tolerable, and we arrived at Helena 
without extraordinary fatigue. 

Before I left Chicago the newspapers were fill- 
ed with rumors of impending war between Ger- 
many and France. I was anxious to observe the 
conflict, if it was to occur, but reports made one day 
concerning the beginning of hostilities would be 
contradicted the next, and it was not till I reached 
Helena that the despatches lost their doubtful 
character, and later became of so positive a nat- 
ure as to make it certain that the two nations 
would fight. I therefore decided to cut short my 
tour of inspection, so that I could go abroad to 
witness the war, if the President would approve. 
This resolution limited my stay in Helena to a 
couple of days, which were devoted to arranging 
for an exploration of what are now known as the 
Upper and the Lower Geyser Basins of the Yellow- 
stone Park. While journeying between Corinne 
and Helena I had gained some vague knowledge of 
these geysers from an old mountaineer named 
Atkinson, but his information was very indefinite. 



mostly second-hand ; and there was such general 
uncertainty as to the character of this wonderland 
that I authorized an escort of soldiers to go that 
season from Fort Ellis with a small party, to make 
such superficial explorations as to justify my send- 
ing an engineer officer with a well-equipped ex- 
pedition there next summer to scientifically 
examine and report upon the strahge country. 
When the arrangements for this preliminary ex- 
pedition were completed I started for Fort Benton, 
the head of navigation on the Missouri River, on 
the way passing through Fort Shaw, on Sun River. 
I expected to take at Benton a steamboat to Fort 
Stevenson, a military post which had been estab- 
lished about eighty miles south of Fort Buford, 
near a settlement of friendly Mandan and Aric- 
karee Indians, to protect them from the hostile 
Sioux. From there I was to make my way over- 
land, first to Fort Totten near Devils lake in Da- 
kota, and thence by way of Fort Abercrombie to 
Saint Cloud, Minnesota, the terminus of the rail- 

Luckily I met with no delay in getting a boat 
at Benton, and though the water was extremely 
low, we steamed down the channel of the Mis- 
souri with but slight detention till we got within 
fifty miles of Fort Buford. Here we struck on a 
sand bar with such force of steam and current as 

ON A sand-bar. 


to land us almost out of the wa^er from stem to 
midships. This bad luck was tantalizing, for to 
land on a bar when your boat is under full head- 
way down -stream in the Missouri River is no 
trifling matter, especially if you want to make 
time, for the rapid and turbid stream quickly de- 
positing sand under the hull, makes it commonly 
a task of several days to get your boat off again. 
As from our mishap the loss of much time was 
inevitable, I sent a messenger to Fort Buford for 
a small escort, and for horses to take my party fn 
to the post. Colonel Morrow, the commandant, 
came himself to meet us, bringing a strong party 
of soldiers and some friendly Indian scouts, be- 
cause, he said, there were then in the region 
around Buford samany treacherous band of Sioux 
as to make things exceedingly unsafe. 

Desiring to reach the post without spending 
more than one night on the way, we abandoned 
oyyf steamer that evening, and set off at an early 
hour the next morning. We made camp at the 
end of the day's march within ten miles of Bu- 
ford, and arrived at the post without having had 
any incident of moment, unless we may dignify 
as one a battle with three grizzly bears, discovered 
by our friendly Indians the morning of our sec- 
ond day's journey. While eating our breakfast — 
a rather slim one, by the way — spread on a piece 


of canvas, the Indians, whose bivouac was some 
distance off, began shouting excitedly, "Bear! 
bear ! " and started us all up in time to see, out on 
the plain some hundreds of yards away, an enor- 
mous grizzly and two almost full-grown cubs. 
Chances like this for a bear hunt seldom oflFered, 
so there was hurried mounting — the horses being 
already saddled— and a quick advance made on 
the game from many directions, Lieutenant Town- 
send, of the escort, and five or six of the Indians 
going with me. Alarmed by the commotion, 
bruin and her cubs turned about, and with an 
awkward yet rapid gait headed for a deep ravine, 
in which there was brushwood shelter. 

My party rode directly across the prairie and 
struck the trail not far behind the game. Then 
for a mile or more the chase was kept up, but 
with such poor shooting because of the ** buck 
fever " which had seized most of us, that we fail- 
ed to bring down any of the grizzlies, though the 
cubs grew so tired that the mother was often 
obliged to halt for their defense, meanwhile urg- 
ing them on before her. When the ravine was 
gained she hid the cubs away in the thick brush- 
wood, and then coming out where we could 
plainly see her, stood on the defense just within 
the edge of the thicket, beyond the range of our 
rifles though, unless we went down into the canon, 



which we would have to do on foot, since the pre- 
cipitous wall precluded going on horseback. For 
an adventure like this I confess I had little incli- 
nation, and on holding a council of war, I found 
that the Indians had still less, but Lieutenant 
Townsend, who was a fine shot, and had refrained 
from firing hitherto in the hope that I might bag 
the game, relieved the embarrassing situation and 
saved the credit of the party by going down alone 
to attack the enemy. Meanwhile I magnani- 
mously held his horse, and the Sioux braves did a 
deal of shouting, which they seemed to think of 
great assistance. 

Townsend, having descended to the bottom of 
the ravine, approached within range, when the old 
bear struck out, dashing into and out of the 
bushes so rapidly, however, that he could not get 
fair aim at her, but the startled cubs running into 
full view, he killed one at the first shot and at the 
second wounded the other. This terribly enraged 
the mother, and she now came boldly out to fight, 
exposing herself in the open ground so much as 
to permit a shot, that brought her down too, with 
a broken shoulder. Then the Indians and I, grow- 
ing very brave, scrambled down to take part in 
the fight. It was left for me to despatch the 
wounded cub and mother, and having recovered 
possession of my nerves, I did the work effective- 

VOL. II.— 23. 


\y, and we carried off with us the skins of the 
three animals as trophies of the hunt and evidence 
of our prowess. 

As good luck would have it, when we reached 
Buford we found a steamboat there unloading 
stores, and learned that it would be ready to start 
down the river the next day. Embarking on her, 
we got to Stevenson in a few hours, and finding 
at the post camp equipage that had been made 
ready for our use in crossing overland to Fort 
Totten, we set out the following forenoon, taking 
with us a small escort of infantry, transported in 
two light wagons, a couple of Mandans and the 
post interpreter going along as mounted guides. 

To reach water we had to march the first day 
to a small lake forty miles ofiF, and the oppressive 
heat, together with the long distance traveled, 
used up one of the teams so much that, when 
about to start out the second morning, we found 
the animals unable to go on with any prospect of 
finishing the trip, so I ordered them to be rested 
forty-eight hours longer, and then taken back to 
Stevenson. This diminished the escort by one- 
half, yet by keeping the Indians and interpreter 
on the lookout, and seeing that our ambulance 
was kept closed up on the wagon carrying the 
rest of the detachment, we could, I thought, stand 
off any ordinary party of hostile Indians. 



About noon I observed that the scouts in 
advance had left the trail and begun to recon- 
noitre a low ridge to their right, the sequel of 
which was that in a few minutes they returned 
to the wagons on a dead run and reported Sioux 
just ahead. Looking in the direction indicated, 
I could dimly see five or six horsemen riding in a 
circle, as Indians do when giving warning to 
their camp, but as our halt disclosed that we were 
aware of their proximity, they darted back again 
behind the crest of the ridge. Anticipating from 
this move an immediate attack, we hastily prepar- 
ed for it by unhooking the mules from the wagon 
and ambulance, so that we could use the vehicles 
as a barricade. This done, I told the interpreter 
to take the Mandan scouts and go over toward 
the ridge and reconnoitre again. As the scouts 
neared the crest two of them dismounted, and, 
crawling slowly on their bellies to the summit, 
took a hasty look and returned at once to their 
horses, coming back with word that in the valley 
beyond was a camp of at least a hundred Sioux 
lodges, and that the Indians were hurriedly get- 
ting ready to attack us. The news was anything 
but cheering, for with a village of that size the 
warriors would number two or three hundred, and 
could assail us from every side. 

Still, nothing could be done but stand and take 


what was to come, for there was no chance of 
escape — it being supreme folly to undertake in 
wagons a race with Indians to Fort Stevenson, 
sixty miles away. To make the best of the situa- 
tion, we unloaded the baggage, distributing and 
adjusting the trunks, rolls of bedding, cracker- 
boxes, and everything else that would stop a bul- 
let, in such manner as to form a square barricade, 
two sides of which were the wagons, with the 
mules haltered to the wheels. Every man then 
supplied himself with all the ammunition he could 
carry, and the Mandan scouts setting up the de- 
pressing wail of the Indian death-song, we all 
awaited the attack with the courage of despair. 

But no attack came; and time slipping by, and 
we still unmolested, the interpreter and scouts 
were sent out to make another reconnoissance. 
Going through just such precautions as before in 
approaching the ridge, their slow progress kept 
us in painful suspense ; but when they got to the 
crest the strain on our nerves was relieved by seeing 
them first stand up boldly at full height, and then 
descend beyond. Quickly returning, they brought 
welcome word that the whole thing was a mistake, 
and no Sioux were there at all. What had been 
taken for a hundred Indian lodges turned out to 
be the camp of a Government train on its way to 
Fort Stevenson, and the officer in charge seeing 

Myriads of mosquitoes. 35 7 

the scouts before they discovered him, and believ- 
ing them to be Sioux, had sent out to bring his 
herds in. It would be hard to exaggerate the 
relief that this discovery gave us, and we all 
breathed much easier. The scare was a bad one, 
and I have no hesitation in saying that, had we 
been mounted, it is more than likely that, instead 
of showing fight, we would have taken up a lively 
pace for Fort Stevenson. 

After reciprocal explanations with the officer in 
charge of the train, the march was resumed, and 
at the close of that day we camped near a small 
lake about twenty miles from Fort Totten. From 
Totten we journeyed on to Fort Abercrombie. 
The country between the two posts is low and 
flat, and I verily believe was then the favorite 
abiding-place of the mosquito, no matter where 
he most loves to dwell now ; for myriads of the 
pests rose up out of the tall rank grass — more than 
I ever saw before or since — and viciously attacked 
both men and animals. We ourselves were some- 
what protected by gloves and head-nets, provided 
us before leaving Totten, but notwithstanding 
these our sufferings were wellnigh intolerable ; 
the annoyance that the poor mules experienced 
must, therefore, have been extreme ; indeed, 
they were so terribly stung that the blood 
fairly trickled down their sides. Unluckily, we 


had to camp for one night in this region; but 
we partly evaded the ravenous things by bank- 
ing up our tent walls with earth, and then, before 
turning in, sweeping and smoking out such as had 
got inside. Yet with all this there seemed hun- 
dreds left to sing and sting throughout the night. 
The mules being without protection, we tried hard 
to save them from the vicious insects by creating 
a dense smoke from a circle of smothered fires, 
within which chain the grateful brutes gladly 
stood ; but this relief was only partial, so the 
moment there was light enough to enable us to 
hook up we pulled out for Abercrombie in hot 

From Abercrombie we drove on to Saint Cloud, 
the terminus of the railroad, where, considerably 
the worse for our hurried trip and truly wretched 
experience with the mosquitoes, we boarded the 
welcome cars. Two days later we arrived in 
Chicago, and having meanwhile received word 
from General Sherman that there would be no 
objection to my going to Europe, I began making 
arrangements to leave, securing passage by the 
steamship Scotia. 

President Grant invited me to come to see him 
at Long Branch before I should sail, and during 
my brief visit there he asked which army i wished 
to accompany, the German or the French. I told 



him the German, for the reason that I thought 
more could be seen with the successful side, and 
that the indications pointed to the defeat of the 
French. My choice evidently pleased him greatly, 
as he had the utmost contempt for Louis Napo- 
leon, and had always denounced him as a usurper 
and a charlatan. Before we separated, the Presi- 
dent gave me the following letter to the represen- 
tatives of our Government abroad, and with it I 
not only had no trouble in obtaining permission 
to go with the Germans, but was specially favored 
by being invited to accompany the headquarters 
of the King of Prussia : 

"Long Branch, N. J., July 25, 1870. 

" Lieutenant-General P. H. Sheridan, of the United States 
Army, is authorized to visit Europe, to return at his own pleas- 
ure, unless otherwise ordered. He is commended to the good 
offices of all representatives of this Government whom he may 
meet abroad. 

" To citizens and representatives of other Governments I intro- 
duce General Sheridan as one of the most skillful, brave and 
deserving soldiers developed by the great struggle through which 
the United States Government has just passed. Attention paid 
him will be duly appreciated by the country he has served so 
faithfully and efficiently. 

"U. S. Grant." 

Word of my intended trip was cabled to Europe 
in the ordinary press despatches, and our Minister 
to France, Mr. Elihu B. Washburn, being an inti- 
mate friend of mftie, and thinking that I might 

360 Per&onaL Memoirs of p. ti, SuEkiDAif, 

wish to attach myself to the French army, did me 
the favor to take preliminary steps for securing 
the necessary authority. He went so far as to 
broach the subject to the French Minister of War, 
but in view of the informality of the request, and 
an unmistakable unwillingness to grant it being 
manifested, Mr. Washburn pursued the matter no 
further. I did not learn of this kindly interest in 
my behalf till after the capitulation of Paris, when 
Mr. Washburn told me what he had done of his 
own motion. Of course I thanked him gratefully, 
but even had he succeeded in getting the permis- 
sion he sought I should not have accompanied the 
French army. 

I sailed from New York July 27, one of my aides- 
de-camp, General James W. Forsyth, going with 
me. We reached Liverpool August 6, and the 
next day visited the American Legation in Lon- 
don, where we saw all the officials except our Min- 
ister. Mr. Motley, who, being absent, was represent- 
ed by Mr. Moran, the Secretary of the Legation. 
We left London August 9 for Brussels, where we 
were kindly cared for by the American Minister, 
Mr. Russell Jones, who the same evening saw us 
off for Germany. Because of the war we secured 
transportation only as far as Vera, and here we 
received information that the Prussian Minister 
of War had telegraphed to the l^ilitary Inspector 

of Railroads to take charge of us on our arrival at 
Cologne, and send us down to the headquarters 
of the Prussian army, but the Inspector, for some 
unexplained reason, instead of doing this, sent us 
on to Berlin. Here our Minister, Mr. George Ban- 
croft, met us with a telegram from the German 
Chancellor, Count Bismarck, saying we were ex- 
pected to come direct to the King's headquarters ; 
and we learned also that a despatch had been sent 
to the Prussian Minister at Brussels directing him 
to forward us from Cologne to the army, instead 
of allowing us to go on to Berlin, but that we had 
reached and quit Brussels without the Minister's 








CHORTLY after we arrived in Berlin the 
Queen sent a messenger oflFering us an op- 
portunity to pay our respects, and fixed an hour 
for the visit, which was to take place the next day ; 
but as the tenor of the despatch Mr. Bancroft had 
received from Count Bismarck indicated that 
some important event which it was desired I 
should witness was about to happen at the theatre 
of war, our Minister got us excused from our visit 
of ceremony, and we started for the headquarters 
of the German army that evening — our stay in 
the Prussian capital having been somewhat less 
than a day. 

Our train was a very long one, of over eighty 
cars, and though drawn by three locomotives, its 

progress to Cologne was very slow and the jour- 



ney most tedious. From Cologne we continued 
on by rail up the valley of the Rhine to Binge- 
bruck, near Bingen, and thence across through 
Saarbriicken to Remilly, where we left the railway 
and rode in a hay-wagon to Pont-^-Mousson, ar- 
riving there August 17, late in the afternoon, 
This little city had been ceded to France at the 
Peace of Westphalia, and although originally Ger- 
man, the people had become, in the lapse of so 
many years, intensely French in sentiment. The 
town was so full of officers and men belonging to 
the German army that it was difficult to get lodg- 
ings, but after some delay we found quite com- 
fortable quarters at one of the small hptels, and 
presently, after we had succeeded in getting a 
slender meal, I sent my card to Count von Bis- 
marck, the Chancellor of the North German Con- 
federation, who soon responded by appointing an 
hour — about 9 o'clock the same evening — for an 

When the Count received me he was clothed in 
the undress uniform of the Cuirassier regiment, 
of which he was the colonel. During the interview 
which ensued, he exhibited at times deep anxiety 
regarding the conflict now immment, for it was 
the night before the battle of Gravelotte, but his 
conversation was mostly devoted to the state of 
public sentiment in America, about which he 


seemed much concerned, inquiring repeatedly as 
to which side — France or Prussia — was charged 
with bringing on the war. Expressing a desire to 
witness the battle which was expected to occur 
the next day. and remarking that I had not had 
sufficient time to provide the necessary transpor- 
tation, he told mc to be ready at 4 o'clock in the 
morning, and he would take me out in his own 
carriage and present me to the King, adding that 
he would ask one of his own stafiF-officers, who he 
knew had one or two extra horses, to lend me one. 
As I did not know just what my status would be, 
and having explained to the President before 
leaving America that I wished to accompany the 
German army unofficially, I hardly knew whether 
to appear in uniform or not, so I spoke of this 
matter too, and the Count, after some reflection, 
thought it best for me to wear my undress uniform, 
minus the sword, however, because I was a non- 

At 4 o'clock the next morning, the i8th, I re- 
paired to the Chancellor's quarters. The carriage 
was at the door, also the saddle-horse, but as no 
spare mount could be procured for General For- 
syth, he had to seek other means to reach the 
battle-field. The carriage was an open one with 
two double seats, and in front a single one for a 
messenger; it had also a hand -brake attached. 


Count Bismarck and I occupied the rear seat, and 
Count Bismarck-Bohlen — the nephew and aide-de- 
camp to the Chancellor — and Doctor Busch were 
seated facing us. The conveyance was strong, 
serviceable, and comfortable, but not specially 
prepossessing, and hitched to it were four stout 
horses — logy, ungainly animals, whose clumsy 
harness indicated that the whole equipment was 
meant for heavy work. Two postilions in uni- 
form, in high military saddles on the nigh horse of 
each span, completed the establishment. 

All being ready, we took one of the roads from 
Pont-i-Mousson to R^zonville, which is on the 
direct road from Metz to Chalons, and near the 
central point of the field where, on the i6th of 
August, the battle of Mars-la-Tour had been fought. 
It was by this road that the Pomeranians, number- 
ing about 30,000 men, had been ordered to march 
to Gravelotte, and after proceeding a short dis- 
tance we overtook the column. As this contin- 
gent came from Count Bismarck's own section of 
Germany, there greeted us as we passed along, 
first in the dim light of the morning, and later in 
the glow of the rising sun, continuous and most 
enthusiastic cheering for the German Chancellor. 

On the way Count Bismarck again recurred 
to the state of public opinion in America with 
reference to the war. He also talked much about 


our form of government, and said that in early 
life his tendencies were all toward republicanism, 
but that family influence had overcome his prefer- 
ences, and intimated that, after adopting a political 
career, he found that Germany was not sufiSciently 
advanced for republicanism. He said, further, 
that he had been reluctant to enter upon this pub- 
lic career, that he had always longed to be a sol- 
dier, but that here again family opposition had 
turned him from the field of his choice into the 
sphere of diplomacy. 

Not far from Mars-la-Tour we alighted, and in 
a little while an aide-de-camp was introduced, who 
informed me that he was there to conduct and 
present me to his Majesty, the King of Prussia. 
As we were walking along together, I inquired 
whether at the meeting I should remove my cap, 
and he said no ; that in an out-of-door presentation 
it was not etiquette to uncover if in uniform. We 
were soon in presence of the King, where — under 
the shade of a clump of second-growth poplar- 
trees, with which nearly all the farms in the north 
of France are here and there dotted — the presenta- 
tion was made in the simplest and most agreeable 

His Majesty, taking my hand in both of his, 
gave me a thorough welcome, expressing, like 
Count Bismarck, though through an interpreter. 


much interest as to the sentiment in my own 
country about the war. At this time William the 
First of Prussia was seventy-three years of age, 
and, dressed in the uniform of the Guards, he 
seemed to be the very ideal soldier, and graced 
with most gentle and courteous manners. The 
conversation, which was brief, as neither of us 
spoke the other's native tongue, concluded by his 
Majesty's requesting me in the most cordial way 
to accompany his headquarters during the cam- 
paign. Thanking him for his kindness, I rejoined 
Count Bismarck's party,, and our horses having 
arrived meantime, we mounted and moved oGF to 
the position selected for the King to witness the 
opening of the battle. 

This place was on some high ground overlook- 
ing the villages of Rezonville and Gravelotte, 
about the centre of the battle-field of Mars-la-Tour, 
and from it most of the country to the east toward 
Metz could also be seen. The point chosen was 
an excellent one for the purpose, though in one 
respect disagreeable, since the dead bodies of 
many of the poor fellows killed there two days 
before were yet unburied. In a little while the 
King's escort began to remove these dead, how- 
ever, bearing them away on stretchers improvised 
with their rifles, and the spot thus cleared was 
much more acceptable. Then, when such unex- 


ploded shells as were lying around loose had 
been cautiously carried away, the King» his broth- 
er, Prince Frederick Charles Alexander, the chief- 
of-stafiF, General von Moltke, the Minister of War, 
General von Roon, and Count von Bismarck as- 
sembled on the highest point, and I being asked 
to join the group, was there presented to General 
von Moltke. He spoke our language fluently, 
and Bismarck having left the party for a time to 
go to a neighboring house to see his son, who had 
been wounded at Mars-la-Tour, and about whom 
he was naturally very anxious. General von Moltke 
entertained me by explaining the positions of the 
different corps, the nature and object of their 
movements then taking place, and so on. 

Before us, and covering Metz, lay the French 
army, posted on the crest of a ridge extending 
north, and about its centre curving slightly west- 
ward toward the German forces. The left of the 
French position was but a short distance from 
the Moselle, and this part of the line was sep- 
arated from the Germans by a ravine, the slopes, 
fairly well wooded, rising quite sharply ; farther 
north, near the centre, this depression disappeared, 
merged in the general swell of the ground, and 
thence on toward the right the ground over 
which an approach to the French line must be 
made was essentially a natural open glacis, that 


could be thoroughly swept by the fire of the 

The line extended some seven or eight miles. 
To attack this position, formidable everywhere, 
except perhaps on the right flank, the Germans 
were bringing up the combined forces of the First 
and Second armies, troops that within the past 
fortnight had already successfully met the French 
in three pitched battles. On the right was the 
First Army, under command of General Von 
Steinmetz, the victors, August 6, of Spicheren, 
near Saar, and, eight days later, of Colombey, to 
the east of Metz ; while the centre and left were 
composed of the several corps of the Second Army, 
commanded by Prince Frederick Charles of Prus- 
sia, a part of whose troops had just been engaged 
in the sanguinary battle of Mars-la-Tour, by which 
Bazaine was cut oflF from the Verdun road, and 
forced back toward Metz. 

At first the German plan was simply to threaten 
with their right, while the corps of the Second 
Army advanced toward the north, to prevent the 
French, of whose intentions there was much doubt, 
from escaping toward Chalons ; then, as the pur- 
poses of the French might be developed, these 
corps were to change direction toward the enemy 
successively, and seek to turn his right flank. But 
the location of this vital turning-point was very 

Vol. II.— 24, 


uncertain, and until it was ascertained and carried, 
late in the afternoon, the action raged with more 
' or less intensity along the entire line. 

But as it is not my purpose to describe in detail 
the battle of Gravelotte, nor any other, I wilt 
speak of some of its incidents merely. About 
noon, after many preliminary skirmishes, the ac- 
tion was begun ;iccording to the plan I have al- 
ready outlined, the Germans advancing their left 
while holding on strongly with their right, and it 
was this wing (the First Army J that came under my 
observation from the place where the King's head- 
quarters were located. From here we could see. 
Las I have said, the village of Gravelotte. Before 
y it lay the German troops, concealed to some ex- 
tent, especially to the left, by clumps of timber 
here and there. Immediately in front of us, how- 
ever, the ground was open, and the day being 
clear and sunny, with a fresh breeze blowing 
(else the smoke from a battle between four hun- 
dred thousand men would have obstructed the 
view altogether), the spectacle presented was of 
unsurpassed magnificence and sublimity. The 
German artillery opened the battle, and while the 
air was filled with shot and shell from hundreds 
of guns along their entire line, the German centre 
and left, in rather open order, moved out to the 
attack, and as they went forward the reserves, in 


close column, took up positions within supporting 
distances, yet far enough back to be out of range. 

The French artillery and mitrailleuses responded 
vigorously to the Krupps, and with deadly effect, 
but as far as we could see the German left con- 
tinued its advance, and staff-officers came up fre- 
quently to report that all was going on well at 
points hidden from our view These reports were 
always made to the King first, and whenever any- 
body arrived with tidings of the fight we clustered 
around t6 hear the news. General Von Moltke un- 
folding a map meanwhile, and explaining the 
situation. This done, the chief of the staff, while 
awaiting the next report, would either return to a 
seat that had been made. for him with some knap- 
sacks, or would occupy the time walking about, 
kicking clods of dirt or small stones here and 
there, his hands clasped behind his back, his face 
pale and thoughtful. He was then nearly seventy 
years old, but because of his emaciated figure, the 
deep wrinkles in his face, and the crow s-f eet about 
his eyes, he looked even older, his appearance be- 
ing suggestive of the practice of church asceticisms 
rather than of his well-known ardent devotion to 
the military profession. 

By the middle of the afternoon the steady prog- 
ress of the German left and centre had driven 
the French from their more advanced positions 


from behind stone walls and hedges, through val- 
leys and hamlets, in the direction of Metz, but as 
yet the German right had accomplished little ex- 
cept to get possession of the village of Gravelotte, 
forcing the French across the deep ravine I have 
mentioned, which runs north and south a little di& 
tance east of the town. 

But it was now time for the German right to 
move in earnest to carry the Rozerieulles ridge, 
on which crest the French had evidently decided 
to make an obstinate fight to cover their with- 
drawal to Metz. As the Germans moved to the 
attack here, the French fire became heavy and de- 
structive, so much so, indeed, as to cause General 
Von Steinmetz to order some cavalry belonging 
to the right wing to make a charge. Crossing 
the ravine before described, this body of horse 
swept up the slope beyond, the front ranks urged 
forward by the momentum from behind. The 
French were posted along a sunken road, behind 
stone walls and houses, and as the German cavalry 
neared these obstructions it received a dreadful 
fire without the least chance of returning it, though 
still pushed on till the front ranks were crowded 
into the deep cut of the road. Here the slaughter 
was terrible, for the horsemen could make no 
further headway ; and because of the blockade be- 
hind, of dead and wounded men and animals, an 



orderly retreat was impossible, and disaster inevi- 

About the time the charge was ordered, the 
phase of the battle was such that the King con- 
cluded to move his headquarters into the village 
of Gravelotte; and just after getting there, we 
first learned fully of the disastrous result of the 
charge which had been entered upon with such 
spirit; and so much indignation was expressed 
against Steinmetz, who, it was claimed, had made 
an unnecessary sacrifice of his cavalry, that I 
thought he would be relieved on the spot; though 
this was not done. 

Followed by a large staff, General Steinmetz 
appeared in the village presently, and approached 
the King. When near, he bowed with great re- 
spect, and I then saw that he was a very old man, 
though his soldierly figure, bronzed face, and 
short-cropped hair gave some evidence of vigor 
still. When the King spoke to him I was not close 
enough to learn what was said ; but his Majesty's 
manner was expressive of kindly feeling, and the 
fact that in a few moments the veteran general 
returned to the command of his troops, indicated 
that, for the present at least, his fault had been 

The King then moved out of the village, and 
just a little to the east and north of it the head- 


quarters were located on high, open grou: 
whence we could observe the right of the Germarf 
infantry advancing up the eastern face of iht- 
ravine. The advance, though slow and irregular, 
resulted in gradually gaining ground, the French 
resisting stoutly with a stubborn musketry fire all 
along the slopes. Their artillery was silent, how- 
ever; and from this fact the German artillery offi- 
cers grew jubilant, confidently asserting that their 
Krupp guns had dismounted the French batteries 
and knocked their mitrailleuses to pieces. I did 
not indulge in this confidence, however; for, with 
the excellent field-glass 1 had, I could distinctly 
see long columns of French troops moving to 
their right, for the apparent purpose of making a 
vigorous fight on that flank; and I thought it 
more than likely that their artillery would be 
heard from before the Germans could gain the 
coveted ridge. 

The Germans labored up the glacis slowly at 
the most exposed places; now crawling on thar 
bellies, now creeping on hands and knees, but, in 
the main, moving with erect and steady bearing. 
As they approached within short range, they sud- 
denly found that the French artillery and mitrail- 
leuses had by no means been silenced — about two 
hundred pieces opening on them with fearful 
effect, while at the same time the whole crest 



blazed with a deadly fire from the Chassep6t 
rifles. Resistance like this was so unexpected by 
the Germans that it dismayed them ; and first wa- 
vering a moment, then becoming panic-stricken, 
they broke and fled, infantry, cavalry, and artil- 
lery coming down the slope without any pretence 
of formation, the French hotly following and 
pouring in a heavy and constant fire as the fugi- 
tives fled back across the ravine toward Grave- 
lotte. With this the battle on the right had now 
assumed a most serious aspect, and the indica- 
tions were that the French would attack the 
heights of Gravelotte ; but the Pomeranian 
corps coming on the field at this crisis, was 
led into action by Von Moltke himself, and 
shortly after the day was decided in favor of 
the Germans. 

When the French guns opened fire, it was dis- 
covered that the King's position was within easy 
range, many of the shells falling near enough to 
make the place extremely uncomfortable ; so it 
was suggested that he go to a less exposed point. 
At first he refused to listen to this wise counsel, 
but yielded finally — leaviftg the ground with re- 
luctance, however — -and went back toward R^zon- 
ville. I waited for Count Bismarck, who did not 
go immediately with the King, but remained at 
Gravelotte, looking after some of the escort who 



had been wounded. When he had arranged for 
their care, we set out to rejoin the King, and be- 
fore going far, overtook his Majesty, who had 
stopped on the Chalons road, and was surrounded 
by a throng of fugitives, whom he was berating 
in German so energetic as to remind me forcibly 
of the *' Dutch " swearing that I used to hear in 
my boyhood in Ohio. The dressing down finish- 
ed to his satisfaction, the King resumed his course 
toward Rezonville, halting, however, to rebuke 
in the same emphatic style every group of run- 
aways he overtook. 

Passing through Rezonville, we halted just be- 
yond the village ; there a fire was built, and the 
King, his brother. Prince Frederick Charles, and 
Von Roon were provided with rather uncomfort- 
able seats about it, made by resting the ends of a 
short ladder on a couple of boxes. With much 
anxiety and not a little depression of spirits news 
from the battle-field was now awaited, but the 
suspense did not last long, for presently came the 
cheering intelligence that the French were retiring, 


being forced back by the Pomeranian corps, and 
some of the lately broken right wing organizations, 
that had been rallied on the heights of Gravelotte. 
The lost ground being thus regained, and the 
French having been beaten on their right, it was 
not long before word came that Bazaine's army was 


falling back to Metz, leaving the entire battle-field 
in possession of the Germans. 

During the excitement of the day I had not 
much felt the want of either food or water, but 
now that all was over I was nearly exhausted, 
having had neither since early morning. Indeed, 
all of the party were in like straits ; the immense 
armies had not only eaten up nearly everything 
in the country, but had drunk all the wells dry, 
too, and there seemed no relief for us till, luckily, 
a squad of soldiers came along the road with a 
small cask of wine in a cart. One of the staff- 
o£Gcers instantly appropriated the keg, and pro- 
ceeded to share his prize most generously. Never 
had I tasted anything so refreshing and delicious, 
but as the wine was the ordinary sour stuff drunk 
by the peasantry of northern France, my appre- 
ciation must be ascribed to my famished condition 
rather than to any virtues of the beverage itself. 

After I had thus quenched my thirst the King's 
brother called me aside, and drawing from his 
coat-tail pocket a piece of stale black bread, di- 
vided it with me, and while munching on this the 
Prince began talking of his son — General Prince 
Frederick Charles, popularly called the Red Prince 
— who was in command of the Second Army in 
this battle — the German left wing. In recounting 
his son's professional career the old man's face 



was aglow with enthusiasm, and not without good 
cause, for in the war between Prussia and Austria 
in 1866, as well as in the present campaign, the 
Red Prince had displayed the highest order of 
military genius. 

The headquarters now became the scene of 
much bustle, despatches announcing the victory 
being sent in all directions. The first one trans- 
mitted was to the Queen, the King directing 
Count Bismarck to prepare it for his signature ; 
then followed others of a more official character, 
and while these matters were being attended to I 
thought I would ride into the village to find, if 
possible, some water for my horse. Just as 1 en- 
tered the chief street, however, I was suddenly 
halted by a squad of soldiers, who, taking me for 
a French officer (my coat and forage cap resem- 
bling those of the French), leveled their pieces at 
me. They were greatly excited, so much so, in- 
deed, that I thought my hour had come, for they 
could not understand English, and I could not 
speak German, and dare not utter explanations in 
French. Fortunately a few disconnected German 
words came to me in the emergency. With these 
I managed to delay my execution, and one of the 
party ventured to come up to examine the *' sus- 
pect" more closely. The first thing he did was 
ta take off my cap, and looking it over carefully. 



his eyes rested on the three stars above the visor; 
and, pointing to them, he emphatically pronounced 
me French. Then of course they all became 
excited again, more so than before, even, for they 
thought I was trying to practice a ruse, and I 
question whether I should have lived to recount 
the adventure had not an officer belonging to the 
King's headquarters been passing by just then, 
when, hearing the threatenings and imprecations, 
he rode up to learn the cause of the hubbub, and 
immediately recognized and released me. When 
he told my wrathy captors who I was, they were 
much mortified of course, and made the most pro- 
fuse apologies, promising that no such mistake 
should occur again, and so on ; but not feeling 
wholly reassured, for my uniform was still liable 
to mislead, I was careful to return to headquar- 
ters in company with my deliverer. There I re- 
lated what had occurred, and after a good laugh 
all round, the King provided me with a pass which 
he said would preclude any such mishap in the 
future, and would also permit me to go wherever 
I pleased — a favor rarely bestowed. 







\^7HILE I was absent, as related in the pre- 
ceding chapter, it had been decided that 
the King's quarters should be established for the 
night in the village of R^zonville ; and as it would 
be very difficult, at such a late hour, to billet the 
whole party regularly, Count Bismarck and I 
went off to look for shelter for ourselves. Re- 
membering that I had seen, when seeking to water 
my horse, a partly burned barn with some fresh- 
looking hay in it, I suggested that we lodge there. 
He too thought it would answer our purpose, but 
on reaching it we found the unburned part of the 
barn filled with wounded, and this necessitating a 
further search we continued on through the vil- 
lage in quest of some house not yet converted 
into a hospital. Such, however, seemed impossi- 
ble to come upon, so at last the Count fixed on 


raxsoifAi. MBJtoas or p. a. S£axa>JK 

one whose upper floor, we learned, was unoccu- 
pied, though the tower one was coverad with 

Mounting a creaky ladder — there was no stair- 
way — ^to the upper story, we found a good-sized 
room with three lai^e beds, one of which the 
Chancellor assigned to the Duke of Mecklenburg 
and aide, and another to Count Bismarck-Bohlen 
and me, reserving the remaining one for himself. 
Each bed, as is common in Germany and north- 
ern France, was provided with a feather tick, but 
the night being warm, these spreads were thrown 
off, and discoveiing that they would make a com- 
fortable shakedown on the floor, I slept there 
leaving Bismarck-Bohlen unembarrassed by com- 
panionship—at least of a human kind. 

At daylight I awoke, and seeing that Count 
Bismarck was already dressed and about to go 
down the ladder, I felt obliged to follow his ex- 
ample, so I too turned out, and shortly descended 
to the ground-floor, the only delays of the toilet 
being those incident to dressing, for there were 
no conveniences for morning ablutions. Just out- 
side the door I met the Count, who, proudly exhib- 
iting a couple of eggs he had bought from the 
woman of the house, invited me to breakfast with 
him, provided we could beg some cofifee from the 
king's escort. Putting the eggs under my charge, 



with many injunctions as to their safe-keeping, 
he went off to forage for the coffee, and presently 
returned, having been moderately successful. 
One ^gg apiece was hardly enough, however, to 
appease the craving of two strong men ravenous 
from long fasting. Indeed, it seemed only to 
whet the appetite, and we both set out on an 
eager expedition for more food. Before going 
far I had the good luck to meet a sutler's wagon, 
and though its stock was about all sold, there were 
still left four large bologna sausages, which I 
promptly purchased — paying a round sum for 
them too — and hastening back found the Count al- 
ready returned, though without bringing anything 
at all to eat ; but he had secured a couple of bottles 
of brandy, and with a little of this — it was excel- 
lent, too — and the sausages, the slim ration of 
eggs and coffee was amply reinforced. 

Breakfast over, ,the Chancellor invited me to 
accompany him in a ride to the battle-field, and I 
gladly accepted, as I very much desired to pass 
over the ground in front of Gravelotte, particular- 
ly so to see whether the Krupp guns had really 
done the execution that was claimed for them 
by the German artillery officers. Going directly 
through the village of Gravelotte, following the 
causeway over which the German cavalry had 
passed to make its courageous but futile charge. 



we soon reached the ground where the fighting 
had been the most severe. Here the field was 
literally covered with evidences of the terrible 
strife, the dead and wounded strewn thick on 
every side. 

In the sunken road the carnage had been awful; 
men and horses having been slaughtered there by 
hundreds, helpless before the murderous fire de- 
livered from behind a high stone wall impracti- 
cable to mounted troops. The sight was sicken- 
ing to an extreme, and we were not slow to direct 
our course elsewhere, going up the glacis toward 
the French line, the open ground over which we 
crossed being covered with thousands of helmets, 
that had been thrown off by the Germans during 
the fight and were still dotting the field, though 
details of soldiers from the organizations which 
had been engaged here were about to begin to 
gather up their abandoned headgear. 

When we got inside the French works, I was 
astonished to observe how little harm had been 
done the defenses by the German artillery, for 
although I had not that serene faith in the effect- 
iveness of their guns held by German artillerists 
generally, yet I thought their terrific cannonade 
must have left marked results. All I could per- 
ceive, however, was a disabled gun, a broken 
mitrailleuse, and two badly damaged caissons 


Everything else, except a little ammunition in the 
trenches, had been carried away, and it was plain 
to see, from the good shape in which the French 
left wing had retired to Metz, that its retreat had 
been predetermined by the disasters to the right 

By this hour the German cavalry having been 
thrown out to the front well over toward Metz, 
we, following it to get a look at the city, rode to 
a neighboring summit, supposing it would be a 
safe point of observation; but we shortly realized 
the contrary, for scarcely had we reached the 
crest when some of the French pickets, lying con- 
cealed about six hundred yards off, opened fire, 
making it so very hot for us that, hugging the 
necks of our horses, we incontinently fled. Observ- 
ing what had taken place, a troop of German cav- 
alry charged the French outpost and drove it far 
enough away to make safe our return, and we 
resumed possession of the point, but only to dis- 
cover that the country to the east was so broken 
and hilly that no satisfactory view of Metz could 
be had. 

Returning to Gravelotte, we next visited that 
part of the battle-field to the northeast of the vil- 
lage, and before long Count Bismarck discovered 
in a remote place about twenty men dreadfully 
wounded. These poor fellows had had no atten- 

VoL. IL— 25, 


tion whatever, having been overlooked by the 
hospital corps, and their condition was most piti- 
fuL Yet there was one very handsome man in 
the group— a captain of artillery — ^who, though 
shot through the right breast, was talkative and 
cheerful, and felt sure of getting well. Pointing, 
however, to a comrade lying near, also shot in 
the breast, he significantly shook his head ; it was 
easy to see on this man's face the signs of fast 
approaching death. 

An orderly was at once despatched for a sur- 
geon, Bismarck and I doing what we could mean- 
while to alleviate the intense sufferings of the 
maimed men, bringing them water and adminis- 
tering a little brandy, for the Count still had with 
him some of the morning's supply. When the 
surgeons came, we transferred the wounded to 
their care, and making our way to Rezonville, 
there took the Count's carriage to rejoin the King's 
headquarters, which in the mean time had been 
moved to Pont-i-Mousson. Our route led through 
the village of Gorze, and here we found the streets 
so obstructed with wagons that 1 feared it would 
take us the rest of the day to get through, for the 
teamsters would not pay the slightest heed to the 
cries of our postilions. The Count was equal to 
the emergency, however, for, taking a pistol from 
behind his cushion, and bidding me keep my seat, 


he jumped out and quickly began .to clear the 
street effectively, ordering wagons to the right 
and left. Marching in front of the carriage and 
making way for us till we were well through the 
blockade, he. then resumed his seat, remarking, 
"This is not a very dignified business for the 
Chancellor of the German Confederation, but it's 
the only way to get through." 

At Pont-i-Mousson I was rejoined by my aide. 
General Forsyth, and for the next two days our 
attention was almost wholly devoted to securing 
means of transportation. This was most difficult 
to obtain, but as I did not wish to impose on the 
kindness of the Chancellor longer, we persevered 
till, finally, with the help of Count Bismarck-Bohl- 
en, we managed to get tolerably well equipped 
with a saddle-horse apiece, and a two-horse car- 
riage. Here also, on the afternoon of August 2\^ 
I had the pleasure of dining with the King. The 
dinner was a simple one, consisting of soup, a 
joint, and two or three vegetables ; the wines 
vin ordinaire and Burgundy. There were a good 
many persons of high rank present, none of whom 
spoke English, however, except Bismarck, who sat 
next the King and acted as interpreter when his 
Majesty conversed with me. Little was said of 
the events taking place around us, but the King 
made many inquiries concerning the war of the 


rebellion, particularly with reference to Grant's 
campaign at Vicksburg ; suggested, perhaps, by 
the fact that there, and in the recent movements 
of the German army, had been applied many 
similar principles of military science. 

The French army under Marshal Bazaine liav- 
ing retired into the fortifications of Metz. that 
stronghold was speedily invested by Prince 
Frederick Charles. Meantime the Third Army, 
under the Crown Prince of Prussia— which, after 
having fought and won the battle of Worth, had 
been observing the army of Marshal MacMahon 
during and after the battle of Gravelotte — was 
moving toward Paris by way of Nancy, in con- 
junction with an army called the Fourth, which 
had been organized from the troops previously 
engaged around Metz, and on the 2 2d was direct- 
ed toward Bar-le-Duc under the command of 
the Crown Prince of Saxony. In consequence 
of these operations the King decided to move 
to Commercy, which place we reached by car- 
riage, traveling on a broad macadamized road 
lined on both sides with poplar-trees, and our 
course leading through a most beautiful country 
thickly dotted with prosperous-looking villages. 

On reaching Commercy, Forsyth and I found 
that quarters had been already selected for us, 
and our names written on the door with chalk ; 


the quartermaster charged with the billeting of the 
officers at headquarters having started out in ad- 
vance to perform this duty and make all needful 
preparations for the King before he arrived, which 
course was usually pursued thereafter, whenever 
the royal headquarters took up a new location. 

Forsyth and I were lodged with the notary of 
the village, who over and over again referred to 
his good fortune in not having to entertain any of 
the Germans. He treated us most hospitably, 
and next morning, on departing, we ofifered com- 
pensation by tendering a sum — about what our 
bill would have been at a good hotel — to be used 
for the " benefit of the wounded or the Church." 
Under this stipulation the notary accepted, and 
we followed that plan of paying for food and 
lodging afterward, whenever quartered in private 

The next day I set out in advance of the head- 
quarters, and reached Bar-le-Duc about noon, 
passing on the way the Bavarian contingent of the 
Crown Prince's army. These Bavarians were 
trim-looking soldiers, dressed in neat uniforms of 
light blue ; they looked healthy and strong, but 
seemed of shorter stature than the North Germans 
I had seen in the armies of Prince Frederick 
Charles and General von Steinmetz. When, later 
in the day. the King arrived, a guard for him was 



detailed from this Bavarian contingent ; a stroke 
of policy no doubt, for the South Germans were 
so prejudiced against their brothers of the North 
that no opportunity to smooth them down was 
permitted to go unimproved. 

Bar-le-Duc» which had then a population of about 
i5»ooo, is one of the prettiest towns I saw in France, 
its quaint and ancient buildings and beautiful 
boulevards charming the eye as well as exciting 
deep interest. The King and his immediate suite 
were quartered on one of the best boulevards in 
a large building — the Bank of France — the bal- 
cony of which offered a fine opportunity to observe 
a part of the army of the Crown Prince the next 
day on its march toward Vitry. This was the 
first time his Majesty had had a chance to see 
any of these troops — as hitherto he had accom- 
panied either the army of Prince Frederick 
Charles, or that of General Steinmetz — and the 
cheers with which he was greeted by the Bava- 
rians left no room for doubting their loyalty to the 
Confederation, notwithstanding ancieot jealousies. 

While the troops were passing, Count Bismarck 
had the kindness to point out to me the diflferent 
organizations, giving scraps of their history, and 
also speaking concerning the qualifications of the 
dififerent generals commanding them. When the 
review was over we went to the Count's house, 


and there, for the first time in my life, I tasted 
kirschwasser, a very strong liquor distilled from 
cherries. Not knowing anything about the stufiF, 
I had to depend on Bismarck's recommendation, 
and he proclaiming it fine, I took quite a gener- 
ous drink, which nearly strangled me and brought 
on a violent fit of coughing. The Chancellor said, 
however, that this was in no way due to the 
liquor, but to my own inexperience, and I was 
bound to believe the distinguished statesman, for 
he proved his words by swallowing a goodly dose 
with an undisturbed and even beaming counte- 
nance, demonstrating his assertion so forcibly that 
I forthwith set out with Bismarck-Bohlen to lay 
in a supply for myself. 

I spent the night in a handsome house, the 
property of an exceptionally kind and polite gen- 
tleman bearing the indisputably German name of 
Lager, but who was nevertheless French from 
head to foot, if intense hatred of the Prussians be 
a sign of Gallic nationality. At daybreak on the 
26th word came for us to be ready to move by 
the Chalons road at 7 o'clock, but before we 
got oflF, the order was suspended till 2 in the 
afternoon. In the interval General von Moltke 
arrived and held a long conference with the King, 
and when we did pull out we traveled the re- 
mainder of the afternoon in company with a part 


of the Crown Prince's army, which after this con- 
ference inaugurated the series of movements from 
Bar-le-Duc northward, that finally compelled the 
surrender at Sedan. This sudden change of di- 
rection I did not at first imderstand, but soon 
learned that it was because of the movements of 
Marshal MacMahon, who, having united the 
French army beaten at Worth with three fresh 
corps at Chalons, was marching to relieve Metz 
in obedience to orders from the Minister of War 
at Paris. 

As we passed along the column, we noticed that 
the Crown Prince's troops were doing their best, 
the officers urging the men to their utmost exer- 
tions, persuading weary laggards and driving up 
stragglers. As a general thing, however, they 
marched in good shape, notwithstanding the rapid 
gait and the trying heat, for at the outset of the 
campaign the Prince had divested them of all im- 
pedimenta except essentials, and they were there- 
fore in excellent trim for a forced march. 

The King traveled further than usual that day 
— to Clermont — so we did not get shelter till late, 
and even then not without some confusion, for 
the quartermaster having set out toward Chalons 
before the change of programme was ordered, was 
not at hand to provide for us. I had extreme 
good luck, though, in being quartered with a cer- 



tain apothecary, who, having lived for a time in 
the United States, claimed it as a privilege even 
to lodge me, and certainly made me his debtor 
for the most generous hospitality. It was not so 
with some of the others, however; and Count Bis- 
marck was particularly unfortunate, being billet- 
ed in a very small and uncomfortable house, 
where, visiting him to learn more fully what was 
going on, I found him, wrapped in a shabby old 
dressing-gown, hard at work. He was estab- 
lished in a very small room, whose only furnish- 
ings consisted of a table — at which he was writ- 
ing — a couple of rough chairs, and the universal 
feather-bed, this time made on the floor in one 
corner of the room. On my remarking upon the 
limited character of his quarters, the Count re- 
plied, with great good-humor, that they were all 
right, and that he should get along well enough. 
Even the tramp of his clerks in the attic, and the 
clanking of his orderlies' sabres below, did not 
disturb him much ; he said, in fact, that he would 
have no grievance at all were it not for a guard 
of Bavarian soldiers stationed about the house — 
for his safety, he presumed — the sentinels from 
which insisted on protecting and saluting the 
Chancellor of the North German Confederation 
in and out of season, a proceeding that led to 
embarrassment sometimes, as he was much troub- 


led with a severe dysentery. Notwithstanding 
his trials, however, and in the midst of the corre- 
spondence on which he was so intently engaged, 
he graciously took time to explain that the suii- 
den movement northward from Bar-le-Duc was, 
as I have previously recounted, the result of in- 
formation that Marshal MacMahon was endeavor- 
ing to relieve Metz by marching along the Belgian 
frontier ; " a blundering manoeuvre." remarked the 
Chancellor, " which cannot be accounted for, un- 
less it has been brought about by the political 
situation of the French." 





A LL night long the forced march of the army 
went on through Clermont, and when I 
turned out, just after daylight, the columns were 
still pressing forward, the men looking tired and 
much bedraggled, as indeed they had reason 
to be, for from recent rains the roads were 
very sloppy. Notwithstanding this, however, the 
troops were pushed ahead with all possible vigor 
to intercept MacMahon and force a battle before 
he could withdraw from his faulty movement, for 
which it has since been ascertained he was not at 
all responsible. Indeed, those at the royal head- 
quarters seemed to think of nothing else than to 
strike MacMahon, for, feeling pretty confident that 
Metz could not be relieved, they manifested not 
the slightest anxiety on that score. 

By 8 o'clock, the skies having cleared, the 


headquarters set out for Grand Pr^, which place 
we reached early in the afternoon, and that even- 
ing I again had the pleasure of dining with the 
King. The conversation at table was almost 
wholly devoted to the situation, of course, every- 
body expressing surprise at the manoeuvre of the 
French at this time, their march along the Belgian 
frontier being credited entirely to Napoleon. Up 
to bed-time there was still much uncertainty as 
to the exact positions of the French, but next 
morning intelligence being received which denot- 
ed the probability of a battle, we drovie about ten 
miles, to Buzancy, and there mounting our horses, 
rode to the front. 

The French were posted not far from Buzancy 
in a strong position, their right resting near Stonne 
and the left extending over into the woods be- 
yond Beaumont. About 10 o'clock the Crown 
Prince of Saxony advanced against this line, and 
while a part of his army turned the French right, 
compelling it to fall back rapidly, the German 
centre and right attacked with great vigor and 
much skill, surprising one of the divisions of Gen- 
eral De Failly's corps while the men were in the 
act of cooking their breakfast. 

The French fled precipitately, leaving behind 
their tents and other camp equipage, and on in- 
specting the ground which they had abandoned 


SO hastily, I noticed on all sides ample evidence 
that not even the most ordinary precautions had 
been taken to secure the division from surprise, 
The artillery horses had not been harnessed, and 
many of them had been shot down at the picket- 
rope where they had been haltered the night be- 
fore, while numbers of men were lying dead with 
loaves of bread or other food instead of their 
muskets in their hands. 

Some three thousand prisoners and nearly all 
the artillery and mitrailleuses of the division were 
captured, while the fugitives were pursued till they 
found shelter behind Douay's corps and the rest 
of De Failly's beyond Beaumont. The same 
afternoon there were several other severe combats 
along the Meuse, but I had no chance of witness- 
ing any of them, and just before night-fall I start- 
ed back to Buzancy, to which place the King's 
headquarters had been brought during the day. 

The morning of the 31st the King moved to 
Vendresse. First sending our carriage back to 
Grand Pr^ for our trunks, Forsyth and I mount- 
ed our horses and rode to the battle-field accom- 
panied by an English nobleman, the Duke of 
Manchester. The part of the field we traversed 
was still thickly strewn with the dead of both 
armies, though all the wounded had been collect- 
ed in the hospitals. In the village of Beaumont, 


we Stopped to take a look at several thousand 
French prisoners, whose worn clothing and evi- 
dent dejection told that they had been doing a 
deal of severe marching under great discourage^ 

The King reached the village shortly after, and 
we all continued on to Ch^mery, just beyond 
where his Majesty alighted from his carriage to 
observe his son's troops file past as they came in 
from the direction of Stonne. This delay caused 
us to be as late as 9 o'clock before we got shel- 
ter that night, but as it aflforded me the best oppor- 
tunity I had yet had for seeing the German sol- 
diers on the march, I did not begrudge the time. 
They moved in a somewhat open and irregular 
column of fours, the intervals between files being 
especially intended to give room for a peculiar 
swinging gait, with which the men seemed to urge 
themselves over the ground with ease and rapidity. 
There was little or no straggling, and being strong, 
lusty young fellows, and lightly equipped — they 
carried only needle-guns, ammunition, a very small 
knapsack, a water-bottle> and a haversack — they 
strode by with an elastic step, covering at least 
three miles an hour. 

It having been definitely ascertained that the 
demoralized French were retiring to Sedan, on 
the evening of August 31 the German army began 


the work of hemming them in there, so disposing 
the different corps as to cover the ground from 
Donchery around by Raucourt to Carignan. The 
next morning this line was to be drawn in closer 
on Sedan ; and the Crown Prince of Saxony was 
therefore ordered to take up a position to the 
north of Bazeilles, beyond the right bank of the 
Meuse, while the Crown Prince of Prussia was to 
cross his right wing over the Meuse at Remilly, 
to move on Bazeilles, his centre meantime march- 
ing against a number of little hamlets still held by 
the French between there and Donchery. At this 
last-mentioned place strong reserves were to be 
held, and from it the Eleventh Corps, followed by 
the Fifth and a division of cavalry, was to march 
on St. Menges. 

Forsyth and I started early next morning, Sep- 
tember I, and in a thick fog — which, however, sub- 
sequently gave place to bright sunshine — we drove 
to the village of Chevenges, where, mounting our 
horses, we rode in a northeasterly direction to the 
heights of Fr^nois and Wadelincourt, bordering 
the river Meuse on the left bank, where from the 
crest we had a good view of the town of Sedan with 
its circling fortifications, which, though extensive, 
were not so formidable as those around Metz. 
The King and his staff were already established 
on these heights, and at a point so well chosen 


that his Majesty could observe the movements of 
both armies immediately east and south of Sedan, 
and also to the northwest toward Floing and the 
Belgian frontier. 

The battle was begun to the east and northeast 
of Sedan as early as half-past 4 o'clock by the 
German right wing — the fighting being desultory 
— and near the same hour the Bavarians attacked 
Bazeilles. This village, some two miles southeast 
of Sedan, being of importance, was defended with 
great obstinacy, the French contesting from street 
to street and house to house the attack of the 
Bavarians till near 10 o'clock, when, almost every 
building being knocked to pieces, they were com- 
pelled to relinquish the place. The possession of 
this village gave the Germans to the east of Sedan 
a continuous line, extending from the Meuse 
northward through La Moncelle and Daigny to 
Givonne, and almost to the Belgian frontier. 

While the German centre and right were thus 
engaged, the left had moved in accordance with 
the prescribed plan. Indeed, some of these troops 
had crossed the Meuse the night before, and now, 
at a little after 6 o'clock, their advance could be 
seen just north of the village of Floing. Thus far 
these columns, under the immediate eye of the 
Crown Prince of Prussia, had met with no opposi- 
tion to their march, and as soon as they got to 


the high ground above the village they began 
extending to the east, to connect with the Army 
of the Meuse. This juncture was effected at Illy 
without difficulty, and the French army was now 
completely encompassed. 

''After a severe fight, the Crown Prince drove 
the French through Floing, and as the ground 
between this village and Sedan is an undulating, 
open plain, everywhere visible, there was then 
offered a rare opportunity for seeing the final con- 
flict preceding the surrender. Presently up out 
of the little valley where Floing is located came 
the Germans, deploying just on the rim of the 
plateau a very heavy skirmish-line, supported by 
a line of battle at close distance. When these 
skirmishers appeared, the French infantry had 
withdrawn within its intrenched lines, but a 
strong body of their cavalry, already formed in a 
depression to the right of the Floing road, now 
rode at the Germans in gallant style, going clear 
through the dispersed skirmishers to the main 
line of battle. Here the slaughter of the French 
was awful, for in addition to the deadly volleys 
from the solid battalions of their enemies, the 
skirmishers, who had rallied in knots at advan- 
tageous places, were now delivering a severe and 
effective fire. The gallant horsemen, therefore, 
had to retire precipitately, but re-forming in the 

Vou IL— 26. 


depression, they again undertook the hopeless 
task of breaking the German infantry, making in 
all four successive charges. Their ardor and pluck 
were of no avail, however, for the Germans, grow- 
ing stronger every minute by the accession of 
troops from Floing, met the fourth attack in such 
large force that, even before coming in contact 
with their adversaries, the French broke and re- 
treated* to the protection of the intrenchments, 
where, from the beginning of the combat, had 
been lying plenty of idle infantry, some of which 
at least, it seemed plain to met ought to have been 
thrown into the fight. This action was the last 
one of consequence around Sedan, for, though 
with the contraction of the German lines their 
batteries kept cannonading more or less, and the 
rattle of musketry continued to be heard here and 
there, yet the hard fighting of the day practically 
ended on the plateau of Floing. 

By 3 o'clock, the French being in a desperate 
and hopeless situation, the King ordered the firing 
to be stopped, and at once despatched one of his 
staff — Colonel von Bronsart — with a demand for 
a surrender. Just as this officer was starting off, 
I remarked to Bismarck that Napoleon himself 
would likely be one of the prizes, but the Count, 
incredulous, replied, **Oh no; the old fox is too 
cunning to be caught in such a trap ; he has 


doubtless slipped off to Paris " — a belief which I 
found to prevail pretty generally about headquar- 

In the lull that succeeded, the King invited 
many of those about him to luncheon, a caterer 
having provided from some source or other a sub- 
stantial meal of good bread, chops and peas, with a 
bountiful supply of red and sherry wines. Among 
those present were Prince Carl, Bismarck, Von 
Moltke, Von Roon, the Duke of Weimar, the 
Duke of Coburg, the Grand-Duke of Mecklen- 
burg, Count Hatzfeldt, Colonel Walker, of the 
English army. General Forsyth, and I. The King 
was agreeable and gracious at all times, but on 
this occasion he was particularly so, being nat- 
urally in a happy frame of mind because this day 
the war had reached a crisis which presaged for 
the near future the complete vanquishment of the 

Between 4 and 5 o'clock Colonel von Bronsart 
returned from his mission to Sedan, bringing word 
to the King that the commanding officer there, 
General Wimpffen, wished to know, in order that 
the further effusion of blood might be spared, 
upon what terms he might surrender. The Col- 
onel brought the intelligence also that the French 
Emperor was in the town. Soon after Von Bron- 
sart's arrival, a French officer approached from 


Sedan, preceded by a white flag and two German 
officers. Coming up the road till within a few 
hundred yards of us, they halted ; then one of the 
Germans rode forward to say that the French 
officer was Napoleon's adjutant, bearing an auto- 
graph letter from the Emperor to the King of 
Prussia. At this the King, followed by Bismarck, 
Von Moltke, and Von Roon, walked out to the 
front a little distance and halted, his Majesty still 
in advance, the rest of us meanwhile forming in a 
line some twenty paces to the rear of the group. 
The envoy then approached, at first on horseback, 
but when within about a hundred yards he dis- 
mounted, and uncovering, came the repiaining 
distance on foot, bearing high up in his right hand 
the despatch from Napoleon. The bearer proved 
to be General Reille, and as he handed the Empe- 
ror's letter to the King, his Majesty saluted him 
with the utmost formality and precision. Napol- 
eon's letter was the since famous one, running so 
characteristically, thus: "Not having been able 
to die in the midst of my troops, there is nothing 
left me but to place my sword in your Majesty's 
hands." The reading finished, the King returned 
to his former post, and after a conference with 
Bismarck, Von Moltke, and Von Roon, dictated 
an answer accepting Napoleon's surrender, and 
requesting him to designate an officer with power 


to treat for the capitulation of the army, himself 
naming Von Moltke to represent the Germans. The 
King then started for Vendresse, to pass the night. 
It was after 7 o'clock now, and hence too late to 
arrange anything more where we were, so further 
negotiations were deferred till later in the even- 
ing ; and 1, wishing to be conveniently near Bis- 
marck, resolved to take up quarters in Donchery. 
On our way thither we were met by the Count's 
nephew, who assuring us that it would be impos- 
sible to find shelter there in the village, as all the 
houses were filled with wounded, Forsyth and I 
decided to continue on to Chevenge. On the 
other hand, Bismarck-Bohlen bore with him one 
great comfort — some excellent brandy. Offering 
the flask *o his uncle, he said : '* YouVe had a hard 
day of it; won't you refresh yourself?" The 
Chancellor, without wasting time to answer, raised 
the bottle to his lips, exclaiming : " Here's to the 
unification of Germany ! " which sentiment the 
gurgling of an astonishingly long drink seemed 
to emphasize. The Count then handed the bottle 
back to his nephew, who, shaking it, ejaculated, 
"Why, we can't pledge you in return — there is 
nothing left ! " to which came the waggish re- 
sponse, ** I beg pardon ; it was so dark I couldn't 
see " ; nevertheless there was a little remaining, as 
I myself can aver. 


Having left our carriage at Chevenge, Forsyth 
and I stopped there to get it, but a long search 
proving fruitless, we took lodging in the village at 
the house of the cur^, resolved to continue the 
hunt in the morning. But then we had no better 
success, so concluding that our vehicle had been 
pressed into the hospital service, we at an early 
hour on the 2d of September resumed the search, 
continuing on down the road in the direction of 
Sedan. Near the gate of the city we came on 
the German picket-line, and one of the officers, 
recognizing our uniforms — he having served in 
the war of the rebellion — stepped forward and 
addressed me in good English. We naturally 
fell into conversation, and in the midst of it there 
came out through the gate an open carriage, or 
landau, containing two men, one of whom, in the 
uniform of a general and smoking a cigarette, we 
recognized, when the conveyance drew near, as 
the Emperor Louis Napoleon. The landau went 
on toward Donchery at a leisurely pace, and we, 
inferring that there was something more impor- 
tant at hand just then than the recovery of our 
trap, followed at a respectful distance. Not quite 
a mile from Donchery is a cluster of three or four 
cottages, and at the first of these the landau 
stopped to await, as we afterward ascertained. 
Count Bismarek, with whom the diplomatic nego- 


tiations were to be settled. Some minutes elapsed 
before he came, Napoleon remaining seated in his 
carriage meantime, still smoking, and accepting 
with nonchalance the staring of a group of Ger- 
man soldiers near by, who were gazing on their 
fallen foe with curious and eager interest. 

Presently a clattering of hoofs was heard, and 
looking toward the sound, I perceived the Chan- 
cellor cantering down the road. When abreast of 
the carriage he dismounted, and walking up to it, 
saluted the Emperor in a quick, brusque way that 
seemed to startle him. After a word or two, the 
party moved perhaps a hundred yards further on, 
where they stopped opposite the weaver's cottage 
so famous from that day. This little house is on 
the east side of the Donchery road, near its junc- 
tion with that to Fr^nois, and stands about twenty 
paces back from the highway. In front is a stone 
wall covered with creeping vines, and from a gate 
in this wall runs to the front door a path, at 
this time bordered on both sides with potato 

The Emperor having alighted at the gate, he 
and Bismarck walked together along the narrow 
path and entered the cottage. Reappearing in 
about a quarter of an hour, they came out and 
seated themselves in the open air, the weaver 
having brought a couple of chairs. Here they 


engaged in an animated conversation, if much 
gesticulation is any indication. The talk lasted 
fully an hour, Bismarck seeming to do most of it, 
but at last he arose, saluted the Emperor, and 
strode down the path toward his horse. Seeing 
me standing near the gate, he joined me for a 
moment, and asked if I had noticed how the Em- 
peror started when they first met, and I telling 
him that I had, he added, " Well, it must have been 
due to my manners, not my words, for these were, 
* I salute your Majesty just as I would my King/ " 
Then the Chancellor continued to chat a few 
minutes longer, assuring me that nothing further 
was to be done there, and that we had better go 
to the Chateau Bellevue, where, he said, the form- 
al surrender was to take place. With this he 
rode off toward Vendresse to communicate with 
his sovereign, and Forsyth and I made ready to 
go to the Chateau Bellevue. 

Before wc set out, however, a number of officers 
of the King s suite arrived at the weaver's cottage, 
and from them I gathered that there were diflfer- 
ences at the royal headquarters as to whether 
peace should be made then at Sedan, or the war 
continued till the French capital was taken. I 
further heard that the military advisers of the 
King strongly advocated an immediate move on 
Paris, while the Chancellor thought it best to 


make peace now, holding Alsace and Lorraine, 
and compelling the payment of an enormous levy 
of money ; and these rumors were most likely 
correct, for I had often heard Bismarck say that 
France being the richest country in Europe, noth- 
ing could keep her quiet but eflfectually to empty 
her pockets ; and besides this, he impressed me as 
holding that it would be better policy to preserve 
the Empire. 

On our way to the chateau we fell in with a 
number of artillery officers bringing up their guns 
hurriedly to post them closer in to the beleaguer- 
ed town on a specially advantageous ridge. In- 
quiring the cause of this move, we learned that 
General WimpflFen had not yet agreed to the 
terms of surrender ; that it was thought he would 
not, and that they wanted to be prepared for any 
such contingency. And they were preparing 
with a vengeance too. for I counted seventy-two 
Krupp guns in one continuous line trained on the 
Chateau Bellevue and Sedan. 

Napoleon went directly from the weaver's to 
the Chateau Bellevue, and about lo o'clock the 
King of Prussia arrived from Frenois, accompa- 
nied by a few of his own suite and the Crown 
Prince with several members of his staff ; and Von 
Moltke and WimpflFen having settled their points 
of diflference before the two monarchs met, within 


the next half-hour the articles of capitulation were 
formally signed. 

On the completion of the surrender — the occa- 
, sion being justly considered a great one — the 
I Crown Prince proceeded to distribute among the 
I officers congregated in the chSteau grounds the 
, order of the Iron Cross — a generous supply of 
I these decorations being carried in a basket by one 
' of his orderlies, following him about as he walked 
along. Meantime the King, leaWng Napoleon in 
the chateau to ruminate on the fickleness of for- 
tune, drove off to see his own victorious soldiers, 
who greeted him with huzzas that rent the air, 
and must have added to the pangs of the captive 







nPHE Crown Prince having got to the bottom 
of his medal basket — that is to say, having 
finished his Hberal distribution of decorations to 
his officers — Forsyth and I rode oflF by way of 
Wadelincourt to Bazeilles to see what had taken 
place on that part of the field, and the sight that 
met our eyes as we entered the village was truly 
dreadful to look upon. Most of the houses had 
been knocked down or burned the day before, but 
such as had been left standing were now in flames, 
the torch having been applied because, as it was 
claimed. Frenchmen concealed in them had fired 
on the wounded. The streets were still encum- 
bered with both German and French dead, and it 
was evident that of those killed in the houses the 
bodies had not been removed, for the air was 

loaded with odors of burning flesh. From Bazeil- 




les we rode on toward the north about two miles, 
along where the fight had been largely an artillery 
duel, to learn what we could of the effectiveness 
of the Krupp gun. Counting all the French dead 
we came across killed by artillery, they figured 
up about three hundred — a ridiculously small num- 
ber; in fact, not much more than one dead man 
for each Krupp gun on that part of the line. Al- 
though the number of dead was in utter dispro- 
portion to the terrific six -hour cannonade, yet 
small as it was the torn and mangled bodies made 
such a horrible sight that we turned back toward 
Bazcilles without having gone further than Gi- 

At Bazeilles we met the King, accompanied by 
Bismarck and several of the staff. They too had 
been riding over the field, the King making this a 
practice, to see that the wounded were not neg- 
lected. As I drew up by the party, Bismarck ac- 
costed me with,"Well, General, aren't you hungry? 
This is just the place to whet one's appetite— 
these burning Frenchmen — Ugh ! " and shrugging 
his shoulders in evident disgust, he turned away to 
join his Majesty in further explorations, Forsyth 
and I continuing on to Chevenges. Here we got 
the first inkling of what had become of our car- 
riage since leaving it two days before : it had 
been pressed into service to carry wounded offi- 


cers from the field during the battle, but afterward 
released, and was now safe at the house in Ven- 
dresse where we had been quartered the night of 
the 31st, so, on hearing this, we settled to go there 
again to lodge, but our good friend, the cure, in- 
sisting that we should stay with him, we remained 
in Chevenges till next morning. 

On September 3 the King removed from Ven- 
dresse to Rethel, where he remained two days ; 
in the mean while the Germans, 240,000 strong, 
beginning their direct march to Paris. The French 
had little with which to oppose this enormous 
force, not more, perhaps, than 50,000 regular 
troops ; the rest of their splendid army had been 
lost or captured in battle, or was cooped up in the 
fortifications of Metz, Strasburg, and other places, 
in consequence of blunders without parallel in 
history, for which Napoleon and the Regency in 
Paris must be held accountable. The first of these 
gross faults was the fight at Worth, where 
MacMahon, before his army was mobilized, accept- 
ed battle with the Crown Prince, pitting 50,000 
men against 175,000; the next was Bazaine's fix- 
ing upon Metz as his base, and stupidly putting 
himself in position to be driven back to it, when 
there was no possible obstacle to his joining forces 
with MacMahon at Chalons ; while the third and 
greatest blunder of all was MacMahon's move to 


relieve Metz, trying to slip 140,000 men along the 
Belgian frontier. Indeed, it is exasperating and 
sickening to think of all this ; to think that Ba- 
zaine carried into Metz — a place that should have 
been held, if at all, with not over 25,000 men — an 
army of 180,000, because it contained, the excuse 
was, "an accumulation of stores." With all the 
resources of rich France to draw upon, I cannot 
conceive that this excuse was sincere ; on the con- 
trary, I think that the movement of Bazaine must 
have been inspired by Napolebn with a view to 
the maintenance of his dynasty rather than for 
the good of France. 

As previously stated, Bismarck did not approve 
of the German army's moving on Paris after the 
battle of Sedan. Indeed, I think he foresaw and 
dreaded the establishment of a Republic, his idea 
being that if peace was made then, the Empire 
could be continued in the person of the Prince 
Imperial, who, coming to the throne under Ger- 
man influences, would be pliable in his hands. 
These views found frequent expression in private, 
and in public too; I myself particularly remember 
the Chancellor's speaking thus most unguardedly 
at a dinner in Rheims. But he could not prevent 
the march to Paris; it was impossible to stop the 
Germans, flushed with success. " On to Paris " 
was written by the soldiers on every door, and 


every fence-board along the route to the capital, 
and the thought of a triumphant march down the 
Champs Elys^es was uppermost with every Ger- 
man, from the highest to the lowest grade. 

The 5th of September we set out for Rheims. 
There it was said the Germans would meet with 
strong resistance, for the French intended to die 
to the last man before giving up that city. But 
this proved all fudge, as is usual with these " last 
ditch " promises, the garrison decamping immedi- 
ately at the approach of a few Uhlans. So far as 
I could learn, but a single casualty happened ; this 
occurred to an Uhlan, wounded by a shot which it 
was reported was fired from a house after the 
town was taken ; so, to punish this breach of 
faith, a levy of several hundred bottles of cham- 
pagne was made, and the wine divided about 
headquarters, being the only seizure made in the 
city, I believe, for though Rheims, the centre of 
the champagne district, had its cellars well 
stocked, yet most of them being owned by Ger- 
man firms, they received every protection. 

The land about Rheims is of a white, chalky 
character, and very poor, but having been terraced 
and enriched with fertilizers, it produces the 
champagne grape in such abundance that the re- 
gion, once considered valueless, and named by the 
peasantry the " land of the louse," now supports 



a dense population. We remained in Rheims 
eight days, and through the politeness of the 
American Consul — Mr. Adolph Gill — had the 
pleasure of seeing all the famous wine cellars, 
and inspecting the processes followed in cham- 
pagne making, from the step of pressing the juice 
from the grape to that which shows the wine 
ready for the market. Mr. Gill also took us to see 
everything else of special interest about the city, 
and there being much to look at — fine old 
churches, ancient fortifications, a Roman gate- 
way, etc. — the days slipped by very quickly, 
though the incessant rains somewhat interfered 
with our enjoyment. 

For three or four days all sorts of rumors were 
rife as to what was doing in Paris, but nothing 
definite was learned till about the 9th; then Count 
Bismarck informed me that the Regency had 
been overthrown on the 4th, and that the Empress 
Eugenie had escaped to Belgium. The King of 
Prussia offeredheranasylum with the Emperor at 
WilhelmshOhe, " where she ought to go," said the 
Chancellor, " for her proper place is with her hus- 
band," but he feared she would not. On the 
same occasion he also told me that Jules Favre — 
the head of the Provisional Government — had 
sent him the suggestion that, the Empire being 
gone, peace should be made and the Germans 


withdrawn, but that he (Bismarck) was now com- 
pelled to recognize the impossibiUty of doing this 
till Paris was taken, for although immediately 
after the surrender of Sedan he desired peace, the 
past few days had made it plain that the troops 
would not be satisfied with anything short of 
Paris, no matter what form of Government the 
French should ultimately adopt. 

The German army having met with no resist- 
ance whatever in its march on Paris, its advance 
approached the capital rapidly, and by the 14th 
of September the royal headquarters moved by a 
fine macadamized road to the Chateau Thierry, and 
on the 15th reached Meaux, about twenty-eight 
miles from Paris, where we remained four days 
awaiting the reconstruction of some railroad and 
canal bridges. The town of Meaux has a busy pop- 
ulation of about 10,000 souls, in peaceable times 
principally occupied in manufacturing flour for the 
ParisL market, having a fine water-power for the 
many mills. These were kept going day and night 
to supply the German army ; and it was strange 
to see with what zeal Frenchmen toiled to fill the 
stomachs of their inveterate enemies, and with 
what alacrity the mayor and other officials filled 
requisitions for wine, cheese, suits of livery, riding- 
whips, and even squab pigeons. 

During our stay at Meaux the British Minister, 

Vol. II.— 27. 


^Lord Lyons, endeavored to bring about a cessa- 
tion of hostilities, to this end sending his sec- 
retary out from Paris with a letter to Count 
Uismarck, offering to serve a.s mediator. The 
I Chancellor would not agree to this, however, for 
I he conjectured that the action of the British Min- 
ister had been inspired by Jules Favre, who, he 
thought, was trying to draw the Germans into 
I negotiations through the medium of a third party 
r only for purposes of delay. So the next morning 
Lord Lyons's .secretary. Mr. Edward Malet, re- 
turned to Paris empty-handed, except that he bore 
a communication positively declining mediation; 
which message, however, led no doubt to an in- 
terview between Bismarck and Favre a couple of 
days later. 

The forenoon of September 1 9 the King removed 
to the Chateau Ferri^es — a castle belonging to 
the Rothschild family, where Napoleon had spent 
many happy days in the time of his prosperity. 
His Majesty took up his quarters here at the sug- 
gestion of the owner, we were told, so that by the 
presence of the King the magnificent chateau and 
its treasures of art would be unquestionably pro- 
tected from all acts of vandalism. 

All of the people at headquarters except the 
King's immediate suite were assigned quarters at 
Lagny; and while Forsyth and I, accompanied 


by Sir Henry Havelock, of the British army, were 
-driving thither, we passed on the road the repre- 
sentative of the National Defense Government, 
Jules Favre, in a carriage heading toward Meaux. 
Preceded by a flag of truce and accompanied by 
a single companion, he was searching for Count 
Bismarck, in confcHmity. doubtless, with the mes- 
s^e the Chancellor had sent to Paris on the 1 7th 
by the British secretary. A half-mile further on 
we met Bismarck. He too was traveling toward 
Meaux, not in the best of humor either, it appear- 
ed, for having missed finding the French envoy 
at the rendezvous where they had agreed to meet, 
he stopped long enough to say that the "air was 
full of lies, and that there were many persons 
with the army bent on business that did not con- 
cern them." 

The armies of the two Crown Princes were now 
at the outskirts of Paris. They had come from 
Sedan mainly by two routes — the Crown Prince 
of Saxony marching by the northern line, through 
Laon and Soissons, and the Crown Prince of Prus- 
sia by the southern line, keeping his right wing 
on the north bank of the Marne, while his left and 
centre approached the French capital by roads 
between that river and the Seine. 

The march of these armies had been unobstruct- 
ed by any resistance worth mentioning, and as 


the routes of both columns lay through a region 
teeming with everything necessary for their sup- 
port, and rich even in luxuries, it struck me that 
such campaigning was more a vast picnic than 
like actual war. The country supplied at all points 
bread, meat, and wine in abundance, and the neat 
villages, never more than a mile or two apart, al- 
ways furnished shelter; hence the enormous trains 
required to feed and provide camp equipage for 
an army operating in a sparsely settled country 
were dispensed with ; in truth, about the only 
impedimenta of the Germans was their wagons 
carrying ammunition, pontoon-boats, and the field 

On the morning of the 20th I started out ac- 
companied by Forsyth and Sir Henry Havelock, 
and took the road through Boissy St. George, 
Boissy St. Martins and Noisy Le Grand to Brie. 
Almost every foot of the way was strewn with 
fragments of glass from wine bottles, emptied 
and then broken by the troops. There was, indeed, 
so much of this that I refrain from making any 
estimate of the number of bottles, lest I be 
thought to exaggerate, but the road was literally 
paved with glass, and the amount of wine con- 
sumed (none was wasted) must have been enor- 
mous, far more, even, than I had seen evidence of 
at any time before. There were two almost con- 


tinuous lines of broken bottles along the roadsides 
all the way down from Sedan ; but that exhibit 
was small compared with what we saw about 

At Brie we were taken charge of by the Ger- 
man commandant of the place. He entertained 
us most hospitably for an hour or so, and then, 
accompanied by a lieutenant, who was to be our 
guide, I set out ahead of my companions to gain 
a point on the picket-line where I expected to get 
a good look at the French, for their rifle-pits were 
but a few hundred yards off across the Marae, 
their main line being just behind the rifle-pits. As 
the lieutenant and I rode through the village, 
some soldiers warned us that the adventure would 
be dangerous, but that we could probably get to 
the desired place unhurt if we avoided the French 
fire by forcing our horses to a run in crossing 
some open streets where we would be exposed. 
On getting to the first street my guide galloped 
ahead to show the way, and as the French were 
not on the lookout for anything of the kind at 
these dangerous points, only a few stray shots 
were drawn by the lieutenant, but when I fol- 
lowed, they were fully up to what was going on, 
and let fly a volley every time they saw me in 
the open. Fortunately, however, in their excite- 
ment they overshot, but when I drew rein along- 



side of my guide under protection of the bluflf 
where the German picket was posted, my hair was 
all on end, and I was about as badly scared as ever 
I had been in my life. As soon as I could re- 
cover myself I thought of Havelock and Forsyth, 
with the hope that they would not follow ; nor 
did they, for having witnessed my experience, they 
wisely concluded that, after all, they did not care 
so much to see the French rifle-pits. 

When I had climbed to the top of the bluflf I 
was much disappointed, for I could see but lit- 
tle — only the advanced rifle-pits across the river, 
and Fort Nogent beyond them, not enough, cer- 
tainly, to repay a non-combatant for taking the 
risk of being killed. The next question was to re- 
turn, and deciding to take no more such chances 
as those we had run in coming out, I said we 
would wait till dark, but this proved unnecessary, 
for to my utter astonishment my guide informed 
me that there was a perfectly safe route by which 
we might go back. I asked why we had not taken 
it in coming, and he replied that he had thought 
it '* too long and circuitous." To this I could say 
nothing, but I concluded that that was not quite 
the correct reason ; the truth is that early that 
morning the young fellow had been helping to 
empty some of the many wine bottles I saw 
around Brie, and consequently had a little more 


"Dutch courage" — was a little more rash — J 
than would have been the case under other 

I rode back to Brie by the " long and circui- 
tous " route, and inquiring there for my compan- 
ions, found Havelock waiting to conduct me to 
the village of Villiers, whither, he said, Forsyth 
had been called to make some explanation about 
his passport, which .did not appear to be in satis- 
factory shape. Accordingly we started for Vil- 
liers, and Havelock, being well mounted on an 
English " hunter," and wishing to give me an 
exhibition of the animal's training and power, led 
the way across ditches and fences, but my horse, 
never having followed " the hounds," was unsafe 
to experiment with, so, after trying a low fence or 
two, I decided to leave my friend alone in his 
diversion, and a few moments later, seeing both 
horse and rider go down before a ditch and high 
stone wall, I was convinced that my resolution 
was a discreet one. After this mishap, which 
luckily resulted in no harm, I hoped Sir Henry 
would give up the amusement, but by failure be- 
coming only the more determined, in a second 
effort he cleared the wall handsomely and rode 
across -country to the villages. Following the 
road till it passed under a railway bridge, I there 
thought I saw a chance to gain Villiers by a short 



cut, and changing my course accordingly, I struck 
into a large vineyard to the left, and proceeding a 
few hundred yards through the vines, came sud- 
denly upon a German picket-post. The guard 
immediately leveled their rifles at me, when, re- 
membering my Rezonville experience of being 
taken for a French officer because of my uniform, 
I hastily flung myself from the saddle in token of 
surrender. The action being rightly interpreted, 
the men held their fire, and as my next thought 
was the King's pass I reached under my coat-skirt 
for the document, but this motion being taken as 
a grab for my pistol, the whole lot of them — some 
ten in number — again aimed at me, and with such 
loud demands for surrender that I threw up my 
hands and ran into their ranks. The officer of the 
guard then coming up, examined my credentials, 
and seeing that they were signed by the King of 
Prussia, released me and directed the recovery of 
my horse, which was soon caught, and I was then 
conducted to the quarters of the commandant, 
where I found Forsyth with his pass properly 
vtsSd, entirely ignorant of my troubles, and con- 
tentedly regaling himself on cheese and beer. 
Havelock having got to the village ahead of 
me, thanks to his cross-country ride, was there 
too, sipping beer with Forsyth ; nor was I slow 
to follow their example, for the ricie of the day. 


though rather barren in other results, at any rate 
had given me a ravenous appetite. 

Late that evening, the 20th, we resumed our old 
quarters at "Laigny, and early next day I made a 
visit to the royal headquarters at Ferriires, where 
I observed great rejoicing gtnng on, the occasion 
for it being an important victory gained near 
Mendon, a French corps of about 30,000 men 
under General Ducrot having been beaten by the 
Rfth Prussian and Second Bavarian corps. Ducrot 
had been stubbornly holding ground near Mendon 
for two or three days, much to the embarrassment 
of the Germans too, since he kept them from clos- 
ing a gap in their line to the southwest of Paris ; 
but in the recent fight he had been driven from 
the field with such heavy loss as to render impos- 
sible his maintaining the gap longer. The Crown 
Prince of Prussia was thus enabled to extend his 
left, without danger, as far as Bougival, north of 
Versailles, and eventually met the right of the 
Crown Prince of Saxony, already at Denil, north 
of St. Denis. The unbroken circle of investment 
around Paris being wellnigh assured, news of its 
complete accomplishment was momentarily ex- 
pected ; therefore everybody was jubilant on ac- 
count of the breaking up of Ducrot. but more 
particularly because word had been received the 
same morning that a correspondence had begun 



between Bazaine and Prince Frederick Charles, 
looking to the capitulation of Metz, for the sur- 
render of that place would permit the Second 
Army to join in the siege of Paris. 

Learning all this, and seeing that the investment 
was about completed, I decided to take up my 
quarters at Versailles, and started for that place 
on the 2 2d, halting at Noisy le Grand to take lunch- 
eon with some artillery officers, whose acquaint- 
ance we had made the day of the surrender at 
Sedan. During the meal I noticed two American 
flags flying on a couple of houses near by. In- 
quiring the significance of this, I was told that the 
flags had been put up to protect the buildings — 
the owners, two American citizens, having in a 
bad fright abandoned their property, and, instead 
of remaining outside, gone into Paris — ** very 
foolishly,'* said our hospitable friends, ** for here 
they could have obtained food in plenty, and been 
perfectly secure from molestation." 

We arrived at Versailles about 7 o'clock that 
evening and settled ourselves in the Hotel Res- 
ervoir, happy to find there two or three American 
families, with whom, of course, we quickly made 
acquaintance. This American circle was enlarged 
a few days later by the arrival of General Wm. B. 
Hazen, of our army. General Ambrose E. Burn- 
side, and Mr, Paul Forbes. Burnside and Forbes 


were hot to see, from the French side, something 
of the war. and being almost beside themselves 
to get into Paris, a permit was granted them by 
Count Bismarck, and they set out by way of 
Sevres, Forsyth and 1 accompanying them as far 
as the Palace of St. Cloud, which wc proposed 
to see, though there were strict orders against its 
being visited generally. After much trouble we 
managed, through the " open sesame " of the 
King's pass, to gain access to the palace; but toour 
great disappointment we found that all the pic- 
tures had been cut from the frames and carried 
off to Paris, except one portrait, that of Queen 
Victoria, against whom the French were much 
incensed. All other works of art had been remov- 
ed, too — a most fortunate circumstance, for the 
palace being directly on the German line, was 
raked by the guns from the fortress of Mont 
Valerien, and in a few days burned to the ground. 
In less than a week Burnside and Forbes return- 
ed from Paris. They told us their experience had 
been interesting, but were very reticent as to 
particulars, and though we tried hard to find out 
what they had seen or done, we could get nothing 
from them beyond the general statement that 
they had had a good time, and that General Tro- 
chu had been considerate enough to postpone a 
sortie, in order to let them return ; but this we 


did not quite swallow. After a day or two they 
went into Paris again, and I then began to sus- 
pect that they were essaying the role of media- 
tors, and that Count Bismarck was feeding their 
vanity with permits, and receiving his equivalent 
by learning the state of affairs within the belea- 
guered city. 

From about the ist of October on, the Germans 
were engaged in making their enveloping lines 
impenetrable, bringing up their reserves, siege 
guns, and the like, the French meanwhile continu- 
ing to drill and discipline the National Guard, 
and relieving the monotony occasionally by a 
more or less spirited, but invariably abortive, 
sortie. The most notable of these was that made 
by General Vinoy against the heights of Clamart, 
the result being a disastrous repulse by the be- 
siegers. After this, matters settled down to an 
almost uninterrupted quietude, only a skirmish 
here and there ; and it being plain that the Ger- 
mans did not intend to assault the capital, but 
would accomplish its capture by starvation, I con- 
cluded to find out from Count Bismarck about 
when the end was expected, with the purpose of 
spending the interim in a little tour through some 
portions of Europe undisturbed by war, returning 
in season for the capitulation. Count Bismarck 
having kindly advised me as to the possible date, 



Forsyth and I, on the 14th of October, left Ver- 
sailles, going first direct to the Chateau Ferrieres 
to pay our respects to the King, which we did. 
and again took luncheon with him. From the 
chateau we drove to Meaux, and there spent the 
night ; resuming our journey next morning, we 
passed through Epemay. Rheims, and Rethel to 
Sedan, where we tarried a day, and finally, on 
October 18, reached Brussels. 






/^N reaching Brussels, one of the first things to 
do was to pay my respects to the King of 
Belgium, which I did, accompanied by our Minis- 
ter, Mr. Russell Jones. Later I dined with the 
King and Queen, meeting at the dinner many 
notable people, among them the Count and Count- 
ess of Flanders. A day or two in Brussels sufficed 
to mature our plans for spending the time up to 
the approximate date of our return to Paris; and 
deciding to visit eastern Europe, we made Vienna 
our first objective, going there by way of Dresden. 
At Vienna our Minister, Mr. John Jay, took 
charge of us— Forsyth was still with me — and the 

few days' sojourn was full of interest. The Em- 




perar ban^ abe^est from the capital, we missed 
. ikt Pcacoe Uioisier, Count von 
s voy pofite to fB, and at his house we 
r at dinner Count An- 
rtrf Hungary, 
t to Buda-Pesth, the Hun- 
; in a »naU, crowded, 
, down the Danube 
\ wc visited Bucharest — all 
Enrope do so — and then 
ifatctiig <wr ooBfse sondnrard. we went first to 
Vana.aiMl frooi tbot c^ by steamer through the 
Bfac^ Sea to Cdostantiiiople. 

We reached the Toikish capital at the time of 
Ramadan, the period of the year (about a month) 
during which the Mc^iammedans are commanded 
by the Koran to keep a rigorous fast every day 
from sunrise till sunset. All the followers of the 
Pro|^t were therefore busy with their devotions 
— holding a re\-ival, as it were ; hence there was 
no chance whatever to be presented to the Sultan, 
Abdul Aziz, it being forbidden during the peniten- 
tial season for him to receiie unbelievers, or In fact 
any one except the officials of his household. How- 
ever, the Grand Vizier brought me many messages 
of welcome, and arranged that I should be permit- 
ted to see and salute his Serene Highness on the Es- 
planade as he rode by on horseback to the mosque. 


So, the second day after arrival, the Grand 
Vizier drove me in a barouche to the Esplanade, 
where we took station about midway of its 
length an hour or so before the Sultan was to 
appear. Shortly after we reached the Esplanade, 
carriages occupied by the women of the Sultan's 
harem began to appear, coming out from the 
palace grounds and driving up and down the road- 
way. Only a few of the women were closely 
veiled, a majority of them wearing an apology 
for veiling, merely a strip of white lace covering 
the forehead down to the eyebrows. Some were 
yellow, and some white — types of the Mongolian 
and Caucasian races. Now and then a pretty face 
was seen, rarely a beautiful one. Many were 
plump, even to corpulence, and these were the 
closest veiled, being considered the greatest beau- 
ties I presume, since with the Turk obesity is the 
chief element of comeliness. As the carriages 
passed along in review, every now and then an 
occupant, unable or unwilling to repress her nat- 
ural promptings, would indulge in a mild flirtation, 
making overtures by casting demure side-glances, 
throwing us coquettish kisses, or waving strings 
of amber beads with significant gestures, seeming 
to say: '* Why don't you follow ?" But this we could 
not do if we would, for the Esplanade throughout 
its entire length was lined with soldiers, put there 


434 FEMsoNAt JtBjmats OF p. s. sisjua^ir. 

especially to guard the harem first, and later, the 
Sultan on his pilgrimage to the mosque. 

But as it was now time for His Serene Highness 
to make his appearance, the carriages containing 
his wives drove off into the palace grounds, which 
were inclosed by a high wall, leaving the Espla- 
nade wholly unencumbered except by the soldiers. 
Down between the two ranks, which were formed 
facing each other, came the Sultan on a white 
steed — a beautiful Arabian — and having at his side 
his son, a boy about ten or twelve years <^d, who 
wias riding a pony, a diminutive copy of his 
father's mount, the two attended by a numerous 
body-guard, dressed in gorgeous Oriental uni- 
forms. As the procession passed our carriage, I, 
as pre-arranged, stood up and took off my hat, His 
Serene Highness promptly acknowledging the 
salute by raising his hand to the forehead. This 
was all I saw of him, yet I received every kind- 
ness at his hands, being permitted to see many of 
his troops, to inspect all the ordnance, equipment, 
and other military establishments about Constan- 
tinople, and to meet numbers of the high function- 
aries of the Empire. 

Among other compliments tendered through 
his direction, and which I gladly accepted, was a 
review of all the troops then in Stamboul — about 
6,000— comprising infantry, cavalry, and artillery. 


They were as fine looking a body of soldiers as I 
ever saw — well armed and well clothed, the men 
all large and of sturdy appearance. 

After the review we attended a grand military 
dinner given by the Grand Vizier. At the hour 
set for this banquet we presented ourselves at 
the palace of the Grand Vizier, and being ushered 
into a large drawing-room, found already assem- 
bled there the guests invited to meet us. Some few 
spoke French, and with these we managed to ex- 
change an occasional remark ; but as the greater 
number stood about in silence, the afifair, thus far, 
was undeniably a little stifiF. Just before the din- 
ner was announced, all the Turkish officers went 
into an adjoining room, and turning their faces to 
the east, prostrated themselves to the floor in 
prayer. Then we were all conducted to a large 
salon, where each being provided with a silver 
ewer and basin, a little ball of highly perfumed 
soap and a napkin, set out on small tables, each 
guest washed his hands. Adjacent to this salon 
was the dining-room, or, rather, the banqueting 
room, a very large and artistically frescoed hall, 
in the centre of which stood a crescent-shaped 
table, lighted with beautiful silver candelabra, 
and tastefully decorated with flowers and fruits. 
The viands were all excellent ; cooked, evidently, 
by a French c/ief, and full justice was done the 


dishes, especially by the Turks, who. of course, 
had been fasting all day. 

At the close of the banquet, which consisted of 
not less than fifteen courses, we withdrew to a 
smoking-room, where the coffee was served and 
cigarettes and chibouks offered us — the latter a 
pipe having a long flexible stem with an amber 
mouthpiece. I chose the chibouk, and as the 
stem of mine was studded with precious stones 
of enormous value, I thought I should enjoy it 
the more ; but the tobacco being highly flavored 
with some sort of herbs, my smoke fell far short 
of my anticipations. The coffee was deUcious. 
however, and I found this to be the case wherever 
I went in Constantinople, whether in making calls 
or at dinner, the custom of offering coffee and 
tobacco on these occasions being universal. 

The temptations to linger at Constantinople 
were many indeed, not the least being the delight- 
ful climate ; and as time pressed, we set out with 
much regret on the return journey, stopping a 
few days at Athens, whence we made several 
short excursions into the Interior. King George 
and Queen Olga made our stay in Athens one of 
extreme interest and exceeding pleasure. Throw- 
ing aside all ceremony, they breakfasted and 
dined us informally, gave us a fine ball, and In 
addition to these hospitalities showed us much 


personal attention, his Majesty even calling upon 
me, and the Queen sending her children to see us 
at our hotel. 

Of course we visited all that remained of the 
city's ancient civilization — the Acropolis, temples, 
baths, towers, and the like ; nor did we omit to 
view the spot where St. Paul once instructed the 
Athenians in lessons of Christianity. We traveled 
some little through the country districts outside of 
Athens, and I noticed that the peasantry, in point 
of picturesqueness of dress and color of complex- 
ion, were not unlike the gypsies we see at times 
in America. They had also much of the same 
shrewdness, and, as far as I could learn, were 
generally wholly uneducated, ignorant, indeed, 
except as to one subject — politics — which I was 
told came to them intuitively, they taking to it, 
and a scramble for office, as naturally as a duck 
to water. In fact, this common faculty for poli- 
tics seems a connecting link between the ancient 
and modern Greek. 

Leaving Athens with the pleasantest recollec- 
tions, we sailed for Messina, Sicily, and from there 
went to Naples, where we found many old friends ; 
among them Mr. Buchanan Reed, the artist and 
poet, and Miss Brewster, as well as a score or 
more of others of our countrymen, then or since 
distinguished in art and letters at home and 


abroad. We remained some days in Naplies, and 
during the time went to Pompeii to witness a 
special excavation among the ruins of the buried 
city, which search was instituted on account of our 
visit. A number of ancient household articles 
were dug up, and one, a terra cotta lamp bear- 
ing upon its crown in bas*relief the legend of 
*\ Leda and the Swan,'* was presented to me as 
a souvenir of the occasion, though it is usual for 
the Government to place in its museums every- 
thing of such value that is unearthed. 

From Naples to Rome by rail was our next 
journey. In the Eternal City we saw {Hcture-gal* 
leries, churches, and ruins in plenty, but all these 
have been so well described by hundreds of 
other travelers that I shall not linger even to 
name them. While at Rome we also witnessed 
an overflow of the Tiber, that caused great sufiFer- 
ing and destroyed much property. The next 
stage of our tour took us to Venice, then to Flor- 
ence — the capital of Italy — for although the 
troops of the King of Italy had taken possession 
of Rome the preceding September, the Govern- 
ment itself had not yet removed thither. 

At Florence, our Minister, Mr. Marsh, though 
suffering with a lame foot, took me in charge, and 
in due course of time I was presented to King 
Victor-Emmanuel. His Majesty received me in- 


formally at his palace in a small, stuffy room — his 
office, no doubt — and an untidy one it was too. 
He wore a loose blouse and very baggy trousers ; 
a comfortable suit, certainly, but not at all con- 
ducing to an ideal kingliness of appearance. 

His Majesty's hobby was hunting, and no soon- 
er had I made my bow than he began a conver- 
sation on that subject, thrusting his hands nearly 
up to the elbows into the pockets of his trousers. 
He desired to learn about the large game of 
America, particularly the buffalo, and when I 
spoke of the herds of thousands and thousands 
I had seen on the plains of western Kansas, he 
interrupted me to bemoan the fate which kept 
him from visiting America to hunt, even going so 
far as to say that he " didn[t wish to be King of 
Italy, anyhow," but would much prefer to pass 
his days hunting than *' be bedeviled with the cares 
of state." On one of his estates, near Pisa, he 
had several large herds of deer, many wild boars, 
and a great deal of other game. Of this preserve 
he was very proud, and before we separated invit- 
ed me to go down there to shoot deer, adding that 
he would be there himself if he could, but feared 
that a trip which he had to take to Milan would in- 
terfere, though he wished me to go in any event. 

I gladly accepted the invitation, and in two or 
three days was notified when I would be expected 



at the estate. At the designated time 1 was 
corted to Pisa by an aide-de-camp, and from 
there we drove the few miles to the King's cha- 
teau, where we fortified ourselves for the work in 
hand by an elaborate and toothsome breakfast of 
about ten courses. Then in a carriage we set out 
for the King's stand in the hunting-grounds, ac- 
companied by a crowd of mounted game-keepers, 
who with great difficulty controlled the pack of 
sixty or seventy hounds, the dogs and keepers to- 
gether almost driving me to distraction with their 
yelping and yelling. On reaching the stand, I 
was posted within about twenty yards of a long, 
high picket fence, facing the fence and covered 
by two trees very close together. It was from 
behind these that the. King usually shot, and as I 
was provided with a double-barreled shot-gun, I 
thought I could do well, especially since close in 
rear of me stood two game-keepers to load and 
hand me a second gun when the first was emp- 

Meantime the huntsmen and the hounds had 
made a circuit of the park to drive up the game. 
The yelps of the hounds drawing near, I cautious- 
ly looked in the direction of the sound, and the 
next moment saw a herd of deer close in to the 
fence, and coming down at full speed. Without 
a miss, I shot the four leading ones as they tried 


to run the gauntlet, for in passing between the 
stand and the fence, the innocent creatures were 
not more than ten to fifteen paces from me. At 
the fourth I stopped, but the game-keepers insist- 
ed on more butchery, saying, *' No one but the 
King ever did the like " (I guess no one else had 
ever had the chance), so, thus urged, I continued 
firing till I had slaughtered eleven with eleven 
shots — an easy task with a shot-gun and buck- 
shot cartridges. 

The " hunt " being ended — for with this I had 
had enough, and no one else was permitted to do 
any shooting — the aide-de-camp directed the game 
to be sent to me in Florence, and we started for 
the chateau. On the way back I saw a wild boar 
— the first and only one I ever saw — my attention 
being drawn to him by cries from some of the 
game-keepers. There was much commotion, the 
men pointing out the game and shouting excited- 
ly, '* See the wild boar ! " otherwise I should not 
have known what was up, but now, looking in the 
indicated direction, I saw scudding over the plain 
what appeared to me to be nothing but a half- 
grown black pig, or shoat. He was not in much 
of a hurry either, and gave no evidence of feroc- 
ity, yet it is said that this insignificant - looking 
animal is dangerous when hunted with the spear 
— the customary way. After an early dinner at 

the chftteau we returned to FlcHence, aad my 
venison next day airiving, it was > distributed 
among my American friends in the ci^. 

Shortly after the hunt the King^> returned from 
Milan, and then honored me with a military din- 
ner, his Majesty and all the guests,^ numbering 
eighty, appearii^ in full uniform. The banquet- 
ing hall was lighted with hundreds of wax can- 
dles, there was a profusion of beautiful flowers, 
and to me the scene altogether was one of unu- 
sual magnificence. The table service was entirely 
of gold — the celebrated set of the house of Savoy 
— and behind the chair of each guest stood a serv* 
ant in powdered wig and gorgeous livery of red 
plush. I sat at the right of the King, who — his 
hands resting on his sword, the hilt of which glit- 
tered with jewels — sat through the hour and a 
half at table without once tasting food or drink, 
for it was his rule to eat but two meals in twenty- 
four hours — breakfast at noon, and dinner at mid- 
night. The King remained silent most of the 
time, but when he did speak, no matter on what 
subject, he inevitably drifted back to hunting. 
He never once referred to the Franco-Prussian 
war, nor to the political situation in his own coun- 
try, then passing through a crisis. In taking leave 
of his Majesty I thanked him with deep gratitude 
for honoring me so highly, and his response was 


that if ever he came to America to hunt buffalo, 
he should demand my assistance. 

From Florence I went to Milan and Geneva, 
then to Nice, Marseilles, and Bordeaux. Assem- 
bled at Bordeaux was a convention which had 
been called together by the government of the 
National Defense for the purpose of confirming 
or rejecting the terms of an armistice of twenty- 
one days, arranged between Jules Favre and 
Count Bismarck in negotiations begun at Ver- 
sailles the latter part of January. The conven- 
tion was a large body, chosen from all parts of 
France, and was unquestionably the most noisy, 
unruly and unreasonable set of beings that I ever 
saw in a legislative assembly. The frequent 
efforts of Thiers, Jules Favre, and other leading 
men to restrain the more impetuous were of little 
avail. When at the sittings a delegate arose to 
speak on some question, he was often violently 
pulled to his seat and then surrounded by a mob 
of his colleagues, who would throw off their coats 
and gesticulate wildly, as though about to fight. 

But the bitter pill of defeat had to be swallow- 
ed in some way, so the convention delegated M. 
Thiers to represent the executive power of the 
country, with authority to construct a ministry. 
Three commissioners were appointed by the Exec- 
utive, to enter into further negotiations with 

Count Bismarck at Versailles, and arran^ a peace, 
the terms of which, however, were to be submit- 
ted to the convention for final action. Thoufj^ 
there had been so much discussion, it took but a 
few days to draw up and sign a treaty at Ver- 
sailles, the principal negotiators being Thiers and 
Jules Favre for France, and Bismarck on the part 
of the Germans. The terms agreed upon provid- 
ed for the occupation of Paris till ratificatj^on 
should be had by the convention at Bordeaux ; 
learning of which stipulation from our Minister, 
Mr. Washburn, I hurried off to Paris to see the 
conquerors make their triumphal entry 

In the city the excitement was at fever heat, of 
course; the entire population protesting with one 
voice that they would never, never look upon the 
hated Germans marching through their beloved 
city. No; when the day arrived they would hide 
themselves in their houses, or shut their eyes to 
such a hateful sight. But by the ist of March a 
change had come over the fickle Parisians, for at 
an early hour the sidewalks were jammed with 
people, and the windows and doors of the houses 
filled with men, women, and children eager to get 
a look at the conquerors. Only a few came in the 
morning, however — an advance-guard of perhaps 
a thousand cavalry and infantry. The main col- 
umn marched from the Arc-de-Triomphe toward 


the middle of the afternoon. In its composition 
it represented united Germany — Saxons, Bava- 
rians, and the Royal Guard of Prussia — and, to 
the strains of martial music, moving down the 
Champ Elysees to the Place de la Concorde, was 
distributed thence over certain sections of the 
city agreed upon beforehand. Nothing that could 
be called a disturbance took place during the 
march; and though there was a hiss now and then, 
and murmurings of discontent, yet the most note- 
worthy mutterings were directed against the de- 
funct Empire. Indeed, I found everywhere that 
the national misfortunes were laid at Napoleon's 
door — he, by this time, having become a scape- 
goat for every blunder of the war. 

The Emperor William (he had been proclaimed 
German Emperor at Versailles the i8th of Janu- 
ary) did not accompany his troops into Paris, 
though he reviewed them at Long Champs before 
they started. After the occupation of the city he 
still remained at Versailles, and as soon as cir- 
cumstances would permit, I repaired to the Impe- 
rial headquarters to pay my respects to his Ma- 
jesty under his new title and dignities, and to say 

Besides the Emperor, the only persons I met 
at Versailles were General von Moltke and Bis- 
marck. His Majesty was in a very agreeable 

nMscma. wMMonts oit r. a. ommmAK. 

frame of nund, and as bluff and hearty as nsuad^ 
His increased rank and power had effected no 
noticeable change of any kind in him, and by hb 
genial and cordial ways he made me think that 
my presence with the German army h^ contrib- 
uted to his pleasure. Whether this was really so 
or not, I shall always believe it true, for his kind 
words and sincere manner could leave no other 

General von Moltke was^ as usual, quiet and 
reserved, betraying not the slightest consdoos- 
ness of his great ability, nor the least tn<Hcatioii 
of pride on account of his mighty work. I say 
this advisedly, for it is an undoubted fact that it 
was his marvelous mind that perfected the mili- 
tary system by which 800,000 men were mobilized 
with unparalleled celerity and moved with such 
certaintyof combination that, in a campaign of 
seven months, the military power of France was 
destroyed and her vast resources sorely crippled. 

I said good-bye to Count Bismarck, also, for 
at that busy time the chances of seeing him again 
were very remote. The great Chancellor mani- 
fested more joy over the success of the Germans 
than did anyone else at the Imperial headquarters. 
Along with his towering strength of mind and 
body, his character partook of much of the enthu- 
siasm and impulsiveness commonly restricted to 


younger men, and now in his frank, free way he 
plainly showed his light-hearted ness and grati- 
fication at success. That which for years his 
genius had been planning and striving for — per- 
manent unification of the German States, had 
been accomplished by the war. It had welded 
them together in a compact Empire which no 
power in Europe could disrupt, and as such a 
union was the aim of Bismarck's life, he surely 
had a right to feel jubilant. 

Thanks to the courtesies extended me, I had 
been able to observe the principal battles, and 
study many of the minor details of a war between 
two of the greatest military nations of the world, 
and to examine critically the methods followed 
abroad for subsisting, equipping, and manoeu- 
vring vast bodies of men during a stupendous 
campaign. Of course I found a great deal to inter- 
est and instruct me, yet nowadays war is pretty 
much the same everywhere, and this one oflFered 
no marked exception to my previous experiences. 
The methods pursued on the march were the same 
as we would employ, with one most important 
exception. Owing to the density of population 
throughout France it was always practicable for 
the Germans to quarter their troops in villages, 
requiring the inhabitants to subsist both officers 
and men. Hence there was no necessity for camp 


and garrison equipage, nor enormous provision 
trains, and the armies were unencumbered by these 
impedimenta, indispensable when operating in a 
poor and sparsely settled country. As I have said 
before, the only trains were those for ammunition, 
pontoon-boats, and the field telegraph, and all 
these were managed by special corps. If trans- 
portation was needed for other purposes, it was 
obtained by requisition from the invaded country, 
just as food and forage were secured. Great 
celerity of combination was therefore possible, 
the columns moving in compact order, and as all 
the roads were broad and macadamized, there was 
little or nothing to delay or obstruct the march of 
the Germans, except when their enemy offered 
resistance, but even this was generally slight and 
not very frequent, for the French were discouraged 
by disaster from the very outset of the campaign 

The earlier advantages gained by the Germans 
may be ascribed to the strikingly prompt mobili- 
zation of their armies, one of the most noticeable 
features of their perfect military system, devised 
by almost autocratic power ; their later successes 
were greatly aided by the blunders of the French, 
whose stupendous errors materially shortened the 
war, though even if prolonged it could, in my opin- 
ion, have had ultimately no other termination. 

As I have previously stated, the first of these 



blunders was the acceptance of battle by Mac- 
Mahon at Worth ; the second in attaching too 
much importance to the fortified position of Metz, 
resulting in three battles — Colombey, Mars-la- 
Tour, and Gravelotte — all of which were lost; 
and the third, the absurd movement of MacMahon 
along the Belgian frontier to relieve Metz, the 
responsibility for which, I am glad to say, does 
not belong to him. 

With the hemming in of Bazaine at Metz and 
the capture of MacMahon*s army at Sedan the 
crisis of the war was passed, and the Germans 
practically the victors. The taking of Paris was 
but a sentiment — the money levy could have been 
made and the Rhine provinces held without mo- 
lesting that city, and only the political influences 
consequent upon the changes in the French Gov- 
. ernment caused peace to be deferred. 

I did not have much opportunity to observe the 
German cavalry, either on the march or in battle. 
The only time I saw any of it engaged was in the 
unfortunate charge at Gravelotte. That proved 
its mettle good and discipline fair, but answered 
no other purpose. Such of it as was not attached 
to the infantry was organized in divisions, and 
operated m accordance with the old idea of cover- 
ing the front and flanks of the army, a duty which 
it thoroughly performed. But thus directed it 

Vol. II.— 2^ 


was in no sense an independent corps, and hence 
cannot be said to have accompHshed anything in 
the campaign, or have had a weight or influence 
at all proportionate to its strength. The method 
of its employment seemed to me a mistake, for, 
being numerically superior to the French cavalry, 
had it been massed and manoeuvred independ- 
ently of the infantry, it could easily have broken 
up the French communications, and done much 
other work of weighty influence in the prosecu- 
tion of the war. 

The infantry was as fine as I ever saw, the men 
young and hardy in appearance, and marching 
always with an elastic stride. The infantry regi- 
meat, however, I thought too large — too many 
men for a colonel to command unless he has 
the staff of a general — but this objection may be 
counterbalanced by the advantages resulting from 
associating together thus intimately the men from 
the same district, or county as we would call it ; 
the celerity of mobilization, and. in truth, the very 
foundation of the German system, being based on 
this local or territorial scheme of recruiting. 

There was no delay when the call sounded for 
the march; all turned out promptly, and while on 
the road there was very little straggling, only the 
sick falling out. But on such fine, smooth roads, 
and with success animating the men from the day 


they struck the first blow, it could hardly be 
expected that the columns would not keep well 
closed up. Then, too, it must be borne in mind 
that, as already stated, campaigning in France — 
that is, the marching, camping, and subsisting of 
an army — is an easy matter, very unlike anything 
we had during the war of the rebellion. To re- 
peat: the country is rich, beautiful, and densely 
populated, subsistence abundant, and the roads 
all macadamized highways; thus the conditions 
are altogether different from those existing with 
us. I think that under the same circumstances 
our troops would have done as well as the Ger- 
mans, marched as admirably, made combinations 
as quickly and accurately, and fought with as 
much success. I can but leave to conjecture how 
the Germans would have got along on bottomless 
roads — often none at all — through the swamps 
and quicksands of northern Virginia, from the 
Wilderness to Petersburg, and from Chattanooga 
to Atlanta and the sea. 

Following the operations of the German armies 
from the battle of Gravelotte to the siege of Paris, 
I may, in conclusion, say that I saw no new mili- 
tary principles developed, whether of strategy or 
grand tactics, the movements of the different 
armies and corps being dictated and governed by 
the same general laws that have so long obtained, 


nRsoHAL Moamas oj^ p. st. sreudah. 

simplicity of combination and manoeuvre, and the 
concentration of a numerically superior force at 
the vital point. 

After my brief trip to Versailles, I remained in 
Paris till the latter part of March. In company 
with Mr. Washburn. I visited the fortifications for 
the defense of the city, and found them to be ex- 
ceptionally heavy; so strong, indeed, that it would 
have been very hard to carry the place by a gen- 
eral assault. The Germans, knowing the char- 
acter of the works, had refrained from the sacrifice 
of life that such an attempt must entail, though 
they well knew that many of the forts were manned 
by unseasoned soldiers. With only a combat here 
and there, to tighten their lines or repulse a sortie, 
they wisely preferred to wait till starvation should 
do the work with little loss and absolute certainty. 

The Germans were withdrawn from Paris on 
the 3d of March, and no sooner were they gone 
than factional quarrels, which had been going on 
at intervals ever since the flight of the Empress 
and the fall of her regency on the 4th of Septem- 
ber, were renewed with revolutionary methods 
that eventually brought about the Commune. 
Having witnessed one or two of these outbreaks, 
and concluding that while such turbulence reign- 
ed in the city it would be of little profit for me to 
tarry there, I decided to devote the rest of the 




time I could be away from home to travel in Eng- 
land, Ireland, and Scotland. My journeys through 
those countries were full of pleasure and instruc- 
tion, but as nothing I saw or did was markedly 
different from what has been so often described 
by others, I will save the reader this part of my 
experience. I returned to America in the fall, 
having been absent a little more than a year, and 
although I saw much abroad of absorbing interest, 
both professional and general, yet I came back to 
my native land with even a greater love for her, 
and with increased admiration for her institutions. 



Abbot, Lieixt. Henry L., on Pacific 
coast, i. 50. 

Abelly Judge E. , removed by Sheridan, 
". 254. 

Abercrombie, Gen., at the White 
House, Va., i. 429. 

Adams, Capt. George W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 72; at the Opequon, iL 14. 

Adney, Lt.-CoL Wilham H. G., at 
Cedar Creek, ii. 76 ; at the Ope- 
quon, il 18. 

Alexander, Col., engineer, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 66, 67, 80. 

Alger, Col. Russell A., Booneville, at 
battle of, L 160-164 ; in Cavalry 
Corps, i. S49; in Sheridan *s appoint- 
ment to colonelcy, i. 140-142. 

Allaire, Maj. Anthony J., ii. 15 ; at 
Cedar Creek, ii. 73. 

Allen, Maj. Charles F. , at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 74 ; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

Allen, Lt.-Col. James, in Appomattox 
campaign, ii. 138. 

Allen, Lieut. Vanderbilt, at Appomat- 
tox, ii. 197. 

Alpine, Tenn., Sheridan at, i. 274. 

Amelia Court House, Va., Lee's march 
to, ii. 1 7 1- 1 78 ; retreat from, ii. 178. 

Anderson, Capt. Charles R., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 74; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

Anderson, Lt.-Col. James Q., i. 349. 

Anderson, Gen. Richard H., in Shen- 
andoah campaign, i. 481-483 ; joins 
Early, i. 490 ; Summit Point, action 
at, t 491 ; Halltown, demonstration 
at, i. 493 ; Petersburg, attempt to 
return to, i. 498, 499; ^ilor's Creek, 
Va., in battle at, ii. 180-184. 

Appomattox Court House, Va., scenes 
at, April, 1865, ii. 188-202. 

Archer, Capt. James J., at Fort Yam- 
hill, i. 121. 

Army, i>oor treatment of, by Govern- 
ment, i. 92. 

Arnold, Capt. Abraham K., i. ^49. 
Asboth, Gen. A., at Rienzi, 1. 167 ; 

Sheridan's promotion, asks for, i. 

166 ; sketch of, i. 168. 
Ashland, Va., capture of, i. 376, 386 ; 

Confederate cavalry retreat to, i. 

Athens, Greece, Sheridan at, ii. 436. 

Augur, Gen. C. C, ii. 6j ; at Siletz 
reservation, L 97 ; in Virginia, ii. 
60, 65. 

Averell, Gen. W. W., McCausland, in 
pursuit of, i. 466 ; Shenandoah cam- 
paign, at Williamsport, i. 49J, 
Martinsburg, I 496 ; Bunker Hill, 
fight at, i. 497 ; Ope(|uon, at battle 
of the, ii. II, 26; Fisher's Hill, at 
battle of, ii. 33, 34, 37 ; Early's re- 
treat, indifference in, ii. 43 ; depriv- 
ed of command, ii. 44, 4c. 

Avery, Col. M. Henry, 1. 350 ; in 
Appomattox campaign, ii. 138. 

Ayres, Gen. R. B., Dinwiddie C. H., at 
battle of, ii. 157 ; at Five Forks, ii. 
161-164, 166 ; in Lee's retreat from 
Richmond, ii. 172. 

Babcock, Lieut -Col. Willoughby, at 

the Opequon, ii. 16. 
Baker, Capt Eugene M., at Cedar 

Creek, h. 78; at the Oi>equon, ii. 


Ball, Col. William H. , at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 71 ; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 
Bar-le-Duc, France, li. 389-3^1. 
Barnes, Lt.-Col. Milton, at Missionary 

Ridge, i. 298. 
Barnett, Capt. Charles M., at Perry- 

ville, i. 193, 194. 
Barrett, Capt. Wallace W., at Chick- 

amauga, i. 288 ; at Missionary 

Ridge, i. 298; at Perry ville, i. 192; 

at Stone River, i. 241 ; in Tullahonia 

campaign, i. 262. 




Barringer, Gen., in V^laon's raid, i 

Bartlett, Capt Erastus C, at the Ope- 

quon, ii. 17. 
Basset t, Col. Isaac C, at the Opequon, 

ii. 12 ; at Winchester, ii. 69. 
Bates, Capt. Edward P., at Aflissionary 

Ridge, i. 299 ; report on, extract 

from, i. 323. 
Bates, Lieut. Francis H., on Pacific 

coast, i. 35. 
Bauer, Capt. Gottfried, at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 70. 
Baumbach, Maj. Carl von, at Chick- 

amauga, L 2&; at Missionary Ridge, 

i. 298. 
Bavarian soldiers, ii. 380, 390. 
Bazaine, Marshal, blunder of, at Metz, 

ii. 413, 414 ; in surrender of Metz, 

ii. 427. 
Beal, Col. George L., at the Opequon, 

ii. 14. 
Beardsley, Maj. William £., at the 

Opequon, ii 19. 
Beaumont, France, battle of, ii. 396- 

Beauregard, Gen. Peter G. T., retreat 

of, from Corinth, i. 148, 150. 

Beck, Lt-Col. Arnold, at Chickamau- 
ga, i. 288 ; at Missionary Ridge, L 
298; in TuUahoma campaign, i. 262. 

Beecher, Lieut. F. W., in charge of 
Sheridan's "mediators," ii. 287 ; 
killed by Indians, ii. 302-305. 

Beene, , guide at Boonevillc. i. 

161, 162. 

Benjamin, Lt.-Col. William H., i. 351 ; 
in Shenandoah campaign, at the 
Opequon, ii. 21 ; at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 79. 

Bennett, Lt.-Col. John W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 79. 

Bid well. Gen. Daniel D., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 70; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 

Binkley, Lt.-Col. Otho II., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 

Birge, Gen. I lenry W., at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 73 ; at the Opequon, ii. 15. 

Bismarck, Count, Sheridan's meeting 
with, ii. 363, 364 ; republicanism, 
views on, ii. 365 ; wagon-drivers, 
adventure with, ii. 386 ; Clermont, 
quarters at, ii. 393 ; at Sedan, anec- 
dote of, ii. 405, meeting with Napo- 
leon at, ii. 406-408 ; i)eace, views 
as lo, ii. 408, 414, 417 ; Bazeilles, 
remark at, ii. 412; Eugenie, Empress, 
remark on, ii. 416 ; at Paris, ii. 446. 

Bismarck-Bohkn, Ckmnt von, ii 365, 

?% 405. 

Black Kettle, Custer's fij^ht with, il 

312-320; character of, ii. 318. 
Blair, Gov., appoints Sheridan cc^onel, 

i. 140, 141. 
Blakeslee, Maj. Erastus, L 351. 
Blanchard, Col. Justus W., ii. 15 ; at 

Cedar Creek, ii. 73. 
Blinn, CoL Charles D., at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 74 ; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 
Bliss, Maj. James, m Appomattox 

campaign, li. 137. 
Blynn, Mrs., killed by Indians, ii. 331. 
B<>eman, Maj. Lambert, at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 68 ; at the Opequon, iL 

Boice, Maj. Theodore A., at Cedar 

Creek, li. 79. 
Bonaparte, Lieut. Jerome N., in Texas, 

i. 16. 
Booneville, Miss., battle of, i. 156-165; 

expedition to, Sheridan's part in, i. 

147-150 ; vicinity, description of, i. 

Bordeaux, France, peace convention 

at, ii. 44J. 
Boswell, Capt. Benjamin D., at the 

Opequon, li. 17 ; at Winchester, ii. 


Boyle, Gen. J. T., Army of Ohio, as- 
signed division in, i. 189 ; supersed- 
ed by Sheridan, i. 190. 

Bradbury, Capt. Albert W.^ at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 75 ; at the Opequon, ii. 

Bradley, Col. Luther P., at Chicka- 

mauga, i. 277, 288; charge at, 
wounded, i. 278; brigade of, cut to 
pieces, i. 282. — Stone River, succeeds 
Roberts at, i. 231 ; gallant charge 
at, i. 231, 232. 
Bragg, Gen. Braxton, Buell, manoeuvre 
against, i. 171, 172. — Chattanooga, 
abandons, i. 274, 276.— Chicka- 
mauga, at battle of^ i. 277-289. — 
Failure of,to utilize chances, i. IQI--- 
Glasgow, Ky., capture of, i. 189.— 
Longstreet detached from, i. 303. — 
Lookout Mountain, at, i. 306, 307. 
— Missionary Ridge, retreat to, i. 
307 ; battle of. position at, i. 309 ; 
rifle-pits of, captured, i. 310-312 ; 
retreat from, i. 313-316 ; Grant's 
manceuvres, effect of, i. 319. — .Me- 
chanicsville, checks Sheridfan at, i. 
381, 382.— Mumfordsville, Ky., cap- 
ture of, i. 191. — Ohio River, march 



to, 1. 180. — ^Pcrryvak, at, i. 193- 
197 ; object of fighting at, i 200 ; 
retreat nrom, L 201-203, 204, Pro- 
visional government in Kentucky, 
attempt at, i. 191, 192. — Stone Riv- 
er, at, i. 215-245 ; advantages at, 
i. 243 ; blunders at, L 244, 245. — 
Tennessee, Middle, position in, L 
205, 207. — Tullahoma campaign, in, 
i. 261-268. 

Brannan, Gen., in Tullahoma cam- 
paign, i. 262, 263, 267. 

Breckenridge, Gen. John C, Shenan- 
doah campaign, with Early in, i. 
457 ; Torbert, fight with, L 493 ; 
Winchester, reported having left, ii. 
8; Opequon, battle of, ii. 10-27, 31. 
— Stone River, at, i. 238, 239, 245. — 
Trevillian expedition, in, I 418, 419. 

Brewer, Maj. Melvin, at the Opequon, 
ii. 19. 

Brewerton, Lieut Henry F., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 77. 

Bridgeport, Tenn., importance of, L 
272; Sheridan ordered to occupy, i. 

Bridger, James, discourages Sheridan's 
Indian campaign, ii. 307. 

Briggs, Capt /Qvah W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71. 

Briggs, Lt.-Col. George G., in Ap- 
pomattox campaign, ii 136. 

Bnnton, Lt.-Col. Joseph P., i. 350. 

Brinton, Lt.-Col. William P., I 351; 
in Shenandoah campaign, at the 
Opequon, ii. 21. 

Broom town Valley, Tenn., Sheridan 
in, L 274. 

Brower, Maj. Jabez M., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 

Brown, Capt. Addison, Jr., at the 
Opequon, ii. 12. 

Brown, Maj. Charles C, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 79. 

Brown, Col. William R., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 76; at the Opequon, ii. 18. 

Bryan, Col. Timothy M., Jr., i. 351. 

Buckner, Col. Allen, at Missionary 
Ridge, i. 299 ; report on, extract 
from, i. 324. 

Buell, Gen. Don Carlos, Bowling 
Green, Ky., at, i. 203 ; Bragg's 
movement against, i. 172 ; Chatta- 
nooga, march to, i. 171, how delayed, 
i. 180; criticisms on campaign of, 
i. 190, 191; Louisville, reaches, be- 
fore Bragp, i. 189; Perry ville, Sheri- 
dan's criticism on battle of^ L 198, 

200, other strictures, i. 204 ; Rose- 
crans, superseded by, i. 203. 

Buffalo BUI— see Cody, 

Bukey, Lt-Col. Van H., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 76; at the Opequon, ii. 18. 

Bullitt, Lt.-Col. William A., at Mis- 
sionary Ridge, i 299; report on, 
extract from, i. 323. 

Bull Run, losses at, exaggerated, i. 

Burgess, Maj. Charles, at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 13. 

Bumside, Gen. Ambrose E., Foster 
succeeded by, i. 329; at Knoxville, 
i. 325» 327; at Paris, ii. 427-429. 

Bush, Capt Asahel K., at Stone River, 
i 217, 222, 226, 230, 241. 

Butler, Gen. Benjamin F., on James 
River, i. 379, 381, 387, 388. 

Butler, Gen. W. C, Cold Harbor, at 
capture of, i 404; at Hawe's Shop, 


Cadot, Maj. Lemuel Z., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 76; at the Opequon, ii. 18. 

Cahill, Col. Thomas W., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 15. 

California Joe, scout, ii. 319, 341, 342. 

Camas, how prepared, i C4. 

Campbell, Capt. Archibaild P., Beau- 
regard, in pursuit of, i. 151; Boone- 
▼ille, in expedition to, i. 147, in bat- 
tle of, i. 157-159, lt>4; "Rienri," 
gift of, to Sheridan, L 177, 178. 

Campbell, Lt.-Col. Edward L , at 
Cedar Creek, ii 68; at the Opequon, 
ii. II. 

Canales, Gen., in Mexico, ii. 219-222. 

Canby, Gen. EL R. S., in Texas in 
1865. ii. 208. 

Capehart, CoL Henry, in Appomattox 
campaign, in march to Dmwiddie, 
ii. 135-139; Dinwiddle C. H., at 
battle of, ii 151-153; at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 78; at the Opequon, ii. 20. 

Caravajal, Gen., in Mexico, ii. 219- 

Card, James, at Chattanooga, i 296. 
— Mill Creek, at, i 212, 213. — Mur- 
freesboro', services at, i. 247; bridge, 
starts to bum a, i. 248; returns, i. 
249; guerrillas, captured by, i 250; 
departs to seek revenge, i 252, 337. 
—Sketch of, i 206, 207. 

Carlin. Col. William P., at Chicka- 
mauga, i. 281, 282; at Perry ville, 
i 197; Stone River, coolness at, i. 

MV, Bt Codar 
Creek, ii. 73; atlhB Opaqmn, 0. 15. 

Carroll. Capt. ](*■ 8. P., M Cedai 

Creek, u. 76. 
'Caacyville, " 

-fc*".. *Lo^Bridf^ Id 

fight itfL 431; ktSt. IfaiT^CWdk, 

Ch>^.Lt.-CaL Gwrse W., atUi- 

Cluipin*n, G«i. George H., L 351; 
South Audi bridges, d«tro]i3, L 
395; J"™es, in inarch '" 


mpaign, at the (^C- 
quon, ii. 31, wounded, ii. «]. 

Charles. Lt.-Col. Waiiam S.] 
Creek, ii. 74; at the Opeqi 

Chase, Lieut. Frederick, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 75; at the 0[ 

Chase, Mai. Seymour, al 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Aiaij of Cuni' 
berland enters, i. 283, 2S9, 293; 
supplies at, difficulty in getting i. 
294, 295; road opened to Br^j^- 
port, i. 302.— Hragg»t,i, 272; aban- 
dons, L 274, 276; besieges it, i. 393. 

Cheatham, Gen. Benjamin F., atStune 
River, i. 225, 227. 

Ch^rrymoimt, Ireland, i. 1. 

Chicluhominy River, Va., i. 379-384, 

Chickainauga, battle of, I 271-2S9; 
force and losses at, I 3S7, 288; 



n. Col, ride of, to Sheridan, i. 

Cillcy. U.XcL JcM^ P., fa Ap. 

pomalDDK f WMJm, 8. I3IL 

Ciiflin. C^. lift W.. i 349; ctCifar 

_ _ .&.6S;*taaGp(Mn,l.._ 

CI;irk. lien, Indka malie. £ 04. 
Clark, il.-CcL aSecm, at iw Op*. 
quon. fl. »: tWhrtFiilriyM. ar 
Clark, CipL LModgr, BtCeteCMl^ 

Ciark. LL-CoL St^^B E.. Ik Afpt- 

niaitoiCHamini,B 138. 
Clark. CafL Syt&qr S., kt dw Ope> 

quun, £, 15. 
Clark, vmm, KOpWW SteridM ftr 

We!;t Pofat, L% 
Claypool, C^. Charie* D.. «t Cmlmr 

Cliii^m jii, Geo., Cold BMTbet, tt Cf- 

Colisi K<.-Mmtiaa, potpgn C^ I. M 
Coaics. I J.X0I. Beajufai f., at Cedar 

Crock, E 76: attfceOMqwB.B. it. 
Cobum, Gen., fcrii " '^ ... 

Cody WHkM 1 

scouts, S. yao, joi. 
Cold Haibor. Va., Iiattto at, L 4M- 

407 ; rcHk ct ■nTBHiiHi id, L 41^ 
Coleman, Kaj. Jhmb IL. at Codar 

Creek, a. 70 ; at tbeOpcanOR. B. ». 
Columbia River, S- 

killed by, i 

aada cUaT «( 

t Cedar 

a, 203. 
. , surveys ordered by, on Pa- 

cific coast, i. 36 ; New Orleans riot, 
rc;>ort of committee on, iL 240, 241. 

'onrad. Col. Joseph, at Chickamauga. 
i. 288 ; at Missionary Kidge, L 
198, 312, wounded, 313 ; in Tulla- 
homa campaigD, i. 2& : wiinien- 
soliiiers, arfvcDture with, i. 253. 

:onstantinople, Sheridan at, u. 432- 

.oAv. Ijeut. John S„ at Cedar Creek, 

pinger. Col. John J., in Appoinat- 
II lampaign, i' '■" 

of. L 148. 
Ltthe Ope. 



Corps: First, at Perry ville, Ky., i. 
195-198, 204. — Second, in Appomat- 
tox campaign, iL 134 ; in Lee*s re- 
treat from Richmond, iL 173-193 ; 
in the Wilderness, i. 359. — l^ourth, 
L 2Qjr; Knoxville, to relief of^ i.326; 
at Missionary Ridge, i. 304 ; in Texas 
in 1865, ii. 208, 213, 215.— Fifth, in 
Appomattox campaign, ii. 134, at 
Dinwiddie, ii. 154-158, at Five 
Forks, ii. 159-165, in Lee's retreat 
from Richmond, ii. 172-193 ; James, 
in march to the, i. 308, 437 ; at Spott- 
sylvania C. H., i. 368; in the Wilder- 
ness, i 359, 361.— Sixth, at Cold 
Harbor, i. 400 ; James, in march to 
the, I 396, 398 ; at Petersburg, ii. 98, 

99 ; in Shenandoah campaign, i* 47ii 
477, at Strasburg Heights, i. 482, 
483, in march to Halltown, i. 490, 
4^1, at the Opequon, ii. 12-27, ^^ 
{■isher^s Hill, ii. 33-42, in Eairly's 
retreat, ii. 45-50, at Cedar Creek, 
ii j9-^> At Sailor's Creek, ii. 181- 
186, m Dan River expedition, ii. 
206 ; at Washington, i. 459 ; in Wil- 
son's raid, i. 444. — Eleventh, at Mis- 
sionary Ridge, i. 304. — Thirteenth, 
in Texas in 1865, ii. 212. — Four- 
teenth, i. 208 ; at Stone River, i. 
214-245. — Nmeteenth, in Shenan- 
doah campaign, i. 471, 472, 477, at 
the Opequon, ii. 12-27, ^^ Fisher's 
Hill, ii. 33-42, in Early's retreat, ii. 
4^-50, at Cedar Creek, ii. 59-92. — 
Twentieth, i. 256 ; at Chickamauga, 
i. 271-292. — Twenty-first, L 256.-- 
Twenty-thira, in F-ast Tennessee, i. 
J30. — Twenty-fifth, in Texas in 1865, 
li. 208, 213. — Cavairy Corps, Army 
of the Potomac, at Cold Harbor, 1. 
402-409; composition of, i. 349-351, 
353 > foot-soldiers, fighting as, i. 424 ; 
at Hawe's Shop, i. 398-402 ; James, 
covering advance to the, i 394-398 ; 
at Light- House Point, i. 445, 446; 
picket duty of, excessive, i. 353, re- 
lieved from, i. 356 ; Sheridan chief 
of> »• 339f 342, 347. relieved from, 
i. 4S2 ; at Spottsylvania C. H., 
i 365-367 ; Stuart, in expedition 
against, i. 372-393 ; in Trevillian 
expedition, i. 414-436 ; Virginia cam- 
paign, r^sum^ of, i. 453-455 ; Wil- 
aemess, in battles of, i 357-364 ; in 
Wilson's raid, i. 437-444 
Corrie, Lt.-Col. William A , in Appo- 
mattox campaign, ii. 138. 

Cortinas, Gen., in Mexico, ii. 219, 220. 

Covode, Lt.-Col. George H., i. 350. 

Cowen, Lt.-Col. Danid D. T., at Per- 
ryville, i. 193. 

Crawford, Gen. Samuel W., Dinwiddie 
C. H., at battle of, ii. 157, 158 ; at 
Five Forks, ii. 161-164, 166 ; in Lee's 
retreat from Richmond, ii. 172, 173. 

Crawford, Col., in Sheridan's Indian 
expedition, ii. 308 ; orders to, ii. 310 ; 
disaster to command of, ii. 321. 

Crittenden, Gen. Thomas L., Chicka- 
mauga, at, i. 277, 278 ; withdraws 
from field, i. 289. — Command, re 
moved from, i. 295. — Perry ville, at, 
t 200.— Stone River, commands left 
wing at, L 213 ; position at, i 218. 

Crocker, Lieut. William H., I 349. 

Crook, Gen. George, in Appomattox 
campaign, in march to Dmwiddie, 
ii. 136-139 ; Stony Creek, to hold, 
ii. 142 ; Dinwiddie C. H., at battle 
of, ii. 148-158; at Five Forks, ii. 
166 ; in Lee's retreat, ii. 174-192, in 
fight at Sailor's Creek, ii. 180--188 ; 
at Appomattox C. H., ii. 188-192.— 
Pacinc coast, on, i. 37. — Shenandoah 
Valley, defeated in, i. 460 ; with 
Sheridan in, i. 472 ; Winchester, in 
advance to, i. 478 ; Stony Point, or- 
dered to, i. 479 ; Cedar Creek, in 
camp at, i. 480, at battle of, ii. 61, 75, 
87, 89, 93, 94 ; Halltown, in march 
to, L 4&^, 480, 491, skfrmish at, i. 
493; lierryvilie, defeats Anderson at, 
L 498 ; Wright, Miss Rebecca, rec- 
ommends to Sheridan, ii. 3 ; Ope- 
?uon, at battle of the, ii. 13-27 ; 
isher's Hill, at battle of, ii. 33-41 ; 
Early's retreat, in, ii. 49, 50 ; guer- 
rillas, ckptured by, ii. 107, exchang- 
ed, ii. 1 2 J. — Sketch of, i. 474. 

Crowninshield, Col. Casper, in Appo- 
mattox campaign, iL 137 ; at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 78 ; at the Opequon, ii. 19. 

Crutchfield, William, services o£^ to 
Federal army, i. 294, 318 

Cryer, Maj. John H., in Appomattox 
campaign, ii. 138. 

Cumberland, Army of, at Chatta- 
nooga, i 283, 289, 295, supplies, 
difficulty in procuring, l 294, 295 ; 
at Chickamauga, i. 271-292 ; corps, 
divided into, I 256; East Ten- 
nessee, in, i. 325-337 ; esprit de corps 
of, 214 ; Nashville, moved to, i. 205 ; 
reorganization of, i. 297 ; Rosecrans 

I relieved from, i. 299, afiiection of 



annj Ibr, i. 300 ; Thomat in com- 
mand o( L 299. 

Cnrrie, CoL Leonard D. H., H. 15; at 
Cedar Cred^ iL 75. 

CortiB, Maj. Oscar M., at the Ope- 
quon, iL 14. 

Curtis, Gen. Samuel R., Pea Ridge, 
sucoesi at, i 132; salt notions as to, 
L 129; Sheridan, difficulty with, L 
113-135; Southwest Missouri. Armj 
ol commands^ L 127; suppir sjs- 
tern o( i. 128; tactics o( corioas, L 

Col. ^^Uiam B., at Winches- 

tor, 1175. 
Cnsier, Goi. George A. i. 349.— Ap- 
pomattox campSlgn, in naiarch to 
Dinwiddle C. H.» it 135-139, at bat- 
tte oe; 4i. 148, 151-153, 155 ; at Rve 
ForkSy IL 158, 164; at Appomattox 
C. M., IL 189-196, 109. 200.— Cold 
Harbor, at capture o( 1. 404, 405.— 
Hawe's Shop, in battle of; L4iOO^ 402. 
— TT y^ i iT>ff i in Sheridan's campaign 
against, IL 308; Black Kettie,^ght 
indi, iL 312-320; Cheyennes, expe- 
ditkm against, ^ 341-3^.— Sienan- 
doah campaign, wim Torberf s ex- 
pedition in, L 404; Opequon, at the, 
n. 19, 26; Meigs's murder, In the 

Eunishment of, ii. 52; Rosser, in 
ght with, ii. 57-59; Cedar Creek, 
at, il 61. 62, 79, &^, 8S-90, 93, 94; 
Early's cavalry, fight with, li. 98; 
Rosser, surprised b^, ii. 102; final 
campaign, part in, ii. 1 12-123. — Pa- 
munkey crossinjj , fight at, i. 397. — 
Sheridan's Richmond expedition, 
retakes prisoners, destroys property, 
5- 374» 375; Yellow Tavern, brilliant 
charge at, i. 578; Chickahominy 
crossm^, at the, i. ^81; Hanover, 
expedition to, i. 388, 389. — Sketch of, 
L 474. — Texas, service in, i85j, 
il 211.— Trevillian expedition, in 
Hampton's rear, i. 420, fight with, i. 
421; Hampton, in move to attack, i. 
430. — Wilderness, in battles of, L 363. 
"Cut-mouth John," exploit of, i. 61, 

Darling, Maj. Daniel H., at Cedar 
Creek li TT 

Darnall,' Lt.-Col. William W., at Ce- 
dar Creek, ii. 74. 

Davies, Gen. Henry E., Jr., i. 350. — 
Appomattox campaign, in march to 
Dmwiddie, ii. 13^139; Five Forks, 

rcoonnoissanoe tOL It 142^ Dimrid- 
die C. H., at batde o^ & 148-151: 
in Lee*s retreat, IL 176^ 177.— Ciold 
Harbor, at, L;^--Sheridaa's Rkh- 
mood expedition, commands rear- 
guard, L 374; Audand, movements 
at, L 376.^Todd'k Tavern, at, L 364. 

Dayis, %. Charles W., atMlsstoaiy 
Ridge, 1. 299. 

DaTis, CoL ^win P. , at Cedar Ond^ 
IL 72; at the Opequon, IL 14. 

Dayis, Gen. Jefierson C, at Chkka- 
mauga, 1. 277; defioated at, L 278^ 
281, 282.— Nelson, Gen., shooting o( 
L 186-188. — Stone River, commands 
dtviakm at, L 213; Nbleoaville^ vic- 
tory at, L 215; pot^ioii fa line at, 
L 217; Hardee, attacked hf^ L 222; 
division o^ roirted, L 224; attempts 
to ralljy L 225 ; Nariiville pike^ po- 
sition on, i. :m. — TaUahcMBa cam* 
paign, in, L 207. 

Davis, Capt Martin W.» at the Ope- 
quon, iL 12. 

D»r, Lieut. Edward H.» in Yaldma 
uidian war, L 56. 

Day, Col Nicholas W^ at Cedar 
Creek, il 74; at the Ope qo on» IL 

Deane, Maj. Charles W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 77. 

Dent, Capt F. T., at Siletz reserva- 
tion, i. 97. 

Despatches — see Letters, 

Devm, Gen. Thomas C, i. 349. — 
Appomattox campaign, in march to 
Dmwiddie, ii. 135-139; Five Forks, 
reconnoissance to, ii. 142; Dinwid- 
die C. H., at battle of, ii. 148-15 1; 
at Five Forks, ii. 158, 164; at Safl- 
or*s Creek, iL 183, 1S4; at Appo- 
mattox C. H., ii. 190-193. — Cold 
Harbor, at captiireof, i. 404, 40c. — 
Hanovertown, fight at, L 307. —Shen- 
andoah campaign, at the (Jpequon, ii. 
19; at Fisher's HiU, ii 39; Early, in 
pursuit of, ii 42, 43, 46, 47 ; at 
Cedar Creek, ii. 78; final campaign, 
part in, ii. 11 2- 123. — Trevillian, in 
battle at, i. 420, 421; Hampton, in 
movement to attack, i. 4J0; Long 
Bridge, fight at, i. 431. — ^Wilderness, 
in battles of, I 563. — YcUow Tav- 
ern, in battle at, 1. 378. 

Dewey, Capt. Henry H., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 71. 

Dilger, Capt. Hubert, at Missionary 
Ridge, i. 299. 



Dillingham, Maj. Edwin, at the Ope> 
qnon, ii. 13. 

Dinnin, Maj. James R., in Appomat- 
tox campaign, ii. 1^6. 

Dinwiddie C. H., va., value of, to 
Grant, ii. 139; battle of, ii. 148-158. 

Dittoe, Henry, reminiscence of, i. 6; 
employs Sheridan, i. i\. 

Dodtfe, Col. GrenviUe M., Sheridan^s 
tribute to, i. 128. 

Douw, Capt. John D. P., at the Opc- 
quon, ii. II. 

Duggan, Capt. Andrew, at Cedar 
Creek, ii 77. 

Duncan, Lt-Col. Alexander P., in 
Appomattox campaign, ii. 138. 

Duncan, Capt. Ashbell, at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 20. 

Dunlap, Col. Henry C, at Missionary 
Ridge, i. 299; report on, extract 
from, i 323. 

Du Pont, Capt. Henry A., at Cedar 
Creek, iL 77; at the Opequon, ii. 18. 

Durland, Lt-Col. Coe, in Appomat- 
tox campaign, ii. 137; at tne Ope- 
quon, ii. 19; at Winchester, ii. 69. 

Duval, CoL Hiram F. , at Cedar Creek, 
iL 76; at the Opequon, ii. 18. 

Duval, Col. Isaac H., in Shenandoah 
campaign, i. 472; at the Opequon, 
ii. 10, 24, woundaid, ii. 30. 

Dwight, Lt-Col. Augustus W., at Ce- 
da^ Creek, iL 71. 

Dwight, Gen. William, in Shenandoah 
campaign, i. 472, 477; Opequon, to 
carry crossing at, i. 478; Cedar 
Creek, in camp at, i. 480, at batUe 
of, ii. 72; Halltown, in march to, L 
490; Opequon, at the, ii. 14, 20, 23. 
— Sketch of, L 473. 

Eakin, Lieut. Chandler P., in Appo- 
mattox campaign, ii. 138. 

Early, Gen. Jubal A., Shenandoah 
campaign, force in, L 457, 471; 
Washington, to threaten, i. 457, 
458, driven from, i. 459; drives Si- 
sel, checked at the Monocacy, i.458; 
Crook, victory over, burns Cham- 
bersburg, intends to stay, i. 460; 
defense, movements for, i. 467; Win- 
chester, moves south of, i. 476, re- 
treats from, i. 479; Fisher's Hill, 
intrenched at, i. 481; Anderson and 
Lee, reinforced by, i. 482, 483, 490; 
Summit Point, manceuvrc at, 1. 491 ; 
Potomac, movement to, i. 493-49 j ; 
Bunker Hiil^ retires to, i. 495 ; Smitn- 

field, action at, i. 496; Stephenson's 
Depot, massed at, L 497; Martins- 
burg, movements to and from, ii 
10; Opeauon, positions at the, ii. 10, 
16, 17, Union delay, benefits by, ii. 
18, battle of, ii. 21-30; Fisher's Hill, 
at battle of, ii. 33-42; retreat of, 
through the valley, ii. 42-50; caval- 
ry, report on condition of, ii. 59; 
Cedar Creek, plan at, iL 93, 94, bat- 
tles of, ii. 60-06; army, reorganiza- 
tion of, iL 97; Laray valley, chased 
into, sends Kershaw to Lee, iL 98; 
Staunton, Va., winter quarters at, iL 
100; positions of troops in February, 
1864, ii. no. III; Mt Crawford and 
Wavnesboro*, actions at,iL 113-116; 
Richmond, escapes to, ii. 121 ; cross- 
ing the Mississippi, ii. 211. 212. 

Ebright, Lt.-Col. Aaron W., at the 
Opequon, ii. 13. 

Ed^arton, Capt Warren P., at Mis- 
sionary Ridge, L 299. 

Edwards, CoL Oliver, at the Opequon, 
iL II, 12; at Winchester, ii. 60, 77. 

Ehiler, Maj. Francis, at Stone Kiver, 
L 241. 

Elliott, Gen. Washington L., Boone- 
ville, in expedition to, i. 144-150; 
brigadier-general, promoted to, i. 
153; Sheridan's promotion, asks for, 
L 166. 

Emerson, Col. William, at Cedar 
Creek, iL 71 ; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 

Emory, Gen. William H., m Shenan- 
doah campaign, i. 462; advance, in 
the, L 477; Stony Point, ordered to, 
L 479; Cedar Creek, in camp at, i. 
480, at battle of, iL 72, 86; Hall- 
town, in march to, i. 484, 489-401, 
skirmish at, i. 403; Opequon, at tne, 
iL 14, 25, 27; Fisher's Hill, at battle 
o^ii- 33-35. 39» 41; Early's retreat, 
in, iL 40.— Sketch of, L 473. 

Enochs, Lt.-Col. William H., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 76; at the Opequon, ii. 18. 

Escobeda, Gen., in nortnem Mexico, 
iL 216, 217. 

Evans, Col. A. W., in Sheridan's In- 
dian campaign, iL ^08, 309; Co- 
manches, hght with, 11. 336. 

Ewell, Gen. Richard S., captured at 
Sailor's Creek, Va., ii. 180-183, 187. 

Farabee, Maj. Harvey, at Cedar 
Creek, iL 78; at the Opequon, ii. 20. 

Farmer, Capt. George E., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 78. 

46) XKC 

Tur. Cd. A^ftk B, at Ok OpdkfiMa. 

nudkncr, CoL, mtpHaet Sheridu'i 

tkwn, JbIm, MgjmtkBO^ uto peace, 
K. 4I«; ddar. eflort for, iL 418; Bb- 
wuck, KaicUi^ for, li. 43a 

t*T, U.-C0L Tbooiat BC^ at Ae Ope- 
qnoB, ii. IS- 

gtfywwn. U$ mUam D., at Cedar 

Flak ftDtttoe, Sheridan emploTed b;, 
I- 5. & 

n*,Capt. _ 

It. 6a; at the Opequo, U. ki. 
-^'"\ CoL cSSb»L,L 3Si; Ap- 

ponttattot cainjaiRi, In 

n«a Forica, Va.,il;i4i, 1421 buk <a, 

fl. tsS^; readhofbude, 8. iTi. 
naadm, BaBJamfai F., aacoeedaWeOa 

iaLoidriana,M. 368. 
Fkftter, Ha}. Stqha C, at Cedar 

Crcdt, E 70; at tte OpeqiMO, li. it. 
FtoRDoe, Italjr, Sheridan at, &. 438- 



Fl^ HaJ. Hotace W., at Ce 

0«fc, fi. w; at the Ctaeqnon, U. 
Forbo, Paul, at Parb, IT. W~^. 
Fonnan, licut. Joseph T., at Stone 

River, i. 241. 
Forsyth, Col. George A., at Cedar 
Creek,u.6s, 8a, S5; Republican Riv- 
er, figbt with Indima at, iL yaO^yjA. 
Forsyth, Gen. James W., Sheridan's 
chief-of-staff, 1. 343, 344. 349! at Ce- 
dar Creek, iL 65 ; in Appomatlox 
impaign, ii. tl6 ' at Appomat- 
ixC. fl..ii. 108; in Germany, ii. 
So. 364. 387-3^. 399. 41 >, 421- A^S- 

i- SS"; unfit for active c 

■ 378,' at ficau'mont, ii. 39*^39^ >t 
Sedan, ii. 399-40'. 4", 4'2. at 
Mcndon, ii. 4x6; MacMahon and 
Baiaine, blundrra of. ii.394.413; Eu- 
genie escapes from, iL 416; Napo- 
kon, disasters attributed lo, ii. 445; 
army of, criticism on, ii. 448-452. 

Frederick Charles, Pnince, at Grave- 
lotte, iL 3^-^*; ability of, ii. 378; 


, Croirn Princ*, 

anof oC en nmte to Pnri!, ii. ^/A, 
Un^'a review o( ii. 390; Seda^, 

fl. 399-4DB, gtrtac decora tions 

U. 410^ 4,"i ** Paris, iL 4i'>. 426. 
Fremont Gen. JohaC. 6n3Dc«, ma^ 

aKcmentolL ta6. 
FreDcb. Lt-Ccri. Edwla W., at Codv 

Creek. 0.79. 
Flrend^ Lt..C«. innaor B., at Cedar 

Credc, ii. 70; at the Opeqaon, fi. 13. 
At. Gen. J. B., qaoled. L 1S7. 
F^nvey, Lt-C^ Lnthn, at Cedar 

Cre^ )L 16; atttteOpaqaoa, IL iS. 

eeiipale, i i. 
Ganliner, CoL "*"—<—•. at Ac Og^ 

GaretcU, Gen., UHed at Stcno Rhfr, 

I 334.335. 
Geary, GcA, -lart diMft" afanidttr 

ot ii. 197. 

Geury, CoL VnOlaa F., 0. 145. 
GermaiiT— *ee S^l»idaM, Eorope^ 
Getty, Geo. George W., at Lsm 
BMat. Va., 1. 431; at SafloA 

c«,a isarin s" 

... _j, 3(\ a, __ _ 
63. 81-84, 86, 95. 

Chisdin, Surgeon James T., in Appo- 
mattox CKinpaign, ii. 136. 

Gibbs, Gen. Altred, in Appomattox 
campoifB, in inarch lo Dinviddie, 
■'■ l3S-l39'i ^"^ Fotta, rcconnois- 
since to, li. 146; UinwiddieC. H-. 
at battle of; 1^150-153, — Shenandoah 
campaign, at the Upequon, ii. 19; 
at Cedar Creek, ii. 78, 90, 97; in the 
final campaign, ii. 116. — Tcna-i, in, 
i. l6.~Ycllow Tavern, at battle of. 
i. 378- 

Gibbi. CapL Frank C. at Cedar 
Creek, 11. 77 ; at the Opequon, 
u. 18. 

Gilison, Col. Horatio G., on Pacific 

Gibson, Maj. Thomas, at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 7S. 

Gilbert, LieuL Benjamin F., at Cedar 
Creek, iL 79; at the Opequon, iL 31. 

Gilbert, Gen. C. C, at PcrryviHc, i. 

Gillespie, CapL George L., in Appo- 
mattox campaign, ii. 136; at Five 
Forkt, iL 159, 160, 



Gilmore, Harry, guerrilla, capture of, 

ii. 105-107. 
Glasgow, Ky., capture of, i. 189. 
Glover, Capt. Andrew S., at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 79. 


Gobin, Maj. J. P. Shindel, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 73. 

Good, CoL Tilghman H., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. If . 

Gooding, Col. Michael, at Missionary 
Ridge, i. 298; report on, extract 
from, i. 321. 

Gordon, Gen., at Cedar Creek, ii. 93- 
95; at Appomattox C. H., ii. 191- 
193; troops of, violate flag of truce, 
ii 196, 197; Lee's surrender, re- 
marks on, il 1^7, 198. 

Gordon, Gen., in Shenandoah cam- 
paign, at Newtown, i.480; Opequon, 
at the, ii. 10-27, 31, killed, ii. 30. 

Gordon, Gen. James B., i. 362; death 
of, i. 378; troops of, at Hanover- 
town, i 397. 

Gordonsville, Va., i. 414, 416; Tor- 
bert's expedition to, failure of, ii. 

Graham, Col. Harvey, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 74; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

Granger, Gen. Gordon, Demi- brigade 
invented by, i. 298. — East Tennes- 
see, in, i. 331, 332.— Fourth Corps, 
commands, i. 207. — Franklin, Tenn., 
operations at, 1. 256-258. — Mission- 
ary Ridge, declines to assist in pur- 
suit at, i. 316. — Sheridan recom- 
mended for colonelcv by. i. 40, 169; 
presented with eagles by, i. 142; 
promotion of, asks for, i. 166; rela- 
tions with, i. 169. — Sketch of, i. 170. 

Granger, Maj. Henrv W., i. 349. 

Granger, Lt -Col. Moses M., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71. 

Grant, Lieut. John V., at the Opequon, 

ii. 15. 

Grant, Gen. Lewis A., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 69, 70, 83. 

Grant, Gen. Ulysses S., Appomattox 
campaign, instructions as to, ii. 133, 
134 ; suspension of operations, ar- 
gument on, ii. 142 - 145 ; Sixth 
Corps to Sheridan, refuses, ii. 147; 
Dinwiddle, order to Warren at, ii. 
155; Warren, authorizes removal of, 
it 160; Petersburg, orders assault 
on, after Five Forks, ii. 171 ; Amelia 
C H., orders as to, ii. 178; orders 
Wright under Sheridan's command, 
ii. 182; Lee's surrender^ at, ii. 200- 

202. — Chattanooga, arrival at, opens 
road to Bridgeport, i. 302; opera- 
tions of, intenaed, i. 30^. — Cold 
Harbor, at, i. 407, 413.— Division of 
Mississippi, assigned to, i. 298, 299. 
-—East Tennessee, opening raUroad 
in, i. J36. — General-in -chief, ap- 
pointed, i. 339; field duty, proposes 
to continue, i. 348; officers, manner 
in meeting his, ii. 126.— James Riv- 
er, movement to, i. 413. — Mexico, on 
Maximilian's invasion of, iL 210, 
213, 228; checks emigration to, ii. 
215.— Missionary Ridge, credit for 
victory at, L 318, 519; tribute to 
Sheridan, i. 321.— Napoleon III., 
contempt for, ii. 359.— New Orleans, 
approves martial law in, ii. 237. — 
Petersburg, operations at, i. 446, 
448-451. — Potomac, proposed con- 
solidation of troops on, i. 461. — 
Shenandoah campaign, selects Sheri- 
dan for, i. 462, instructions to, i. 
464; warning as to Early's reinforce- 
ments, i. 483 ; destroying valley, 
reasons for, i. 485-487; authorizes 
Sheridan's plans in, extract from 
** Memoirs,' ii. 9; Early, view as 
to pursuit of; ii. 55 ; Sheridan, or- 
ders to, in February, 1864, ii, 112. — 
Sheridan's estimate of, ii. 202-204, 
279; removal from Louisiana opposed 
by, ii. 276; interview with, at Cor- 
inth, i. 181, 182, at City Point, ii 
125-129. —Spottsylvania C. H., 
movement to, 1. 365; remark of, as 
to whipping Stuart, i. 369.— TreviU 
lian expedition, modifies orders on, 
i 414.— WUdernesft, in battles of, i. 

^357-365. ^ 

Gravelotte, France, battle of, ii. 367- 

^ 378, 383-385. 

Green, Capt. Charles S., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 13. 

Greenfield, Lt-Col. Andrew J., at 
Cedar Creek, ii. 78; at the Opequon, 
ii. 20. 

Gregg, Gen. David McG., u 550. — 
Hawe's Shop, fight at, i. 398-402. 
—Old Church, at, i. 404, 411.— Pa- 
munkey crossing, at, i. 396, 397. — 
Petersburg, in operations at, i. 447, 
448.— Sheridan's Richmond expedi- 
tion, attacked at North Anna River, 
i. 375; Yellow Tavern, march to, i. 
376, fight at, i. 377, 378; Mechanics, 
ville, fight at, i. 383, 385; Cold Har- 
bor, at, i. 388; tribute to, i. 435.— 

4fi4 '^ 

Sfcgtc i i cC L ^<i»— oPottiWTMM C, 
H., kl. L %^3fi?— 9t> M*?** 
™__. ■--At»*.i43»-«S.--TW 
loo. In, i 416; 7^«tQ- 
tMtUe at, L 4)1-, nflrOMi, 
Ac^ L 4:^; mnyitoa, in 
ioatUtk, i. 430.— ^Vi!dc^|.JS^, 
in adTauce to, i. 15(1; Wilson, re- 
lieves, i, 361; Todd'^» Tivem, at. i. 
364, — Wilion'araid, tn, i. 444- 
Grejte, CoL J. Irvin, I 350; at 
Tadd'i Tavern,!. 3114. — ^Appomattox 
campaign, in march ta Dinwiddic C. 
H., li. i3*-t39; Stony Creek, at, ii. 
141; Dinwiddie C. H., at battle at, ii. 
captured at Farmvilie, ii. 

Grand, CoL lOcbida^ M Fwmflk 
. I. im; Shcridan'i tribate te, i, JC9; 

at StoM Rirer, L nj, xA, no, 
Orifin. Gob. CIiaitai,ni«Udl6C. H., 

■t iMtttB 0^ IL I5S-I^; »t nm 

Focki, fi. 161-1G4, 166 ; wKCBBdi 
' WaRM^ U. ids: in Latfi Mraat, &. 

I7»-I9J; fciT*-" — *^'- "— ^ " 

CbcTenRM, wnw &>> B- sSji d^ 

cetndbr, G^twffli, fl. a9S-49f. 

Graver, G«i. Cuvfar, In 9ien«naaali 

campaieD, joins Sheridan for, i. 490 ; 
at the OpMuOTi, ii. 15, jS, 20-31; at 
Cedar Creek, ii. 67, &), fa, 73, 89. 
Gucnlher, Cant Francis L., at Mis- 
sionary Ridge, i. 399. 

Haley, Lieut. Ebcn D., 

Hall. LL-Col, J: 
Creek, IL 76. 

Hall, Lt.-Col. Josiah, in Appomattox 
campaiRn, ii. 137. 

Hall, LL-Col. Moses S., at Cedar 
Creek, iL 76. 

Halleck, Gen. Henry W., Beaure);ard, 
Sheridan's comments on pursuit of, 
L IJ3. — Camp system of, inade- 
quate, i. 137. — Dispersion of troops 
of, a mistake, !. I70. — General-in- 
chief, i. iSl. — Sheridan assigned 
auditor by, i. Il6, commissary, i. 
Xii, 118; commissioned by, to pur- 
chase horses,!. 13s; quarterma-iter 
far, L 138; commissary for head- 
139; appoinfanent as col- 

onel, 3 

1. 141. 

466: Sherldw «1^ L 4^r«£^ 
Haablim CoL JoKiA £7^ Cedar 

CiMik,fi. 69; mttiwOpmMi,a. 11. 
HuBiltiHi, A. J., antoinled pmtaor 

of TKai,IL 130; a rt a hd i tratl Bn it, 

iL 331, svu 
HBmfltnn, Lt-Od. Tbaodore B., at 

Cedar Credt, It. 69; »t ttie Opeqim, 

ii. IS. 
HammonL Maj. Clivka H^ at 1G|> 

rioaary Ri dyn, i. 398; report an. tot. 

tnd mMa, L ^x 
RaauMnd.Lt.-Col. Mm, L 351. 

oa, Geo, Wade, VxmS* Shun, 
, at. i. jA-ifik-St. UMifi 
btnch, B^at, L 439-43$^— ShMty 

Crec^fi^B^ t 439^^1tanrffiBB 

419 ; ClaTtaa. phu to atiadt, i. 
410; rear diarged bjr Cntcr. L 
4>i; Tnviliiaii, iefcated a^ L 431, 
4»i UallMT'i CnaaJtoMl^ fafat 


cot c4 L 496; ( 
'- ' " -1, Wtofidd ! 

a^, Sbcfioaa'a trflxdB to, L 45a; 
mUencM, In baldei oC L 363, j^; 
in LouisiBna, succeeds Sheridan, ii. 

EC, Gen. William J., Stone River, 
opens battle at, i. 333, repidsed, i. 
233; attacks Sheridan, i. 337, re- 
pulsed, L 33S. 

Harhaus, Col. Otto, i. 351. 

Barker, Col. Charles G.. East Tennes- 
see, in, i. 333. — Missionary Ridge, 
at, i. 399, 31%. 311 ; wounded at, i. 
313; rear-guard, fight with, i. 314; 
report on, extract from, i. 333. 

Harmon, Col. Oscar F., at PcTryville, 

i. 193- 

Ilarper, Capt. John, at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 69. 
Harrington, CoL Faxilo A., killed at 

Stone River, i. 339. 
Harris, Col. Thomas M., at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 75, 76; at the Opequon, 

Harrison, Col. Thomas J., in Talla- 

homa campaign, i. 363. 
Hastings, Maj. Smith H., in Appo- 

matlox campaign, ii. 136; at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 77- at the Opequon, ii 19. 
Hatch, Col. Edward, Booneville, at 

battle of^ i. ijS-164; Rienri, in *ur- 



prise at, i. 176; Ripley, at capture 
of, i. 171, 172. 

Havelock, Sir Henry, with German 
army, ii. 420-425. 

Hawe^s Shop. Va., Custer at, L 397; 
Gregg at, 1. 398^402; importance of, 
i. 400; Wilson at, L 395. 

Hsiyes, Col. Rutherford B., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 76, 83, 93; at the Ope- 
quon, ii 18. 

Hays, Fort, il 295. 

Hazen, Gen. William B., at Grande 
Ronde, i. 91, 92; Missionary Ridge, 
claims honors at, i. 320, evidence 
aeainst, i. 321-324; among the In- 
dians, il 287, 301, 333, 334; at Paris, 
ii 427, 428. 

Healy, CapL John G., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 73. 

Heath, Gen., in operations at Peters- 
burg, i. 447. 

Heaton, Lieut. Edward, i 351. 

Heeler, Capt. Benjamin F., at Mis- 
sionary Ridge, i. 298; report on, ex- 
tract from, i. 322. 

Hendricks, Thomas A., visits Sheri- 
dan at New Orleans, ii. 278. 

Henry, Col. William W., at Cedar 
Credc, ii. 71. 

Herron, Andrew S., removed by 
Sheridan, ii. 254. 

Herron, Gen. Frank, in Texas, 1865, 
ii. 212. 

Hescock, Capt. Henry, at Chickamau- 
ga, i. 288; at Perry ville, i 193-197; 
at Rienzi, i 176; at Stone River, i. 
217, 222, 225, 226, 230, 232, 241; in 
TuUahoma campaign, i. 262. 

Hickman, Lt.-Col. Baynton J., at the 
Opequon, ii. 12; at Winchester, ii 69. 

Hiembotham, I^t.-Col. Thomas H., at 
Cedar Creek, ii 69. 

Hill, Maj. Joseph C, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 71. 

Hinkson, Lieut. Hezekiah, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 75. 

Hoffman, Lt.-Col. John J., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 79; at the Opequon, ii. 20. 

Hoge, Capt George W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 

Hoke, Gen. , at Cold Harbor, i 400, 

Holliday, Maj. John W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 76; at the Opequon, ii. 18. 

Holman, Lieut. Charles, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 77. 

Holt, Lt.-Col. Erastus D., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 70; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 

Vou II.— 30, 

Hood, Gen. John B , on Pacific coast, 
i j6, 44, 46; at West Point, i. 13. 

Hooker, Gen. Joseph, at Lookout 
Mountain, i. 303, 306, w, battle 
unnecessary, i 519; at Missionary 
Ridge, i 308; remforces Rosecrans, 

i. 3«>- 
Hoppe, Capt. Walter, at Perryville, i 

Horn, Col. John W., at the Opequon, 

ii 13. 

Hottenstine, Lt-Col. John A., at 
Chickamauga, i. 288. 

Houghtaling, Capt Charles, at Stone 
River, i. 217, 222, 225, 226, 230, 241. 

Hourand, Maj. August, at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 19. 

Howard, Lt.-Col. John B., i. 349. 

Howard, Capt Ocran H., in Appo- 
mattox campaign, ii. 136. 

Howe, Capt S. Bentley, in Appomat- 
tox campaign, ii. 137. 

Hoyt, Capt James J., at the Opequon, 
ii 16. 

Hubbard^ Maj. Elisha C, at Stone 
River, i. 241. 

Hubbard, Coi Thomas H., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 73. 

Hufty, Capt Baldwin, at Cedar Creek, 
ii 68; at the Opequon, ii. 11. 

Hull, Captain Walter C, at the Ope- 
quon, li 21. 

Humphreys, Gen. Andrew A., Ap- 
pomattox campaign, begins, ii. 134; 
position on March 29, ii. 141; in 
Lee's retreat from Richmond, ii. 

Hunsdon, Lt.-Col. Charles, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 7a 

Hunt, Capt Lucius T., at the Ope- 
quon, ii 13. 

Hunter, Gen. David, Lynchburg ex- 
pedition, failure of, i. 423, 456. — Re- 
signs command, i. 465. — Shenan- 
doah campaign, retained in, i 462; 
masses troops, i. 446.— Sheridan, to 
co-operate with, at Trevillian, i 
415; fails to join, i 422, 423. — Stauil- 
ton, Va., at, i. 415.— Washington, in 
defense of, i. 459. 

Ilsley, Lt-Col. Edward, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 73; at the Opequon, ii 15. 

Imboden, Gen. J. D., in Snenandoah 
campaign, i 457. 

Indian Peace Commission of 1867, re- 
sult of labors of, ii. 283 ; Indians dis« 
I satisfied with, u. 284-286. 



Indums, burial cmtoms of ooost, L loi, 
io6. 107.— Cascades, in 1856 waiv i 
8o-84.--<:oa8t Reserratioii. tribes 
on, i. 92. — ComaBche raids m " 

CO, i. 34. — Coquilles, uprising oi^ i 
97 ; Sheridan'sadTentorewith, L 
subdued, i. 99.-'Ctab-catdi]ng 
method of; L 99.— Doctors o^ i. i< 
I zo^ 1 19.— Fisnine, primitive method 
in, i 45.~Hatrea rar, specimen oi; 
i. 88. — Missouri, Department of, 
troubles in, 1865-07, iL 282 ; Indian 
Peace Commission, dissatisfied at 
trea^ wiUi, iL 384-286 ; Chorennes, 
raid oy, incensed at ztfusal of arms, 
ii. 288 ; arms granted by SoIIt, ii. 
289; Saline and Solomon Tadeys. 
fatol raid in, ii. 290, 291, cliedced 
by troops, ii. 292 ; scouts' adTentore 
with, u. 202-294; Arkansas and 
Cimarron nvers, raiding on, Sull^ 
defieated, ii. 204 ; hostiles, streuj 
of; ii. 29; ; subsistence for, ami 
iu 297 ; raids by, summer of 11 
ii. 2^; Forsyth^s fight with, ti. 302^ 
306; Sheridan's campais^n aaarinst, iL 
307-346.— Pit Rivers, Shesldan*sad- 
▼enture with, i. 40-43 ; cruelty o^ to 
whites, L 43 ; fight with, of Lieut, 
Crook, i. 4^, 44 ; wretchedness of, 
i. 44-46 ; village of, a, i. 47-50. — 
Rogue Rivers, i. 50 ; troubles with, 
i. 106 ; strange customs of, i. 106- 
108 ; doctors of, Sam Patch, i. 108, 
109; doctrcss, murder of a, i. 1 10; 
Sheridan's embassy to, i. 111-113, 
second visit to, i. 114, 115; mur- 
derers, sharp practice as to, i. 1 16 ; 
tribe subdued, turn farmers, i. 
118, 119. — Spokanes, in i8j6 war, 
i. 71. — Texas, in, i. 20 ; battles with, 
i. 22-24, 29, 30. — War of 1856, 
cause of, i. 71 ; Sheridan's part in, i. 
73-84 ; Wriijht's exp>edition, results 
of, i. 89. — Yakimas, Rains's expedi- 
tion against, i. 53 ; force engaged, 
departure, i. 54 ; route chosen, i. 55 ; 
attack by Indians, i. 57 ; tantalizing 
actions of, i. 59, 60 ; retreat of, i. 
61 ; failure of expedition, i. 66, 68 ; 
results of failure, i. 70 ; whites mas- 
sacred by (1856), i. 72, 73. — Yakima 
Bays, uprising of, i. 97 ; Sheridan 
attacked by, i. 08 ; crab-catching, 
method of, i. 99; cfescription of, i. 100. 
loi ; cemetery, surrender of, i. 102. 
Innis, Col., bridges Tennessee River 
for Sheridan, i. 272, 273. 

Inms, Col. David D., at PterryriDe, L 

Ives, CoL Bntyton, in Appomattox 

campaign, il 137. 

Jackson, Capt Danid D., at Cedar 

Creek, a 69. 
Jackson, Gen. James S., killed at Per- 

rrrille, i 201. 
Jackson, Gen. (ConC), attiie Opequon, 

iL la 
James River, Ya., Grant's mafvoMBt 

to, L 413 ; Sheridan^s maidl to, L 

, 43<M36. 

Janeway, Cid. Hi^ H^ m Appomat- 
tox campaign, iib %'!JL 

Janeway, Capt. ^cob J., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. n; atthe Opequon, & 13. 

Jaquess, CoLjames F., at Chidca- 
maofi, i. atf; at Missumary Ridge, 
i^ J^ ; at PerryviUe, i 192. 

Joimson, Pres. Andrew, prohibits mfli- 
tary interference in Texas, iL 133 ; 
New Orieans riot, garbles Sberidan's 
report on, iL a jo^ diargts origin 
^ to Congress, u. 240 ; reoonstmc- 
tion policy o^ %. 2^1 ; Reconstruc- 
tion Acts passed over veto o( IL ^o^ 
252, 256, determisatkm to obstruct, 
ii. 2^3 ; defiance of Congress, result 
of^ li. 261 ; New Orleans, extends 
re?istration in, ii. 269; policy of, up- 
held by Hancock, ii. 275 ; Sheridan 
transferred by, ii. 276 ; Sheridan's 
estimate of, ii. 279. 

Johnson, Gen. B. F., in Shenandoah 
campaign, i. 457 ; at Fisher's Hill, i. 
481 ; at the Opequon, ii. 10. 

Johnson, Col. Daniel D., at the Ope- 
quon, iL 18. 

Johnson, Maj. Enoch E., at Cedar 
Creek, iL 70 ; at the Opequon, iL 12. 

Johnson, Gen. R. W., Stone River, 
commands division at, i. 213 ; at- 
tacked by Hardee, L 222 ; division 
routed, i. 224. 

Johnson, Capt. Samuel, at Stone River, 
i. 241. 

Johnson, Lieut William H., at the 
Opequon, ii. 14. 

Johnston, Gen. Joseph K, Confederate 
army, in command of, L 337. 

Jones, Mai. Edward W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 69. 

Jones, Lt.-Col. Fielder A., in TuUaho- 
ma campaign, i. 262. 

Jone-, Gen. \V. E., at Staunton, Va., 
L 415. 



Juarez, Pres. Benito, Sheridan*s com- 1 
munication with, iL 215 ; proclaims I 
himself president, ii. 223 ; possession j 
by, of Mexico, ii. 226. 

Kansas, Indian outrages in, 1865-67, 
ii. 282 ; danger to settlers of, in In- 
dian outbreaks, iL 286. 

Kautz, Gen. A. V., Petersburg, in 
operations at, i. 447-450 ; in Wil- 
son's raid, i. 438, 44a 

Keifer, Col. J. V/arren, at Cedar Creek, 
ii 71. 85 ; at the Opequon, ii. 13, 22. 

Keim, De B. Randolj^h, in Sheridan's 
Indian campaign, u. 346. 

Keller, Capt David C, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 69. 

Kellogg, Maj. Horace, at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 75. 
Kellogg, Lt -Col. John, in Appomattox 

campaign, ii. 136. ^ 

Kelly, Gen., captured by Gilmore, ii. 

Kelton, Col. John C, Sheridan's grat- 
itude to, i. 136, 137. 

Kempf, Maj. Charles W., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 12 ; at Winchester, ii. 69. 

Kenny, Lt.-Col. Alexander J., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 74 ; at the (jpequon, ii. 

Kentucky, feeling in (1862), i. 191, 

Kershaw, Gen., at Cold Harbor, i. 
407, 408. — Petersburg, in operations 
at, i. 447, 448.— Sailor's Creek, Va., 
captured at,ii. 180-183, 187. — Shen- 
andoah campaign, repulsed by Mer- 
ritt, i. 488 ; departs to join Lee, iL 
5, 9 ; rejoins Early, iL 47, 50 ; at 
Cedar Creek, ii. 61, 87, 04. 

Kester, Lt-Col. John W., 1. 350. 

Kidd, Col. James H., i. 349 ; at Cedar 
Creek, iL 77 ; at the Opequon, iL 19. 

Kimball, Capt. Hiram A., at Cedar 
Creek, iL 71. 

King, Col. John W., fight of^ with 
Indians, i. 24. 

King, Lieut Rufiis, Jr., L 351. 

Kingsbury, Lt.-Col. Charles, Jr., i. 

Kinney, Capt. Edwin R., at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 70. 

Kitching, Col. J. Howard, at Cedar 
Creek, iL 77. 

Knowles, Col. Oliver B., in Appomat- 
tox campaign, ii. 1^8. 

Knowlton, Maj. William, at the Ope- 
quon, iL 14. 

Kohler, Lt.-Col. John B., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 70 ; at the Opequon, ii. 

Krom, Maj. Abram H., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 21. 

Laiboldt, Lt*CoL Bernard, at Chicka- 
mauga, L 277, 278, 281, 288, charge 
of, repulsed, i. 282 ; at Missionary 
Ridge, i. 298 ; at Perryville, i. 192, 
i^, 195 ; at Stone River, i. 241 ; in 
Tuilahoma campaign, i. 262 . 

Laing, Capt. John K., at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 73. 
Lamb, Lieut. Jacob H., at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 72 ; at the Opequon, ii. 14. 

Landram, Col. William J., patriotic 
daughter of, i. 202. 

Lane, Col. John Q., report of, on Mis- 
sionary Ridge, L 321. 

La Paturelle, Capt Henry de, at 
Cedar Creek, ii. 72. 

Laredo, Texas, garrison at (i854),'L 

Larrabee, Cot Charles H., at Perry- 
ville, i. 193 ; in Tuilahoma campaign, 
L 261. 

Lee, Col. Albert L., Rienzi, in surprise 
at, i. 176. 

Lee, Gen. Custis, captured at Sailor's 
Creek, Va., iL 180-183, 187. 

Lee, Gen. Fitzhugh, Appomattox cam- 
paign, commands mounted forces in, 
u. 141 ; at Dinwiddle C. H., ii. 148- 
158.— Cold Harbor, at,L 405, 406.— 
Hawe's Shop, at, i. 398-402.— Shen- 
andoah campaign, repulsed by Mer- 
ritt, L 48 J ; joins Early, i. 490 ; Wil- 
liamsport, ordered to, i. 493 ; Win- 
chester, reported having left, iL 8 ; 
Opequon, at the, ii. 10, 26, wound- 
eo, ii. 30. — Sheridan's Richmond ex- 
pedition, to attack rear, L 373 ; at- 
tacks, i. 374 ; Mechanicsville, at, L 
379, 385. —St Mary's Church, fight 
at, i. 434. — Stony Creek, fight at, i. 
439. — Trcvillian expedition, camp 
at Louisa C. H., L 420 ; Trevillian, 
battle at, L 421, 422 ; Mallory's 
Cross-Roads, fight at, L 424, 

Lee, Gen. Robert E., in Appomattox 
campaign, mistake at Dinwiddie, ii. 
141 ; Richmond, begins retreat from, 
ii. 171 ; Amelia C. H. his objective 
point, iL 174; intercepted telegram 
of, ii. 175 ; wagons and guns of, 
captured at Paine's, ii. 177 ; Lynch- 
burg, strives to reach, iL 188 ; last 


attempL to cwape. ii. 191-193 ; fur. 
render of, ii. 197-2IM. — Beaver 
Dim, Va., Blorcs dcjlro^ed at, i. 
37s. — Cavalrj. reorganuadon of, i. 
398.— Early aulhoriied to threaten 
VVashington, i. ^S7 ; confidence in, 
i. 471.— Hawe'a Shop, report on, i. 
403. —Richmond, controls roads to, 
I. 413 — Sheridan's Richmond expe- 
dition, how affected hy, i. 390 ; Sher- 
idan's tribute lo, ii. aoa. — Stuart, at 
death of, L 3S7.— Wildemess, in bat- 
tles of. L 357-365. 

Lee, Gen. W. H. P., i. 361 ; Ashland, 
defeated near, i. 39; ; Appomattox 
campaien, early portion iu, ii. 141 ; 
al Dinwiddte C. IL, ij. 148-153 ; at 
Five Forks, ii. 159, 164, 

Leipcr, Col. Charles L, in Appoaiattox 
campaiga, b. 137 ; at the Opiequon, 
ii. 19, 

Leonard, LL-CoL George N., at Mis- 
sionary Ridge, i. 39S. 

Letters and Despatches : Grant to Ilal- 
Icck, August 12, 1864, i. 4S3 ; to 
Hunter, Tunc 6, 1864, L 415 ; Aug- 
ust 5, 1864, i. 464 ; to Johnson, Aug- 
ust 17, 1B67, ii. 376 ; to Meade, 
Mftrch 31. 1865,11 155 ; to Sheridan, 
August 16, 11, 36, September 4, 
h'oveniber 0, 1S64, i. 486, 4S7 : 
March 18, 1H64, ii. 134 ; March 30, 
1865, il 14Z ; May 17, 1865, ii, 2o8l 
August 3. 1866, il, 237 ; to Foreign 
Minister!, July 25, 1870, ii. 359' — 
Halleck to Shendan, October 12, 
1864, il 60; October 16, 1864, ii. 
65 ; to Thomas, March 23, 1864, i. 
339. —Lincoln to Sheridan. Septem- 
ber 20, 1864, ii, 29 ; October ai, 
1864, ii. 91. —Meade lo Grant, March 
31, 1865, ii 154J to Sheridan, May 
S, 1S64, i. 362 : May S, 1864, i. 369 ; 
June s. 1864. i. 4"4 i to Wifson, 
June 31, 1864,1. 440.— Napoleon 10 
Castelnau, January 10, 1867, il 226. 
—Sheridan lo Averell, September 23. 
1864, ii, 44 ; to Grant, September 
25, 1S64, ii. 45 ; April 8. 1865, il 
199, zoo; August 1, 1866, il 13s ; 
Apra 19, 1867. ii 354 ; to Johnson. 
August 6, 1&66, ii. 337 ; to Meade, 
June I, 1864, i, 409; lo Stanton, 
June 3, 1867, ii 266 ; to Torbert. 
August 16, 1S64, i. 485 ; lo Warren, 
April I, 1865. ii 156; lo Wright, 
October 16, 1864, ii 64. — Statiton to 
bheridan, October 13, 1S64, ii. 60.— 

Steadman to Johnson. June 19, 1867, 
ii 268.— Wilson to Meade. Juncai, 
1864, i 44a; to ShcHdan,May 8. 1S64, 
1365.- Wrightto Sheridan, October 
iS, 1B64, ii 63. 

Lewis, Maj. Charles, at Cedar Creek, 
ii 74 ; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

Lewis, Lt.-Col. George N., at Cedar 

Lincoln. Prcs. Abraham. Sheridan's 
interview with (April, IS64^, i 347, 
(August, 1864] i 463; at City Point, 

ii. 187; 
the Ope- 

death of, ii. 3 
Lmton. L1..C0L John P., 

Little Robe, Cheyenne chief, ii. 337. 
338, 342. 343, 

Livingston, Capt. La Rhett L., at the 
Opequon, il. 21. 

Lomas. . pH:udo~Kp}', IL 108-lia. 

Loniax. Gen., i 363. --Charles City 
C. H,, at, 1 432, —Shenandoah cam- 
paign, commands cavalry in. i 471, 
481 ; Opequon, at th«, ii. 10^ zi ; 
Fisher's HUl, at battle of, ii. 35-30 ; 
retreat, in the, ii 47 ; Cedar Creek, 

dar Creek, in, ii. 98; TorbeM check. 

ed by, ii 102, IC4. 
Lone Wolf, Kiowa chief, ii. 333-335. 
Long, Lt.-Col. John S., at the C^- 

Longstreet, Gen. James, BraEg'» com- 
mand, detached from, i 303 ; Early, 
message lo, at Cedar Creek, ii 63 ; 
East 'Tennessee, opcraliona in, i. 
33'- 334; Knoiville, besieging, i 
335, unsuccessful assault on, i. 316, 
327 ; in Lee's retreat from Rich- 
mond, ii. iSS ; in Lee's surrender, 
ii. 19S ; in Virginia, May, 1S64, i 

I-ookout Moo 

I. Ga.. battle of, i 

Rosetrans, i 
ShcriSan ascends, i 274, r 
i. 276. 

fjird, l>ieut, James H., in Appomattox 
campaign, ii 13S. 

Lord, Capl. Richard S, C, in Appo- 
mattox campaign, ii 13J. 

Louisiana, provisional government OC, 
1864, ii. 233 1 Constitutional Con- 
vention oi; 1 866. call for, ii. 334, 
riol caused by. in New Orleans, ii. 
235, Sheridan's reports goi ii 335, 



^37 ; elections in, Sheridan's orders 
for, ii. 256-260 ; nef^roes in, condi- 
tion and number of, ii. 261, 262; 
Constitutional Convention, provid- 
ing for, ii« 264 ; Levee Commission- 
ers of, controversy over, ii. 265-269; 
parish officials of, removed, revision 
of jurv lists in, ii« 274, 275. 

Louisville, Ky., Buell's arrival at, i. 
189; Nelson, Gen., shooting of, 
i. 186-1S8; troops concentrated at 
(1862), i. 181. 

Love, Col. George M., at Cedar Creek, 
ii 72 ; at the Opequon, u. 14. 

Lowell, Col. Charles K., Jr., Shenan- 
doah campaign, in advance in, L 
478 ; Halltown, in march to, i. 
489, 490; at the Opequon, ii. 19 ; 
at Cedar Creek, ii. 78, M* 89» death 
at, ii 00. 

Lyons, Lord, effort of^ at mediation, 
ii. 418. 

Lytie. Gen. William H., i 2q6 ; at 
Chickamauga, i. 277, 278, 281, 287, 
defeated, killed, i 282. 

McCarthey, Capt. Charles, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 74; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

McCartney, Capt William H., at the 
Opequon, ii 14. 

McCausland, Gen. John, in Shenan- 
doah campaign, i 457 ; Chambers- 
burg, Pa., bums, i 460 ; Fisher's 
Hill, at, i 481 ; Halltown, at, i. 
493 ; Bunker Hill, fight at, i. 497 ; 
Stony Point, defeated at, ii. 98. 

McClennan, Col. Matthew R., at the 
Opeauon, ii. 14. 

MdCooK, Gen. Alexander McD., 
Chickamauga, marches before battle 
at, i. 290, 291 ; Valley Head, order- 
ed to. i 273, to Alpine, i. 274 ; 
Chattanooga, ordered toward, i. 
276 ; Shendan ordered to left by, i. 
281 ; withdraws from field, i. 289 ; 
command, removed from, L 295. — 
Nashville, Teirn., garrison duty at, 
i 210.— Perry ville, at, i. 105-197, 
200. ~ Stone River, commanas right 
wing at, i. 21^ ; Nolens ville and 
Murfireesboro^ m actions at, i 214- 
217. — Tullahoma campaign, in, i. 

McCook, CoL Daniel, at Perryville, i. 

193. 194. 
McCreery, Col. William B., at Chicka- 
mauga, i. 288 ; at Stone River, i 
241; in TuUahoma campaign, i 261. 

McFariand, Capt. Moses, at Cedar 
Creek, ii 7^. 

McGee, Lt. -Col. John L., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 79. 

McGonnigle, Capt. Andrew T., in Ap- 
|X)mattox campaign, ii 136. 

Mcllvain, Col. Alexander, at Mission- 
ary Ridge, i. 299. 

Mcintosh, Gen. John B„ captures S. 
C. regiment, u. 8 ; Opequon, at bat- 
tle o^ ii. 14, 21, wounded at, ii. 

McKendry, Capt Archibald, li. 78. 

McKibben, Coi Toe, kindness ot, to 
Shendan, i. 138. 

McKnight, Capt James, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 72; at the Opequon, ii 14. 

McLaughlin, Capt George H. , at Ce- 
dar Creek, ii. 72. 

McLean, Capt. Eugene £., i 20; Sher- 
idan's tribute to, i. 25. 

McManly, Mr., boarding while teach- 
ing, result of, i. 4 ; punishing schol- 
ars, method of, i 3. 

McMUlan, Gen. James W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 72, SiS ; at the Opequon, 
ii. 15. 

McNeil, Jesse, guerrilla, captures Gens. 
Kelly and Crook, ii. 107. 

McPherson, Gen. James B., at West 
Point, i. 13, 

Macauley, CoL David, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 74; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

Mackenzie, Gen. Ranald S., at* Cedar 
Creek, ii 69, 89 ; at the Opequon, 
ii. 11; at Appomattox C. H., 
ii 188, 192; Dinwiddie C. H., 
at battle of, a 155, is8 ; at Five 
Forks, ii 162, 166; in Lee's retreat, 
ii. I7J, 177, 187, 188. 

MacMahon, Marshal, blunder in re- 
lieving Metz, ii 392, J94, 395, 413. 

Mahone, Gen., in Wilson's raid to 
Roanoke, i 430. 

Maloney, Capt. Maurice, in Yakima 
Indian war, i 61, 64, 65. 

Marcy, Maj. George O., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 21. 

Marsh, Col. Jason, at Missionary 
Ridge, i 298; report on, extract from, 

i 321. 
Marston, Capt. Oliver H., at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 73. 
Martin, Capt. Joseph W., i 351, ii 

21; at Cedar Creek, ii 77. 
Maximilian, Emperor, invasion of, a 

menace to the U. S., ii. 210, 213; 

strength of, increased by Seward's 


C 71; at Oe OpeMon, ft 14. 
llMislij.JataB.,«t Cedar) 

Cete Cmk, 

___(Slaj.JataB.,at CedarCmk. 

ManfeTOoa. Gmcis G„ AppnMOtoi 
c»M|)a%n, t mniU o u u to wa»tn, 
& IS4; — ■iilfartiiMl ankr m \o 
UBm, a. its; reqneatt Sfaeridaa to 

danoad w Gnat,!. 1 

C. tT, usSes. ad' 



action o^ as to Wright's corps, 
184, l86.~CBvaliy, view as to, 1. 

B5, as to comntsiider, i. 356.^ 
iwc's Shop, refuses infantry at, L 
401. ^Policy of, as lo Sheridan, i, 
357. — Sheridan 's first interview with, 
I. 348.~Spotlsylvania C H.. chan- 
ces Sheridan's orders at, L 366, 367; 
olHereniie with Sheridan, i. 368, 
orders him against Sluart, L 3G9. — 
Trevillian expedition, ottlcni as to, 
i. 414. — Wilderness, in, i. 359. 
MeauK, France, German army at, ii. 


MechanictvOle, Vs., Sheridan' 

at, L 383-385. 
Heek. Joseph, m Spencer inuider, 

Meigs. Lieut. John R., in Shenandixi 
Valley, i. 467; murdered, ii. 50, j 
teprisals for, ii. Ki. 

Mejia, Gen,, Shendan's demajid ci 
ii. 2i4i atMatamoias,!]. ai6, abai 

Merkle. Lieut. Christopher F., at tii>- 
sionary Ridge; i. 299. 

Merritt. Gen. Weaiey, Appomatlos 
campai^, in inarch to Dinwiddie, li. 
135-139; FiveForks, leconooissance 
to, ii, 141. 146, at battle of, ii. 15S 
t6i; at DinwiddieC. H.. ii. 14^15' ; 
in Lee's retreat, ii 173-196.— Cold 
Harbor, at, I 404-406.— Shenan- 
doah campai{{n, in, i, 472; idvancr, 
in the, i. 477; Gordon, skirmish 
with. 1.480; Anderson, sent againM. 
1. 481, 483; Kershaw, light with, i 
488; HaUtown, in march ro L 489- 
491; Torbcrl's expedition, in. i 495. 
494; Lcclown and SmitliGeld, in 
actions at, i. 496; U)equon, ti 

«a^ i. xt-tir, n*M^ KM, tf 

Mblfc, %U^■^ I^S^kaav. fa 

cbkf of cavabr, ■jirnlMlnil, fi. itit 

I brtig. 

3S6; Pamunkey, rep^ir- 

' i.' 364.— Tre'villian, 
tattis at i. 430, 431; UampcoiiL 
luuiw to attack, i 430. 
Hadoo, ban in, how ooadoctad. L 31; 
bnSut kteUtoBto «( L 33,34: 

to, Mr. Smid% «(«k poUn tag 
i. 914, Hc; BBrtbem llwnco iiMii 
doMd^ by, IL 116; B.qnUM«M 
b cnfantlan o^ &. sit, StS, click- 
ed by Grant ii. ai8; bctiou in, 3. 
3ig; Young's adventa>« fat, iL 3ao~ 
313; presideiicT o£ atrnggle for, ii. 
313, 234; republic of, establitbed, ii. 


Meyer, Maj. John, 

Cedar Creek, iL 

Lt.-CoL Gal^el, in Ap- 

campaign. ii. 137. 

onathan R.,atChickaiiiau- 

at Missiooary Ridge, i. 

■ "ullafioma 

Mflra, Col.' 

ga, i. iS 

399, report 

campaign, i. z6l. 
Miles, Capt WiUiam W., at the Ope- 

Miles, Gen., in Lee's retreat from 

Richmond, ii. 173, 173. 
Mill Creek, Tenn., Sbendan at, i. 208 

Miller, Capt. Marcus P,, in Appomat- 
tox campaign, ii, 137, 179. 

MOIer, Jolin F., agent at Grande 
Rxiride. i. 93. 

Miller, Col. Sila-s at Chickamauga, L 
387, z8S; at Missionary Ridge, L 
298; at Perryville, i. 193; at btooe 
Kiver, i. 241 ; in TOllahoma cam- 
paiifn, i. aOi. 



Milliken, Maj. Charles A., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 70; at the Opequon, il 

Miner, Capt. Milton L., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 17. 

Mint/, Gen., in expedition to Frank- 
lin, Tenn., i. 256-258. 

Missionary Ridge, Ga., battle of, i 
306-320; Bragg intrenched on, i. 
293, 303, Thomas's demonstration 
against, i. 304. 

Mississippi, Army of, Rosecrans com- 
mands, I 168. 

Missouri, Department of, Sheridan 
transferred to, ii. 276; formation and 
composition of, Indian outrages in, 
il 282. 

Missouri, Army of Southwest, at i3oone- 
ville, i. 156-165. — Connth, at, i. 
152.— P&i Ridge, at, i. 132 — Sheri- 
dan as quartermaster and commis- 
sary of, i. 127, 128; supplies for, 
labor in getting, i. 129, 130; horses, 
stolen, treatment of, i, I34. — Supplv 
system of, i. 1 28. — Springneld^ 
march to, i 129. 

Mitchell, Gen. Robert B., at Perry- 
ville, I 103. 

Mizner, Col. John K., at Booneville, i. 

Molineux, Col. Edward L., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 74; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

Moltke, Gen. von, at Gravelotte, ii. 
371, 376; at Sedan, ii. 404, 409; 
military genius of, ii. 446. 

Monroe. Mayor John T., precipitates 
riot in New Orleans, ii. 234, 235, 
239; po itical following of, ii. 241; 
removed by Sheridan, ii. 254. 

•• Monroe shoes,** i. 8, 9. 

Montague, CoL George L., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 12; at Winchester, ii. 69 

Mooers, Dr. J. H., killed by Indians, 
ii. 302-305. 

Moore, Col, Alpheus S., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 78; at the Opequon, ii. 20. 

Moore, Maj. Caleb, at the Opequon, 
ii. 21. 

Moore, Lt.-Col. Joseph, at Missionary 
Ridge, i. 298; report on, extract 
from, L X12. 

Moore, Col. Robert S., at Perry ville, 

Moore, Maj. Shriver, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 76. 

Moore, Capt. Thomas W. C, aide to 
Sheridan, i 343, 344, 349; in Ap- 
pomattox campaign, ii. 136. 

Morris, Maj. Robert M., in Appomat- 
tox camp>aign, ii. 137. 

Morse, Lt -Col. Henry B., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 72. 

Mosby, Gen. Merritt's expedition 
against, ii. 99, 100. 

Mower, Gen. J. A., in Louisiana, ii. 

Mum fords ville, Ky., Bragg's capture 

of, i. i^i. 
Munk, Lieut. William, at Cedar Creek, 

ii. 77; at the Opequon, ii. 18. 
Munroe, Maj. Robert, at the Opequon, 

ii. 12. 
Murdock, James £., with Sheridan at 

Chattanooga, i. 301. 
Murfreesboro', Tenn., occupied by 

Rosecrans, i. 239; Sheridan at, i. 

Murray, Gov. Pendleton, authorizes 

Texas State convention, ii. 229-231. 

Napoleon III., in Maximilian's over- 
throw, VL. 226; letter of, surrendering 
Sedan, ii. 404; Bismarck, meeting 
with, ii. 406-409; results of the war, 
blamed for, iL 445. 

Nashville, Tenn., safety of, assured, L 


Naylor, Capt William A., at Mission- 
ary Ridge, i. 299. 

Neafie, Lt.-Col. Alfred, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 74; at the ()pequon, ii. 16. 

Neff, Lt.-CoL tlias, at Missionary 
Ridge, i. 298; report on, extract 
from, i. 322. 

Negley, Gen. James S., at Stone River, 
i. 218, 2i6. 

Nelson, Gen. William, Sheridan's bri- 
gadiership, remark on, i. 184; shoot- 
ing of, i. 186-188. 

Nesmith, Col. James W., in Yakima 
expedition, i. 54, 56, ^8, 61, 64; 
mistake of, as to roads, 1. 67. 

Netdeton, Lt.-Col. A. Bayard, in Ap- 
pomattox campaign, ii. 137 ; at the 
Opequon, iL 2i 

Newberry, Col. Walter C, in Appo- 
mattox campaign, ii. 138. 

Newhall, Lt -Col Frederick C, in Ap- 
pomattox campaign, ii. 136, 14J, 
146; at Appomattox C. H., ii. 198, 

New Orleans, riot in, 1866, ii. 234- 
242; election in, prohibited by Sher- 
idan, ii 2Ji; municipal officers of, 
removed by Sheridan, ii. 254, 272; 
registry order for, ii. 257; residence 

tration in, closed by Sheridan, ii. 269. 
170, opposed bjr press and politi- 
cians, ii. 271. 

IficIioU, Lt.-CoL GeorRU S,, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 78; at the Opeouon, il 19. 

Ncsth Anna Kivcr, Va., 1. 372-375, 
390. 39*. 394- 

Northcott, Lt^oU Robert S.. at Ibe 
OpeqnoD, iL 17; at Winchester, ii. 

••Norfliera," in Texas, i. 8; on ihe 

FlainB, ii. 315-317. 
(JorthwCTt, public works in (1832^, i. 2. 
Nye, Maj. George N., at CcdarCreek, 

CXBrien, CapL John J., in Appomat- 
tox canapaif^, ii. 137. 

Obio, Array of, arrival at Louisville, i. 
189; Ohio River, march to, i. 171. 
how delayed, i. 180; at Peiryvflle, 
L 193-701; Sheridan aasigiid to 
division in, i. igo, 

©llenchlager, Med. Inspector, killed 

[ by Mosby, ii. 99. 

■CKeefe, Capt Joseph, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 65, 80. 

Olcott, Lt.^ol. Egbert, at Cedar 
Creek. iL t^ 

"Old Red," hog-flhooting by, i 53, 

Oison, Col. Nicholas, at Stone River, 

Olson. Lt-CoL Porter C, at Chicka- 
mauga, i. zSS; at Missionary Kidge, 
i. loS, report on, L 311. 

Opdyke, CoL Einersan, at Missionary 
Ridge, i. 2^, 314; report on, 
trartfrom, L jaj. 

Opequon, battle of the, ii. 10-33. 

Ord, Gen. Kdward O. C, Gen. Rains 
prefers charges against, i. 68; in Ap- 
pomattox cainpaign, iL 141 ; in Lee's 
retreat from Kicbmond, ii. 171.190; 
at Appomattox C. H., ii. I9I-I(h; at 
Lee's surrender, ii. 300, loi. 

Oregon, Government survey in (1855), 
i. 38-68* Indian siluation in {1856), 
i. 70; Pit River Indians in, i. 40-50; 

Ortega, Gen., claims presidency of 
Mexico, iL aix, 334. 

Osbom, Maj. Thomas W., at Mission- 
ary Ridge, i. 399. 

Owen, Capt. Philip A,, at Fort Vam. 
bill, i 131. 

Paue, Maj. John H., in SImUm*! la- 

dian campaign, iL 308. 
Palmer. Gen. John McU. \fWMnmiJ 
Ridge, i. 30B. 319; at Stoma Bircr, 
i- ijf-ajs- 

Pandoia. Father, Mission << L M, $i; 
Mission destroyed by ttooptTL ^ 

Paris, France, German . 

enter, U. 414, 417; inrested bjr Ger- 
man army, ii. 417-430, 4J9,qc cap ied 
Vi ii- 444. 44S; ConimMie in, Oia, 
ii- 451- 

Parker Gen. John G., in EMtTesnea- 
"e. i- 33'. 331; in A|>paaatta» 

campaign, iL 14; in LmTI ictnat 

&om Richmond, tL 171. 
Pamell. Lt.-CoL WilUain R., L 349. 
Parr, Lt-CoL John G., at Cedar 

Creek, il 70. 
Pair, Richard, Indian ecoot, SL a86; 

Riowas and Comancbes, BBMOK dl^ 


Lt Cedar Cn^ 

Pea Ridge, Mo., battle ol 

Pea Ridge Brigade, •.> «_»• iv 

Louisville, L iSl, aUtioS a^ L tSfi; 

!%eridan in command ot, 1 183, 

Pease, Surgeon Roger W, , L 349. 
Peck. Lf,-CoL Frank H., at UlE Ope- 

Pegram, Gen., in Shenandoah cam- 
paign, at Fiaber's Hill, ii, 3S-39i 

CreeV, ii. 93. 

Peirce, CapL Charles H., at Cedar 
Creek, iL 70; at the Opequon, ii. si. 

Pennington, CoL Aleiander C. M., in 
Appomattox campaign, in marcli to 
Duiwiddie, il 135-139; Diawiddie 
C. H.. at battle of, u. 153, 153; at 
Five Forks. iL 164.— Sbemandoah 
campaign, at Ashland, it 133 ; at 
Cedar Creek, ii. 79; at Waynesboro', 

Penrose,' Capt. James W., at Cedar 
CcecU, ii. 68. 

Penrose. CoL WillLini H , at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 6S; in Sheridan's Indian 
campaign, u. 309. 

Pepoon, Lieut. Lewis, in Sberidan'i 
Indian campaign, ii. 31 1. 333. 

Per L~e. Col Samuel R., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 14. 

Perrjville, Ky., battle o^ I 193-301. 



Petersburg, Va., assault on. July 30, 
1864, i. 446-451; Grant's position 
at, in 1865, ii. 133; campaign at, 
plan for, ii. 134. 

Phillips, Maj. John W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 79; at the Opequon, ii. 21. 

Pickett, Gen., in Appomattox cam- 
paign, at Dinwiddle C. II., ii. 148- 
158; at Five Forks, ii. 159-161. 

Plams, Great American, description of^ 
ii. 296; buffalo on, 1868, ii. 297. 

Pleasonton, Gen. Alfred, cavalry com- 
mand, relieved of, i. 339. 

Poik, Maj. John R., at Cedar Creek, 

il 74. 

Pope, Gen, John, in Beauregard's re- 
treat, i. 150. 

Pope, Gen. Leonidas, baggage of, cai>- 
tured, i. 149; report of, quoted, i. 229. 

Porter, Col. Thomas W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 73; at the Opequon, iL 15. 

Potomac, Army of. Cavalry Corps o^ 
see under Carps. — Esprit de corps 
in, lack of, i. 3J9. — ^James River, m 
advance to (1864), crossing North 
Anna, i. 394, Pamunkey, i. 396-3918; 
across, i. 437, 438. — Sheridan chief 
of cavalry of, i. 339. — Spottsylvania 
C. H., at, i. 365-367. — Wilderness, 
in battles of, i. 357-365. 

Potter, Captain Andrew, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 75. 

Powell, Col. William II., in Shenandoah 
campaign, succeeds to Averell's di- 
vision, li. 44; Early's retreat, in, ii. 
46, 47, 49; Cedar Creiek, at battle of, 
ii. 64, 70, 96; McCausland routed by, 
ii ^; Gordonsville, with Torbert 
to, li. loi. 

Pratt, Maj. Harrison W., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 17. 

Pnmtiss, Capt. Clifton K., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 13. 

Prescott, Capt. Mark H., at Chicka- 
mauga, i. 288. 

Presson, Maj. William A., at Stone 
River, i. 241 ; in Tullahoma cam- 
paign, i. 262. 

Preston, Lt.-Col. Addison W., i. 351. 

Price, Col. Redwood, ii. 184. 

Price, Gen. Sterling M., abandons 
Springfield, Mo., i. 13a 

Pul<jue, use of, by soldiers, i. 28. 

Punngton, Lt-Col. George A., at Cedar 
Creek, it 79; at the Opequon, ii. 21. 

Quinn, Maj. Timothy, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 78; at the Opequon, ii. 20. 

Rains, Gen. Gabriel J., brigadier-gen- 
eral, why promoted, i. 54; incom- 
petency of, L 54, charges against, i. 
08; Ord, Capt. E. O. C, charged 
by, with theft, i. 68; strategy of, 
results, i. 55; Yakimas, commands 
expedition against, i. 53. 

Ramseur, Gen., in Shenandoah cam- 
paign, i. 471; succeeded by Lo- 
max, i. 481 ; at the Opequon, iL 10, 
15, 19, 22, 27; Fisher^s Hill, at bat- 
tle of, ii. 34-3^; at Cedar Creek, ii. 
93; death of, li. 92. 

Riuidall, Capt Francis J., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. II. 

Randall, Capt. George W., at the 
Opequon, li. I?. 

Randof, Capt. Xlanson M., in Appo- 
mattox campaign, iL 137. 

Ransom, Capt. Dunbar R., iL 21; 
at Cedar Creek, ii. 79. 

Ransom, Capt., at Missionary Ridge, 

i- 309* 3"- 
Rapidan River, Va., movements on 

(1864), L 357-361. 
Rawlins, Gen. John A., ii. 126, 129, 

Raymond, Lt.-Col. Samuel B., at 

Chickamauga, L 288; in Tullahoma 
campaign, i. 262. 

Read, T. Buchanan, poem of, on 
Sheridan^s ride, i. 177. 

Reading, Fort (Cal), L 35, 36. 

Reconstruction Laws, text of, ii. 243- 
249; passage of, ii. 250. 

Regiments : Artillery : Connecticut, 
2d Heavy, iL 21, 69. Illinois, 1st, 
L 217, 222, 22 J, 226, 230, 241, 262, 
288, 299; 2d, u 102. Indiana, 4th, 
L 217, 222, 226, 230, 241: loth 
Light, L 299; nth, L 262, 280; 17th 
Light, iL 17, 7 J. Maine, ist Light, 
ii. I7» 75; 5tb Light, u. 14, 72. 
Massachusetts, 1st Light, ii. 14. 
Missouri, 1st, L 176, 181, 186, 192, 
202, 217, 222, 225, 226, 230, 232, 
241, 261, 288, 299. New York, 1st 
Light, iL 14, 72; 5th Light, ii. 15, 
73; 5th Heavy, iL 17, 7j; 6th Light, 
L 351, il 21, 77, 79; ^th Heavy, ii. 
13* 7I< Ohio, 1st Light, i. 209, ii. 
18, 77. Pennsylvania, ist Lignt, ii, 
18, 77. Rhode Island, 1st Light, ii. 
14, 17, 72, JK. United States, 1st, L 
18, ii. 21, 78, 79, 138; 2d, L 351, iL 

21, 79» 138; 3d. i. 37. 53-S4» 550, iL 
21, 79; 4th, L 295, 304, J5I, iL 21, 
137; Sth, L 299, li. 14, 18,. 20, 72, 

474 ■«»" 

r, 79. — Caoalry : Ct-nnedicul, 1st, 
35(, S. ai, 79. '37- India™, jd, 
L :62, 351, H. 21. 79. Imra, 2d, i. 
144-165. K3nHu,7th, i. 170; iglh, 
IL 30S, 311. Kentucky, id, i. 34>- 
163, ^(, 396; jtli, L 363; 6th, L 
3&3. Maine, ist, i. 350, JL 13|S. 
Misuchuaeib, it^i, i. 350 1 ad, ii 
■t. 7S, 1371 3d, ii. 16, 74. Mich!- 
ifcn. I6t,l 349. ii- 11. 19. 68. T7, 
146; zd, L 140, 165, lU; 3d, 1. i^; 
Sth, i. J49. ii. "9. 77. «3&; 6ih, i 
M9> '^ «9- 7?. '36; iih. I. 349. li. 
lift. 77> '36- ^1^ lUmpshirc, Isl, 
ST 31,79. New Jersey, 1st, 1.350. 
,E 13^; 3d. ii. a. 79, 137. Sew 
Ywk, isl, u. ao, 78. 137; Id, u 351, 
& ai, 79, 137; ad Mounted Umts, 
•■ '3"; S'l.'i- 79: 4">. i. 343. ii. ijl. 
)*; S'n. >■ 35'. "■ si; 6tl>- '■ .^. •*■ 
IS, 78. 136; 8ih, i. 35>[. "■ J"' ??■ 
137; 91I1. L .■M9, u. 19. 78. 13*; 'o™. 
i 3S<^ ii- 'i8; 'S'li. "■ 137; '9t*>. L 
349, iL 19. 78, I37:,a:<i, it 31. 79; 
94111. ii. 137: ajth, ii. 19. Ohio. 3d, 
g. ai. 79. 137: 6tli. L 350, ii. 138; 
•th, ii. ao, 78: I3t3i, 0. 138. Penn- 
■ylvuiia. 1st, L «o, ii. 138; ad, i. 
350; 4*. i. 3SO. "■ 138: i% i- M?. 
or 19, 117; 81I1. i 350, 11. 138; I4tli, 
ii. ao, 78; l6th, i. 350, ii, 138; 17th, 
i. 349, ii. 19. 68. ^. '37; >8th, ii. 
31. 79; 3oih, iL 137; aist, a. 138; 
32d, ii. ao, 78. Rhode Island, isl, 
iL 19. Uoitoi Slates, 1st, L 340, ii. 
30, 78, 137. 174! ad. L 349. 406, ii. 
aot 78; 3il, ii. 308; 4th, I 337; S'l>, 
i. 349, 406, ii. ao. 79. 137. 299. i°9i 
61E. u. 11. 68, 137; 7th, u. 397, 308, 
3101 loth, ii. 3^; lit Dragoons, i. 
36, 5S-84, 90, 93-95 ; Mnunted 
Rifles, i. 18. Vermonl, 1st, i. 351, u. 
at, 70, 137. West Virginia, 1st, ad, 
id, li. ao. 78, 12,T.—Engiaeiri; 
Michigan, tsl, 371. — Infantry: Ala- 
bama, a4th, i aSa. Connecticut, 
qtb, ii. 15, 7^; laih, il k, 7a; 13th, 
u. 16, 7^. Illinois, a3d, 1. 341, 361, 
399; ajd, ii. 17, 76; 27th, i 241. 

Si a* 

. ,. i.399;85ili, 

i92:S6th,i ig3:88ih, i. 193, a35, .141 
abi, 388,398; looth, 1.398; izsih. 
193. Indiuis, Slh, iilh, ii. 16, 7. 

34Ui,aS&,a.i6,74. KeBtadkT,3d. 

lAx, i^v\ ii. 15, 73; 3^ g. M. 
72;3alh,ii IS.73, .SlaiTIiad, 0^ 
iL 13, 71. Massachusetts a6A, M. 
IS. 73; 3«1>, ii, 14, 7a: S^J- T. 
Ts; 37"'. "■ "■ 69; 38lh, a. ,!«,». 
Michigan, aist, x. 193, 341, 3M, sBL 

_. .., New York, «,«_,_ 

31 : 43d, 491I1, ii. 13, 70; 6ail, B. u, 
69: 651h, il. ti, 69: 7Slh. fi. 16^ 73; 

^th. ii. 13. 70: 9«ML rai lOfiS, 
13. ?■; >i4». in^ u- M. 73; 

73; isisl, ii. 1^, 7J; 153.1, ii. 14, 7;; 
■56th, i;9th, 11. 16, 74; i6oih, iL 15, 
7a: i6ad, iGjIh, 173d, iL 15, 73; 
mih, 176th. a 1^74; iMi."- 7«. 
Ohio, a3d, iL 18, ff; 36th, L a9g, 314; 
34th, 36th. ii. iS, 7OJ 53d. i, 19a; 
C4lh, 05ih, 1. :«; 91st. iL tS, 76; 
07th. L 398; Moi, ii. 13, 71; ii6ih, 
6. 17, 7S; '?:d, " - - ■ ■ 

'7. 75: lasih, i. a99;~ia6th, it 13, 
71. Pennsylvania, 4Tth, ii. 15, 73; 
49tli,iL la. 6q;54th,ii. 17, 76; 61st, 
il. 13, 71; 67"h, iL 14, 71 i 8ad. iL 
13, 69; 87th, iL 13, 71; 93d, iL 13, 
69; 9^01, 96th, ii. II, 69; 98th, toad, 
ii. 13, 70; iigtli, iL 13, 69; t38th, 
ii- 14. 7'; '39'1>, iL 13, 70- Rnode 
Island, ad, u. ta, (9. South Caro- 
lina, 8th, iL 8. United States, 1st, 
L 15, 18, 30-34; 3d, iL 398; 4th, i. 
3.5- 37. 97. 99. loj-iao; 5th, i. 18, 
u. 398; olh, I. 71-84, 90, 131 ; 38th, 
iL 298. Vermont, ist, li. ai; ad, 3d, 
4th, 5th, 6th, !L 13, 70; 8th, ii. 15, 
73; loth, ii. 13, 71; iilb, iL la, 70, 
West Vuginia, lat, 4th, ii. 17, 75; 
Uh, 9th, loih, tith, ii. 18, 76; lath. 
li- "7. 7S; 13*. 14th, 15th, iL 18, 76. 
Wisconsin, 5th, ii. 13, 69; 24th, L 
193, 341, l6a, 3S8, 398. 

RciJiy, Lieut. Terence, ii. ai. 

Renfrew, , pseudo-spy, ii. 109-111. 

Rexinger, Capt. Samuel, at Missionary 

I Teuu in 



Rheims, France, Sheridan at, ii. 415, 

Rhodes, Capt. EHsha H., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 12; at Winchester, ii. 69. 

Richardson, William A., at Sailor's 
Creek, Va., ii. 182. 

Ricketts, Gen. James B., checks Earlyt 
L 458. — Shenandoah campaign, in, 
L 472; Smithtield bridge, fight at, L 
496, 497; Ope^uon, at the, ii. 13, 
20-23; Fisher's Hill, at battle of, iL 
37» 30; Cedar Creek, at, ii. 68, 82, 85. 

Rienzi, Miss., Sheridan's camp at, i. 
167, 168. 

"Rienzi," Sheridan's war-horse, i. 177- 

Ripley, Miss., capture of, i. 171, 172, 

Ritchey, Hon. Tnomas, appoints Sher- 
idan to West Point, L 7. 

Roberts, Col. George W., death of, i. 
229. — Sketch of, L 2 10. — Stone River, 
position at, i. 218; charges enemy, 
1. 224; new position at, i. 226, 230; 
brigade of^ commande<^l by Col. 
Bradley, i. 231. 

Robertson, Capt Peter, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71 ; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 

Robeson, Lt.-Col. William P., Jr., in 
Appomattox campaign, ii. 137; at 
the Opequon, ii. 21. 

Robinson, Lt-Col. John K,, i. 350. 

Robmson, Capt. John M., i. 350, 351; 
Mechanicsville, fight at, L ^83. 

Robison, Lt-Col. John K., m Appo- 
mattox campaign, ii. 138. 

Rodenbough, Gen. Theophilus F., L 
349; at the Opequon, it. 20. 

Rodes, Gen., in Shenandoah campaign, 
i 471; Bunker Hill, fight at, 1. 497; 
Opequon, killed at the, ii. 30. 

Rogers, Maj. George W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 73; at the Opequon, ii. 15. 

Rosecrans, Gen. William S., Army of 
Mississippi, in command of, i. 168. — 
Army of Ohio, succeeds Buell in, 
i. 203, 205. — Chattanooga, enters, i. 
283, 28 ; doubts ability to hold it 
i 294 ; reinforced, i. 300. — Chicka- 
mauga, at, i. 271-292; Davis order- 
ed to attack by, i. 278; movement to 
left at, criticism on, L 280; rearrang- 
es right, i. 281; Sheridan's cnti- 
cism on, i. 290-292. — Command, re- 
lieved from, i. 299; departure from, 
1. 300. — Murfrcesboro', Tenn., occu- 
pies, i. 239. — Sherldan^s promotion 
as brigadier, recommends, i. 166, as 
major-general, i, 247. — Stone River, 

plan of attack at i. 210, 220,244; 
bearing at, admirable, 1. 232, 235; 
line of Dattle, seeks new, i. 236; to 
retain position, i. 237; victory at, 
results of, i. 239, 242-245; losses at 
i.242. — Tullahoma campaign, pre- 
pares for, i. 259; object of, i. 260; 
credit for, i. 261. — Washington, re- 
sists pressure from, i. 271. 

Rosser, Gen. Thomas W., in Appo- 
mattox campaign, at Dinwiddie C. 
H., ii. 14S-158; at Five Forks, ii. 
159. — Shenandoah campaign, routed 
in, ii. 56-59, 98; at Cedar Creek, ii. 
94; West Virginia successes in, ii. 
100; Custer surprised by, ii. xoi; 
Mt Crawford, defeated at, ii. 113, 
at Waynesboro', ii. 1x2-115. — Trev3- 
lian, in battle at, i. 421. — Wilderness, 
in battles of, i. 360, 362. 

Rossville, Tenn.. Sheridan and Thom- 
as at i. 283-289. 

Rousseau, Gen. Lovell H., at Stone 
River, i. 230; visits Sheridan at New 
Orleans, ii. 279. 

Ruhl, Capt Edgar M., at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 71. 

Russell, Gen. David A., death of, ii. 
23; at Fort Yamhill, i. 93, 105; at 
Pamunkey crossing, i. 396, 397; 
in Shenandoah campaign, i. 472; 
at the Opequon, ii. 1 1-23; Sher- 
idan's tribute to, i. I20. 

Sackett, Col. William, i. 349. 
Sailor's Creek, Va., battle at, ii. 179- 

Salsbury, Capt. John A., at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 71. 
Sand Mountain, Tenn., i. 273. 
Sargent, Lt.-Col. Lorenzo D., at Ce- 
dar Creek, ii. 74; at the Opequon, 

ii. 16. 
Sargent, Maj. Lucius M., i. 350. 
Satanta, Kiowa chief, ii. 331, 333-335- 
Saxony, Crown Prince of, army of, n. 

388; Beaumont, at battle of, ii. 396; 

Sedan, at battle of, ii. 399-402; at 

Paris, ii. 420, 426. 
Schaefer, Col. Frederick, death of, i. 

233; sketch of, i. 209; at Stone 

River, i. 224, 226, 230. 
Schall, Col. John W,, at the Opequon, 

ii. 13- 
Schir.itt, Maj. William A., at Stone 

River, i. 241. 
Schofield, Gen. John M., at West 

Point, i. 13. 


i. aj+ 

b Ortega at Ida- 

Sedgwick, Gen. John, at Sheridao's first 
review of the CaJvary Corps, i. 35, 

Seward, William H., policv of, as I 
Mexico, ii. 2IO, 314; orders strii 
neutrality by Sheridan, ii. 117; Max- 
imilian, plea for life of. ii. 227. 

Seymour, Maj. Charles J., at the Ope- 

<f»aa,a. 19. 
Sermonr, Gen., mt Sailor's Creek, Va., 

tt. 183, 183. 
Sbarpe, CoL Jacob; at Ihe Opc<iuon, 

iL 16; wounded, ii. lo. 

Stuurman, Lt.-CoL Nelson, al C 
Creek, il 71. 

Shenandoah, Army ot composition ol, 
i. 471-4751 Sheoandoah campiu^n. 
'"1 i- 457-500, ii. i-iaj; Sberidaii 
in command ot i. 463. 

Shenandoah Valley, de^^ripcion of, 
46S-470; Hunter'sdisastcr in,(ff« 
of, L 456, 457; inipcrtance t.f. t 
Lee, i. 460^ 461; Shonrfjii'? cam 
paiao in, i. 457-^00, li, i-[ij. 

Shendan, John, arnval: in Amcnca. i 
1; birthplace ot i. 1. contractor 
career as a, i. 2, 3; di-.uh of. i 3 
bilure ot i- 3: family of, ). 2: Som 
ereet, O., settlement ii^, i. 2, j. 

Sheridan. Mary, anCL'^try <i{, i s 
birthplace of, i. i;bmUy of. j. 2. 

Sheridan, CapL Michael V., lide n 
Sheridan,L 343, 349; at Creek, 
ii. 65, 67; in Appomattox campaign, 
ii. 136. 

Sheridan. Gen. Philip H.. ancestry of, 
i. 1, 3. — Appomattox campaign, 
orders aa to, il 134; starts, force. 
ToU of tcoopt, iL 135-138, 148; 

«..-_ a H..tL 139^ a 4^ 

Kn fMi Md StavOMk. wm- 

~»ta to, u. 141; Grant'i order to 
ipend operatiaia, iL 141, Shiti- 
dui's proteat agaioal, ii. I4}'145; 
Sixth Corps, asks for, ii. 147, reason 
for, ij. 168, refu.-«d, ii. 147: Din- 
widdle C. it., balUe of. ii. 14&-15S, 
Warren's delay at, iL 157; file 
Forks, battleof. ii. 158-165, relierci 
Warren alter, iL 165, result of battle, 
iL 171. I,ee"3 retreat from Rich- 
mond, Meade's unauthorized order, 
ii. 172; Miles's attack, ii. 173; l^ee'i 
commissary's telegram, iL 175, de- 
termines locapturethelrains, 11. 176, 
trains taken, iL l8g, 190; plans la 
cutoff Lee, ii. 177; SiitoT's Creek, 
battle of. ii. 179-184, .Meade's action 
in, iL 184, 186, generals captured at, 
ii. 187; Appomattox C H.. Lee's 
last figbt at, iL 191-193. white flag 
violated at, iL 194-197, 101, 202, 
Geary's "lail ililch " absurdity, re- 
m,irk oui.vy -.i::.,.!.;. Ii, ly?; 

OBAppoBBtioxiiL 199,100; at Lee"! 

Mmndw, iL aaa-aca. — Ak^k, 
Capt. J, J., rcfases toddiTcr fcrt to, 
i. 121. — Army of the Cumberlaiid, 
commands Third Division in, L 2oS; 
subordinates in, tribute to, L 211; 
commands Second Division, Fourth 
Corps, i. 197; parting from, tribute 
340, 3<i. — Army of the Ohio, 
' ^C in, i 189; commauds 
... Division in, L 190.— Army 
of the Potomac, chief of cavalry o^ 
i- 339i 34^ {so: Catiairj' Carpi,bs- 
low); Richmond, covering advance 
to, 1, 394-398; at Hawes Shop, L 
39S-403; at Cold Harbor, L 402- 
409; relieved from duty with, L 
463.— Audit, on Board of, L 126.— 
Beauregard, Gen. P. G. "T., in pur- 
suit of, from Corinth, L 150, 157" 

given brigade 

t ot c 

, 152.- 

Birth of, L a. — Blair, Gov., appoint- 
ed colonel by, i. 140. 141.— ^Boonc- 
ville, Miss., in expedition to, i. 144; 
railroad, destroying the, L 14J-149; 
prisoners an cmbarraament, 1. 148, 
149; results of expedition, L 149; 
camp at. map of country, L 155; 
liallle of, L 156-166; withdraws 



903; Stone River, on blunders at, i. 
244, 245. — Bridgeport, Tenn., oc- 
cupies, i. 271, 272. — Brigadier, by 
seniority, i. 153; promotion asked 
for, i. 166; appointed, i 1S4; briga- 
dier in regular army, ii. 30. — Buell, 
Gen. D. C., criticism on, at Perry - 
ville, i. 198, 200; supper with, after 
battle, i. 199. — Bull Run, exagger- 
ated rumors as to, i. 122. — Card, 
James, sketch of, i. 206, 207 (see 
C«r</).— Cavalry Corps, Army of 
the Potomac, to command, i. 339; 
receives appointment, i. 347; staff- 
officers retamed, i. 34JS; sketches of 
Gens. Torbert, i. 350, Greg^, 351, 
Wilson, 352; review of, first, 1. 353; 
picket duty ot, protests against, i. 
353, 354; condition of, after Virginia 
raids, i. 445, 446; relieved from per- 
sonal command of, i. 452; cam- 
paign of, successful, i. 453, r6sum£ 
of, i. 454,455. — Cedar Creek, arriv- 
al at, iu 5^; Washington, sum- 
moned to, ii. 60, departs, ii. 62, 
return route, ii, 65, result of 
visit to, iL 66 ; fiupp's Hill, 
skirmish at, ii. 61, positions at. 
defers attack, ii. 61, 62; cavalry 
raid, intended, ii. 62, abandoned, ii. 
63; Longstreet's message to Early, 
ii. 63, fictitious, ii. 87; ** Sheridan's 
ride,** ii. 66-82; reorganizes troops, 
ii. 82-85; battles of, ii. 86-92, 93- 
96; congratulated by Lincoln, Stan- 
ton. Grant, result^ of victory, ii. 92. 
— Chattanooga, position at, i. 293, 
294; enemy's batteries, exposed to, 
i 294; sheUed from Lookout Mount- 
ain, i. 2^5, 297; collecting supplies 
at, i. 200; troops at. roll of, i, 297, 
298; cleserters punished at, i 301; 
returns to, supplies at, i. 325. — 
Chickamauga, at battle of, i. 271- 
292; Tennessee, crossing the, i. 272; 
ordered to Valley Head, i. 273; to 
Alpine and Lookout Mountain,i, 274; 
sends a spy, i. 274-276; recrosses 
Lookout Mountain, i. 276; Chick- 
amauga Creek, re-takes ford at, i. 
277; Lafayette road, fight on, I 278; 
Glenn house, withdraws to, i. 270; 
protecting the left, criticism on, 1. 
280; separated from army, ordered 
to assist Thomas i. 281, 283; repul- 
sed by enemy, Confederate colors 
taken, i. 282; Rossville, retreats to, 
i 283, 284; with Thomas, L 284- 

287; roll of troops, losses, dismal 
outlook, i. 287, 288; Chattanooga, 
arrival at, i 289; criticisms on bat- 
tle, i. 290-292.— Chinook, learns, i. 
106. — Corps, Twentieth, commands 
division in, i. 2^6; commands divi- 
sion in Fourth, 1. 297, parting from, 
i. 340. — Curtis, Gen. S. R., commis- 
sarv and quartermaster to, i. 127, 
120; perfecting a system, i. 128; 
supplies, difficulty in procuring, i. 
129, 130, plan for, L 131; tribute to, 
i. 132; difficulty with, i. T33-IJ5; 
horses, treatment ot stolen, i. 134; 
relieved from dutv with, i. 135. — 
Dan River expedition, ii. 206. — 
Deep Bottom expedition, orders, de- 
parture, i. 446; James crossed, en- 
emy met, i. 447 ; Kershaw routed, L 
448; object of expedition, i. 440; 
enemy deluded, i. 449, 450; a peril- 
ous position, i. 450; recrosses James, 
i. 451; Hancock, tribute to, 1. 452. 
— Delinquencies of, boyish, i. 4. — 
Education of, early, i. 3-5, 6. — 
Europe, desire to witness Franco- 
German war in, ii. 349, receives per- 
mission, ii, 358; prefers German 
army, ii. 359; Willianl L's invitation, 
ii. 359, 367 ; arrives in Germany, ii. 
360; Prussian (^ueen, invited to 
visit, ii. 362; Bismarck, interview 
with, ii. 363, 365 ; journey to the 
front, ii. J64, 385; William L, inter- 
view with, ii. 366, dines with, ii. 
387, 396; Gravelotte, at battle of, 
ii. 367-378, adventure in village of, 
"• 379» 380, visits battle-field, it. 383 
-387; R6zon ville, lodging at, ii. 381 
-383; German army, movements of, 
ii. 388; at Bar-le-Duc, experience 
with kirschwasser, ii. 389-391; at 
Clermont, iL 392-^96; Bsaumont, 
at battle of, ii. 39^398; Sedan, at 
battle of, ii. 398-402, at surrender 
of, ii. 403-410, visit to battle-field of, 
ii. 411, 412; Paris, in the march to, 
ii. 414; at Rheims, ii. 4x5, 416; at 
Meaux, ii. 417; wine - consumption 
by Germans, ii. 421; French rifle- 
pits, inspecting the, ii. 422 ; Villiers, 
trip to, adventure with pickets, ii. 
424, 425; Mendon, battle of, ii. 426; 
Versailles, Americans at, il 427; 
St Cloud, palace of^ visit to, iL 428; 
Paris invested, ii. 429; at Brussels, 
iL 430, 431; at Vienna, iL 4^1; at 
Constantinople, u. 432-430; ^ 


at pOWMmkb CwiK noM wa D H g nnWW 

timtr vUt GarwuT. H. 44]l •* 
Farb, catty of Ca rmMt aray, 

Hobka rad BbawKk. triMM In, IL 
446; critklMi M Oe naiK»4jar- 

i. «tt.— r&'iottm Dbbkt. «•- 

ii^iau tov IL »o; pobir of naa-fa- 
k i ' fa w M! » fai, fi. ««, an; noMvad 
htm, OnaA trtad^ i. 17*; work 

379s JBlMiv lauvvca caanaa td^ 
HndtSi's aid RooMeaa^ tUIi, 

& stS; onribn at 8t Lnda laap- 
pmnlo^ li. ■Sl.-nak ft Ditkw, 
awpJajad bf, L 5, 6. ».-^itU. S. 

L ^i; ia 1856 Indian war, L 
,I«-S4; M Gnade Sood^ 1 41-03; 
nuMta to, L 9)-9S--nnt U- S. u- 
fantiy, Heiikaantla, 1. 14, 15: Jonr- 
nev to, L 15-ao; Mrrka wM, b 
Texas, L J0-J4.— Kiher'n Hill, hat- 
Ue of, ii. 33-41.— Forsylh. Capt. J 
W„ tribute to,. i. 343.— Fort Yam- 
hilt, oi^leml to, i. 91 ; duties at, i. 
92, to&-l20. — Fourth U. S. Inrantry, 
promoted to, L 35. — Franklin ,Tenn., 
■--"^■•'"" *" • 156; sabre fight •" 
" -Fi 

' — -H 

ideKondc, i. 91; clumo:. 
Missionary Rid^jc. i. 310-314. —His- 
tory, early referee in. L 6.— Hix)d, 
Cten. J- B.. relieves, 185s, L 36.— 
Indiaiu, CoquiUes, commands troou 
against, i. 97; attacked by, i. 98. 
Grande Ronde resiiivation, on duty 
at, i 9'-9S- ^<a^agement of, views 
on, L 119. Pic Rivera, advcntum 
with, i. 40-50; their nrctchedncB; 
i. 44-46- Rogue Rivers, services 
against, L 106-100. Texas, skirmiih 
in, i. ao, 30. Whites asainst, on ef- 
forts D^ i. 47; hatred &», an exam- 
ple, i. S8. Vakimai, joins Rains's 
eKpcdition against, i. 53; skirmish 
with Indians, i. 54: friends mistaken 
for foes. L 561 checks the Indians, i. 
^71 Indian manoeuvres, i.3!< ; Sher- 
idan's proposition, L 59; Indians' 
tanlaliang actions, L 59, 60; troops 
charge unordered, i. 6^; Indians re- 
treat, i. 61; "Cut-mouth John's" 
expkiit, i. 61. 61; snow-slom, 
marching in a, L 64. f-T. faflure of 
cpedition, i. 66, 68. WrighCs ea- 

Eeditiun against, ordered to relieve 
lock house, i. 73; artillery, i, 74; 
Yam- skinnishes, i 75; Cascades, proposed 

. 157; result 



35"). 3^' — Gordonsville, 
mditioD to, iL loi. — Granger, Gen. 
Gordon, colonelcy recommended by. 
1. 1413, l6q ; relations \rith, L 169; 
sketch ol^ i. 170 ; criticism on, at 
Missionary Riogc, i. 316, 318. — 
Grant, Gen. U. S,. interview with, at 
Corinth, L t8i, 181; at City Point. 
Mar,, 1865, ii. i25-i;9; estimate of, 
ii. S02 ; recommended by, to Foreign 
Ministers, ii. 359 — Gueirillas, Mer- 
rill sent agamst, ii. 991 Gilmore. 
capture of. li. 105-107; Gens. Crook 
and Kelly captured by. ii. 107.-- 
Hallcck, Gen. H. W., made auditor 
by, i. 136, commissary, i. 137, 128; 
commissioned by, to buy horses, i. 
13s; assigned engineer by, L 137; 
quartermaster for. refuses to furnish 
heeC, i. 138; commissary for, L 139; 

rapids, ascends, i. 78, 79, utUites 
squaws, L 79; bJock-housc relieved, 
i. So; Indians captured, i. 81, con- 
viclei of massacre, i. 8z, hanged, i. 
83J results of expedition, 1. 89; 
complimented by Scott, i. 90. Ya- 
kima Bays, services gainst, i. 
97-119. Missouri, in Department 
of; refuses council (1868), ii. aSt, 
285; emplovs "mediators," ii. a86, 
387; Sully s mistake in arming, ii 
89; winter campaign against, plans 
a, it 397-209; Cody, William h., u. 
300,301; torsyth'sfight, 11303-306; 
campa^n, force and plans (or, JL 
308-310; bliiiarda, ii. 310, 311, 

; of troops of, il. 316, 
317,330,338; Crawford's disaster, 
,: ,,.. Washita, starts for the, iL 

found, ii. 331 ; Kiowas suirender, 
chieb' dupjtcity, ii. 333-336; Evans's 



fight, iL 336; Cheyennes and Arapa- 
hoes surrender, iL 337, 338; estab- 
lishes Fort Sill, iL 338, hardships of 
march to, iL 339; Arbuckle, journey 
to, ii. 340, 341, return delayed by 
California Joe, iL 342; Custer*s 
expedition against Cheyennes, ii. 
343-346. — James, in Grant's move to 
the, starts, L 430; Long Bridge, af- 
fair at, L 431; pontoon, attempt to 
reach, L 432; St. Mary*8 Churcn, af- 
fair at, L 432-435; Meade sends 
boats, L 436.— Kelton, Col. T. C, 
gratitude to, L 135, 136. — Kerns- 
town, Va., at, iL 97. — La Pefia and 
La Pendencia, Texas, in camp at, i. 
20, 21. — Lee, Gen. R. £., tribute to, 
ii. 202. — Lieutenant-general, appoint- 
ed, ii. 347.— Light House Point, Va., 
in camp at, L 445, 446. — Lincoln, 
Pres., interviews with, L 347, 463, iL 
129, 130; on death of; iL 205.— 
Louisiana, government of, order as to, 
iL 251, 252; non-interference in, ii. 
253, 260; attorney -general of, re- 
moves, ii. 254, 2^5 ; elections in, ac- 
tions regarding, li. 256-260; Military 
Commissions m, need for, the first, 
ii. 262, 263; Levee Commissioners, 
controversy over,ii. 265-269. — Louis- 
ville, Kv., ordered to, force, i. 181; 
Caseyville, adventure at, L 182, 183; 
command at, L 186; duties at, L 
189.— Major-general of volunteers, 
i. 247; in regular army, iL 92.— 
Mathematics, early deficiency in, L 
la — Meade, Gen. G. G., cavalry, 
interviews as to, i. 354-356; disagree- 
ments with, ii. 356,357; quarrel with, 
i. 368. — Mexico, on prmiitive dan- 
cing in, i. 32; on frontier inhabitants 
^^> ^* 33 > Imperialists in, demonstra- 
tions against, iL 214, 215, results, 
assists Liberals, ii. 216, 224; neutral- 
ity towards, ordered to preserve, ii. 
217; ex Confederate emigration to, 
checked, iL 217, 2x8; factions in, at- 
tempt to unite, Caravajal, Young, 
ii. 219-223; sends Seward's plea for 
Maximilian, iL 227. — Middle Military 
Division, assign^ command of, 1. 
466; permanent command of^ ii. 31; 
relieved from, iL 208. — Mill Creek, 
Tenn., in camp at, i. 208-212. — Mis- 
sionary Ridge, supporting Wood's 
reconnoissance at, 1. 304; attacks 
rifle-pits, formation of troops, i. 308; 
Granger's order, i. 309, declines to 

follow it, L 311; captures first rifle- 
pit, L 310, second, rivalry of color- 
bearers, L 311; captures Ridee, nar- 
row escape, L 312; in Brage's 
retreat, i. 313-315; Granger to help, 
recjuests, L 315, is refused, L 316, 
critidsm on, L 317, 318; Grant, vic- 
tory due to, i. 318, 319; force and 
losses at. L ^19; prisoners and stores 
captured, l 310, 312-315, 320; 
Hazen's claim, i. 320, evidences 
against, L 321-324.— Missi>sippi, to 
command west of, it 208; reasons 
' for inunediate departure, iL 209; de- 

Karture, iL 210 (see Texas, below; 
lexico). — Missouri, Department of, 
transferred to, iL 276; journey to 
Fort Leavenworth, ii. 281; head- 
quarters at Fort Hays, ii. 295 ; Great 
American Plains, ii. 296, 297; Wash- 
ington, ordered to, iu 345; assigned 
to command of^ i. 347; inspects posts 
in, iL 348, Yellowstone geysers, iL 
349, on a sand-bar, ii. 350, fight 
with bears, iL J51, 354, scsured by 
Government train, iL 353-}57f mos- 
quitoes, suffering firom, ii, 357. — 
Murfreesboro*, Tenn., labors at, i. 
246, 247; burning bridges, L 248-252; 
forap;e at, securmg, L 252; women- 
soldiers, discovery o^ L 253, 2C4, 
treatment of, L 2J5. — mshvil.e, 
Tenn., at, i. 206. — Nelson, Gen. W., 
interview with, L 184; advice from, 
L 185. — New Orleans, reports on 
riots in, 1866, ii. 235, 237, report 
garbled by Pres. Johnson, ii. 236; 
martial law in, oraered to inforce, 
ii. 237; action as to riot approved by 
Congress, ii. 240, 241; election in, 
prohibits, ii. 25 1 ; municipal officers 
removed, iL 254, 255, 272; elections 
in, order as to, iL 257-259, 271; 
residence qualification for police, 
changes, ii. 263, 264; registry-books 
in, orders closed, ii, 269, approved 
by Grant, iL 270; opposition in, to 
registration, iL 271. —Newport Bar- 
racks, duty at, L 15-20.— North, 
visit to. in 1861, L 124; in 1864, L 
338. — Opequon, immediate cause of 
battle or, iL ^; battle of, ii. 10-32; 
positions at, iu 10; plan for attack, 
li. 11-13, pl^i^ changed, ii. 31; roll 
of force at, iL 11-21; Early's posi- 
tion at, ii. 16; losses at, results of 
victory, iL 30; congratulated, iL 31. 
— Ornithology, early experiments in. 

L 31.— Pkcilic coast, commands re- 
cruits for, i. 35; survey, on duly 
with. L j6i departs for survey party, 
L 37; I^sscn'i Quite, camp at, L 
37-40; picks up a. man, i. 3S, loses 
two, i. 39; I'it River Indians, ad- 
venture with, i. 40-43> 44-50; joins 
surrej, relieves Hood. i. 44; Porl- 
lajid. Ore., arrives al, i. 50; Colum- 
bia, camp on, i. 53; Yakimas, with 
expedition leainM. i. 53-84.— Pea 
Kidge Brigade, in command of, L 
181, 183, 185.— Perrwilie. Ky., ser- 
vices at, i. 193-198; criticism on bal- 
tie ot, i. 200, 201 j reported killed at, 
L 301 ; losses at, 1. aoi. — Petersburg, 
Va., transferred to, iL 114; arrival 
at, iL 135; Grant, interview with, iL 
136, 137; Sherman, protests against 
joining, iL tsS, an interview with, 
iL 131-133; Lincoln, a trip with, ii 
129-131. — Promotion, no Ihooglit as 
to(lMi),L i33.-Rain3.Maj.G.J., 
strictures on, 1. 54, S5. 68, 69- 
Riwlina, Gen. J. A., meeting with 
(1865), ii. 126, 129.— -'Rienii," 
horse, presented with, j. 177.— Ri- 
(nii. Miss., moves camp to, L 167, 
168; independence, ' -' ' 

95-97. — Roberts, Col. G, W., sketch 
o^L 2io.^Rosecrans,Gen, W.,prx)- 
motion recommended by, i. 166, 247; 
ConGdencea with, L 260. — Russell, 
Geo. D. A., tributes to, 1. 120, ii 
123.— Bchaefer, Col. F., sketch of, L 
209. -Scott, Gen.W..coraplimenled 
by, i. 90. -Scouts, organ ilea batulion 
of, ii. 1,2; value of, ii. 104; Lomasand 
Renfrew, account of, ii. lofi-iii. — 
Second Michigan Cavalry, appointed 
colonel o^ i. 140-142; outfil, i, 14a; 
confidence of, gains the, i. 153, 154.— 
Service, active, rcquesis assignment 
to (1862), i. 136. -Shenandoah Val- 
ley, selected to command in, inter- 
view with Grant, i. 462; relieved 
froni Army of Potomac, Lincoln'B 
remarks, i. 463; Stanton's action, 
i. 464; Grant's instructions, i. 464, 
465; Harper's terry, headquarters 
at, i. 467; Meiga, L4euten»nt J. R., 

i. 467, murder of, ii. $0, 51 ; dMCl^ 
tion uf valley, L 46S-470; o i^ i ohn 
forces, i. 470. 4,1; his own troops 
L 471, 472; oSicetE, sketches ot, L 
472-474; plans, i. 476; advance «f 
army, i. 477; positions of botli annfai 
(Aug- 10), i. 47S: Ojjcquon fodi, 
movements to selie, i. 478, 470; 
Torbert's and Merrill's nrJTe^ t . 
479, 480; Cedar Creek, camped on, 
i. 480; Anderson rdnfurcine Eu^, 
danger from. i. 481, Grant's de^atdl 
as to, i. 483; Halltown, rcaKM fat 
withdrawing to, L 4S3. 484, aian- 
ment» in withdrawinK. i. 439-«S. 
adverse criticisms as to, i. 493; de- 
stroying the valley, reasons for, L 
484-488, ii. 56; Anderson's iknwo- 
stration al HaUlown, i, 493; Toc- 
bert's fight with Breck en ridge, t 
493^^5; Leelown and SmithfieM, 
actions at, L 49^, at Bunker HIU, L 
497; Anderson S defeat at BErnrriUe, 
L 498. 499; caution, reasons fa, I. 
499, 500; scouts, forms batlalktl a( 
iL I, 3, good work of, iL Km Wm. 
Chester, getting news from. IL 3; 
Wright, Rebecca, lettc^r to, iL 4i ■«> 
cess necessary politically, ii. 6; pres- 
sure on, through misin forma Lion, iL 
6, 7; Newtown, proposed movement 
to, iL 9; Opei:|uon, baitle of the, iL 
io-32(seBOpequon, above); Fisher's 
Hill, battle of, iL 33-42; Torbert's 
failure al, iL 39-42; Ave^ell, reasons 
for taking command from, ii. 42-4;; 
Early, movements in purstiil of, fi. 
45-jo: why pursuit should cease, ii. 
S3, 54; Carr, G. W.. ii. 48; Meigs's 
murder, orders reprisals for, ii. 52; 
Petersburg, proposes to send army 

*- —-■•--' Strasbure. iL SS; 

, . ii. J6; RossePs 
ibbing, iL S^-Jg; C™ar Creek, 

valley destroyed, ii. 56; RosseP 

■ ■ ■ ■ _. a 56-39; 

battle of, iL 59-96 (see Credt. 

above). Campaign, finsl. 
Giant's orders, ii. 112; the inarch, 
Rosser defeated, iL 113; enters Staim- 
ton, march to Waynesboro', ii. 114; 
Waynesboro', the last battle, il llj, 
116; Cbarlnttcsville, inarch to, 11. 
116, surrender of, iL I18; Canal and 
railroad, destroys, ii. 1 19. I20, 121; 
message to Grant, how fcni, iL 120, 
121; Confederates, la^^t of the, iL 
121; White Hotise. march lo, ii. 122; 
results of campaign, ii. 1:13. — Shcr- 
pian, Gen. W.T., asked by, to ac- 



cept colonelcy, i. 139; ordered to 
join, ii. 122, 123, 127, protests, ii. 
128; interview with, on transfer, ii. 
131-133. — Siietz, transferred to, i. 
95; road at, failure in making, i 
^5-97. - Sill, Gen. J. W., sketch of, 
1. 208. — Slocum, Gen. H. W„ as- 
sisted by, at West Point, l 10.— 5k)U 
diers, remarks on sustenance of, i 
153, 154.— Spencer murder, part 
taken in, i. 85-89.— Stevenson, Ala., 
at, i. 271, 272.— Stone River, Tenn., 
en route to, i. 214; Triune, skirmish 
at, i. 215; Murfrecsboro', nght near, 
i. 216, 217; headquarters at, i. 220; 
attacked, L 222, 223; covers with- 
drawal of Davis and Johnson, I 224; 
attached to Neg ley's division, i. 226; 
attacked by Cheatham and Hardee, 
i. 227; directed to hold fast, i. 228; 
ammunition fails, i. 228, 230; again 
assaulted, results of bravery, i. 229; 
artillery losses, i. 230; retreats, i. 
230, 231; Palmer, sends help to, i. 
232; Wood, relieves, i. 232, 2jj; 
brigadiers, loses four, i. 235 ; Nashville 
pike, position on, i. 236; enemy's 
futile attacks, i. 238; dead and 
wounded at, i. 239; cowards at, 
treatment of, i. 240; force at, roll, i 
241; losses at, i. 242.— Stuart, Gen. 
J. E. B., ordered against, i. 369; re- 
marks on expedition, i. 370; route 
taken, L 372; order of marching, 
Stuart's movements, i. 373 ; attacks! 
by Stuart, property destroyed, pris- 
oners liberated, i. 374, 375 ; at B«iver 
Dam, i. 375; Stuart's manoeuvre, L 
37S» 376; Yellow Tavern, advance 
to, i. 376, Stuart's blunder, fight at, 
L 377; death of Stuart and Gordon, 
i. 378; enemy in retreat, corps starts 
for Fair Oaks, i. 379; torpeaoes re- 
moved by prisoners, i. 380; Mechan- 
icsville pike, checked at, i 381; 
Chickahominv, repairs bridge over, 
i. 382; Mechanicsville, fight at, i. 
382, 383, effect of, L 383-385; Con- 
federate newsboys, i. 385; Gaines's 
Mills, Merritt's encounter at, i. 386; 
results of expedition, i. 386, 387, 300, 
392; return march begun, 1. 388; 
building bridge, Custer's expedition, 
i. 389; rejoins army, praised bv 
Grant and Meade, i. 390; KichTond, 
capture of, not contemplated, i. J92. 
— Talbot, John, employed by, 1. 5. 
— Tennessee, East, to relieve Knox- 

VoL. II.- 31. 

ville, i. 325; subsistence, abundance 
of, i. 327; people, loyalty of, i. 327, 
328; clothing, troops'^ need of^ foil to 
receive, i. 328, J29; supplies acquired 
by stratagem, 1. 330; at Dandridp^e, 
i*330»33'; wagon-bridge, makmg 
*» i* 333; ordered to Strawberry 
Plains, i. 334; beef cattle, poor state 
of^ i. 335; criticisms on campaijp in, 
*• 3JS» 336; subsistence, suffering 
from lack of, i. 337; London, order- 
ed to, i. 337; troops re-enlist, i. 338. 
— Terrill, Gen. W. R , quarrel with, 
at West Point i. 11-13. — Tetootney 
John, gratitude to, i. 98.— Texas, 
service in (1854), i. 16-34; Laredo, 
journey to, i. 17; "Northers" in, i. 
18; Fort Duncan, journey to, L 19, 
arrival at, i. 20. quarters at, i. 25-27, 
food at, i. 27; Turkey Creek, service 
at, i. 24; on scouting duty in, i. 
20-25; l^untin^r in, i. 21, 24; pulque, 
experiences with, i. 28; winter enjoy- 
ments in, i 28, 32, 53. Service in 
(1865), orders, ii. 2C»-2io; cavalry 
expedition in, ii. 211; Early, meet- 
ing with, ii. 211, 212; troops in, dis- 
position of, ii. 213; governor of, as- 
sists, ii. 232; elections in, action as 
to, ii. 256-260. -Thirteenth U. S. 
Infantry, captain in, i 124; journey 
to, i 124, 125 — Trevillian expedi- 
tion, Meade's orders as to, I 414; 
Grant's orders, Hunter to co-operate, 
i. 415; object of, troops engaged, i. 
416, 417; route, i. 417; enemy 
marching parallel, i. 418; Carpen- 
ter's ford, m camp at, i. 419; Trev- 
illian, battle at, 1. 420-422; Hunter 
foils to co-operate, L 422, 423; re- 
turn from, reasons for, L 423 ; Mai- 
lory's Cross Roads, fight at, i. 423- 
425 ; withdrawal begun, i. 425 ; Spott- 
sylvania revisited, i 426; human 
impedimenta, burdened with, i. 427 ; 
wounded and prisoners, sufferings 
of, colored people, i. 428; White 
House, a scare at, i. 429; Hampton, 
offers battle to, L 430.— Tullanoma 
campaign, views as to, i. 250, 260; 
roll of torce, i. 261, 262; Shelbyvillc 
pike, attacked on, i 262; Hoover's 
Gap, Fairfield, i. 263; Tullahoma, 
enters, L 264; Winchester, attacks, 
i. 266, 267; University, march to, i. 
267, return from, on railroad, L 268; 
hand -car, adventure of a, i. 269, 270. 
— Van Viiet, Capt S., friendship for» 

482 IN 

i i6.— Warren. Gen, G. K., dclnj 
oa^d by, at Dinwiddle, iL 154-158, 
authnrixed la relieve, ii. 160; reiievei 
of his coinmitnd, ii. 165: Court of 
Inquiry for, letter 10. ii. 166; charges 
againsl, ii. 167-170,— Washington, 
arrival at (1864). rcprnti to Halleck, 
i. J44; Slanton, interview with, i 
346; Lincoln, visit lo. L 347; Grant, 
uierview with, i. 347. yfi\ Meade, 
report* to, i. 346; visjt to. before 
Cedar Creek, ii 66.— West Point, 
aspiration for, i. 7; prcparalion for, 
"Monroe Shoes," i. 8; admilled to, 
t 9; mathematics at, how acquired, 
i. 10; aiiapendtd from, L Il-li; re- 
turns, (n^aduites from, L 13,— White- 
head, David, emnlojred by, L _, 
— Wildcroeia, batlies of the, force in, 
L 357; divinons, movements at i 
359> Wilson's adventure^ i. 360,361 
troops drawn from action, roulbi, i 
361.363; Todd'* Tavern, battle of, 
1. 364; Spottsylvania C. H,, move 
m^t to, I. 365: resulti of Meade' 
orders, i. 366, 367; dillcrencc with 

Sill. Gen. Joshua W.. Gteusd super- 
seded l)y.i.3oS.-Sketchof.i.2o3.— 
Stone Kivcr, position at, i. 317; 
report enemy's movement^ i. aio; 
attacked, L 113; killed, L 323. 

Sill, Fort, established, ii. 339. 

Siniwn, Capt. Samuel A., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 76 ; at the Opcquon, ii 1 7. 

Skbner, Mai. Bcaiamin M., at the 
Opequon, it 18. 

Slocum, Gen. Henry W., at West 
Point, i. 10, 

Small, Caot. Michael P., 1. I18. 

}imith, Col. Charles H., i. 350; App^ 
mattoK campaign, in march la I)u). 
widdie C, H., li 136-139, at bstHe 

I Appmaat- 

division commandm, i J70.— Wfl- 
Bon's raid, commenb on, 1. 44C-^4^. 
4451 marches to Wilson's reliel, i. 
444. — Winchester, Va., his objective 
point, i. 476; loyal negro of, II 2, 3; 
enters after the Opcquon, ii 38; 
winter -quarters at, ii. 104. 

Sherman, Col. Francis T., in Appo- 
mattox campaign. iL 136; at Mis- 
sionary Kidge, i 39^ 308. 311, 
313, report 00, i. 321 ; at PerryvilJe, 
I. 193 ; at Stone River, i 241; in 
Tullahoraa eampaign, i, a6t. 

Sherman, Gen. William T., Georgia, 
proposed operations in, i. 303, 303; 
Knoivilie, Tenn., to relief of, i 326, 
337; Missionary Ridge, aitack on 
{.Nov.i4th), i3o6,3i9,on35th,i3o7; 
Sheridan, questions as to colonelcy, 
i. 139; Thirteenth Infantry, colonel 
of, I. 134; Warren Court of Inquiry, 
review o^ ii 169. 

Shipley, Capt Samuel D., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 73; at the Upequon, ii. 14. 

Shuak, Col, David, at Cedar Creek, li, 
74; at the Opequon. ii. 16. 

SJed, Gen. Frani, at Martinsburg.Va., 
1. 457; driven owl by Early, i. 458, 

SileU reservation, i. 91; Sheridan's 
road at, i. 95-97. 

Of.ii. -,- -^- 

Smith, Maj. tfoward M.. : 
tox campaign, ii 137. 

Smith, Gen, Kirby, entry into Ken- 
tucky, L iSS, operatioDS in. i 19^; 
in Tenas, after Lee's surrender, 11. 

Smith', LapL Robert S., at Cedar 
Cieek, ii 78; at the Opequon. it. lo. 

Smith, Gen. W. F., in Virginia, L 

Snow, Lieut. John S., at Cedar Creek, 

Snyder, Maj. James W., at Cedar 

Somerset, O., coloniied from East, i 

z; Sheridan farm at, i 3; viliage 

school in, i. 3, 4, 
South, States of, assist Maximilian, ii 

310, 313, 318; reconstruction laws 

for. ii 343-349. 
Spencer, Capt. George W., at Klissicm- 

ary Kidge, i 399. 
Spencer family, murder of, i 85-89. 
Spera. Mai. Weidner H., at Cedar 

Cieek. ii. 68. 
Sperry, Capt. William J., at Cedar 

Creek, ii 70. 
Spottsylvania C. H., battle of, i 365- 

367; revisited by Sheridan, i. 426. 
Springfield, Mo,, capture of, L 130. 
■ ing Hill, Tenn„i 256-258, 


Stainbaugh, CapL Joseph W. R., in 

Tullahoma campaign, i 362. 
Stanley, Gen. David S., with Sheridan 

to West Point, i. 8, g. 
Stanton, Edwin M-.^cridan's inter- 



view with (Apr. 1864), L 346, (Aug. 
1864) i. 464; states success in She- 
nandoah politically necessary, ii. 6. 

Starr, Maj. James, i. 349. 

Staunton, Va., Hunter at, i. 415. 

Stedman, Gen. James B., report of^ 
on deposition of Gov. Wells, ii. 268. 

Steadman, Col. William, i. 350. 

Steele, Gen. Fred, in Texas, 1865, it 

Steinmetz, Gen. von, at Gravelotte, ii. 

^ 369-373. 

Steptoe, Col. Edward J., in Indian 

war (i8s6),1. 80, 81; Scott's, Gen., 

approval of, i. 90. 

Stevens, Capt. Greenleaf T., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 72; at the Opequon, ii. 14. 

Stevens, CoL Ambrose A., at Perry- 
ville, i. 193. 

Stewart, Gen. A. P., quoted, i. 229. 

Stone River, Tenn., battle of, L 216- 
245; effect of victory at, i. 243. 

Strain, Lt.-Col. Alexander, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 72. 

Stuart, Gen. James E. B., cavalry of, 
its prestige, i. 386, 387. — Sheridan's 
exp>edition against, disposition of 
troops, i. 373; Beaver Dam, error as 
tof 1. 375; Yellow Tavern, concen- 
trates at, i. 376, fight at, i. 377, 378; 
death of, i. 378, 387.— Wilderness, in 
battles of, i.Jj6i, 362. 

Slurgis, Gen. &muel D., in East Ten- 
nessee, i 331, 332. 

Sullivan, Gen. C. C, Sheridan's pro- 
motion, asks for, i. 166. 

Sully, Gen. Alfred, mistake of, in arm- 
ing Indians, ii. 289; defeated on the 
Cimarron, ii. 294; in Sheridan's Ind- 
ian campaign, li. 30S-312. 

Survey on Pacific coast ( 1855). i. 36-68. 

Suter, Capt John, at Cedar Creek, ii 

Sutermeister, Capt Arnold, at Chicka- 
mauga, i. 280; in Tullahoma cam- 
paign, i. 262. 

Suvdam, Lt-Col. George C, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 79. 

Swain, Capt. Edgar D., at Missionary 
Ridge, L 299. 

Swanwick, Lt. -CoL Francis, at Chicka- 
mauga, i. 288; at Missionary Ridge, 
i. 290; at Stone River, I 241; in 
Tullanoma campaign, i. 262. 

Sweitzer, Capt ^ielson B. , i. 349. 

Taft, Capt. Elijah D., at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 73; at the Opequon, ii. 17. 

Taggart, Lt-Col. George W., at the 
Opequon, ii. x8. 

Talbot, John, emplo)rs Sheridan, i. 5. 

Taylor, Capt David J., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71; at the Opequon, ii. 13. 

Taylor, Lieut. Frank E., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 78; at the Opequon, ii. 21. 

Taylor, Col. John P., i. 550. 

Tennessee, Army of Ohio arrives in, 
i. 205; East, loyalty of people of, i. 
327, 328; campaign in, i. 325-336. 

Terrill, Gen. William R., quarrel of^ 
with Sheridan, L 11-13; death oC 
i. 13, 201. 

Teters, Capt. Wilbert B., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 75. 

Texas, game in, abundance of, i. 20, 24, 
yi\ Indians in, L 20, 25; battles with, 
1. 22-24, 29, 30; lumber in, scarcity 
of (1854), i. 27; " Northers" in, 1. 
18; travelling in, primitive, i. 16, 
17, 19; Sheridan assi^ed to, ii. 208- 
210; military supervision in, ii. 229; 
Constitutional Convention in, trou- 
bles from, ii. 230; Gov. Hamilton's 
policy, results of, ii. 231, 232, of 
Gov. Throckmorton's policy, ii 232, 
233; elections in, Sheridan s orders 
on, ii 256-260; negroes in, condition 
and number o^ ii. 261. 262. 

Thickstun, Capt. Lowell H., at Chat- 
tanooga, i 296. 

Thoburn. Col. Joseph, in Shenandoah 
campaign, i 472; at the Opec^uon, 
ii 17, 24; at Cedar Creek, ii. 61, 

75. 93» 94. 

Thom, Col. George, topographical en- 
gineer, i. 137; at Cedar Creek, ii 
06, 67, 80. 

Thomas, Gen. George H , Army of 
Cumberland, in command of,i. 299. — 
Chickamauga, marches before battle 
of, i. 290,291 ; Bragg's purpose to turn 
at, i. 279; Sheridan ordered to assist, 
i 281; conduct at, i 284-287; Sher- 
idan's comment on, i. 289. — Mission- 
ary Ridge, ordered to feel enemy at, 
i 304; tribute of, to Sheridan, i 321. 
— Ferry ville, at,i. 200.— Stone River, 
commands centre at, i 213; line oif 
battle at, position in, i. 218. 

Thomas, Maj. Hampton, in Appomat- 
tox campaigrn, ii. 138. 

Thomas, Col. Stephen, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 72, 73; at the Opequon, ii 15. 

Thompson, Col. John L, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 79; at the Opequon, ii 
21 ; at Waynesboro', ii. \ 16. 



Throckmortoo, Gov. J. W., of Texas, 

administratioii of, ii. 232, 233. 
Thorber, Maj. Benj. F., at Cedar 

Creek, il 73; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 
Tiiton, Capt Albert M., at Missionary 

Ridge, i. 299^ 
Todd's Tavern, Va., battle of, i. 364. 
ToUes, Col., killed by Mosby, il 90. 
Tolman, Capt FUvel L., at Uie Ope- 

quon, iL lo. 
Tompkins, Col. Charles H., at Cedar 

Creek, il 72; at the Opequon, ii. 

Torbert, Gen. Alfred T. A., Chicka^ 
hominy, on the, L 411.— Cold Har- 
bor, at capture o^ i. 4O4--409.— J ames 
River, in movement to, L 432.— Fam- 
ttnkey River, at crossing o(, L 396, 
^97.— Petersburg, in operations at, 
L ^7, 448. -—Shenandoah campaign, 
chief 01 cavalry in, i. 472; reconnois- 
sance toward Winchester, move- 
ment to Newtown, i. 470; valley, 
ordered to destroy, L 48c; Halltown, 
in march, to i 490; Kemeysville, 
expedition to^ i 493-495; Berry ville, 
in move to, i. 497: Opequon, at the, 
IL 11-27; Fishers Hilt failure to 
follow oriers at, ii 33, 39-42; Early's 
retreat, in, ii 47, 49, 50; Rosser, 
fight with, ii. 56-59; Cedar Creek, 
at battle of, ii. 62, 77, 82, 95; 
Gordonsville expedition, failure of, 
ii. 102, 104; Merritt, succeeded 
by, as chief; ii. 112. — Sketch of, 
i. 350. — Trevillian expedition, in, 
I 416 ; Trevillian, in battle at, 
i, 420, 421; Mallory*s Cross-Roads, 
in battle at, i. 423-425. —Wilder- 
ness, in the advance to, \. 359. — 
Wilson's raid to Roanoke, in, i 444. 

Torpedoes, use of, against troops, i. 

Tracy, Lt.-Col. Amasa S., at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 70, 83; at the Ofiequon, 

ii. 12. 
Trevillian expedition, Sheridan's, i. 

Tullahoma, Tenn., campaign, i. 259- 

Turner, Capt Alfred L , at Cedar 

Creek, ii. 72, 77; at the Opequon, 

ii. 14. 
Turner, Maj. William H., Jr., at the 

Opequon, ii. 19. 

Underbill, Capt. Henry P., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 72. 

Upton, Gen. Emory, in Shenandoah 

campaign, at the Opequon, it. 27; 

wouuded, ii. 30. 
Urban, Lieut Gustavus, at Cedar 

Creek, lu 78; at the Opequon, ii 20. 
Urban, Maj. Casper, at the Opequon, 

ii 17. 

Van Buren, Capt M. £., fight oi; with 
Indians, i 22, 23. 

Van Dom, Gen. Earl, defeat o^ at 
Spring Hin, lenn., i 256-258. 

Van Ettoi, Lieut Orsamus R , at 
Cedar Cred^, ii 72; at the Opequon, 
ii 14. 

Van Petten, Lt-O^. John B., at the 
Opequon, ii 15. 

Van Vliet, Capt Stewart, in Texas, 
i 16. 

Vaughan, Gen. J. H., in Shenandoah 
campaign, i 457; at Fisher's Hill, 

Victor Emmanuel, King, Sheridan's 
reception by, ii. 43^443; 

Vinton, Lt-Col. Harvey H., in Appo- 
mattox campaign, ii 136. 

Vorhees, Maj. George W., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71. 

Vredenburgh, Maj. Peter, at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 13. 

Wagner, Gen. George D., at Mission- 
ary Ridge, i. 298, 308, 311-314; re- 
port on, extract from, i. 322. 

Wales, Capt. Elijah, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 70. 

Walker, Maj. Aldace F., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 12. 

Walker, John W , tried by Military 
Commission, ii. 262. 

Walker, Gen., at Stone River, i. 236, 

Wallace, Gen. Lrw, checks Early, i. 

Waltermire, Lt.-Col. William, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 74; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

Walworth, Col. Nathan H.,at Chicka- 
mauga, L 288; at Missionary Ridge, 
i. 299; at Stone River, i. 241 ; in Tul- 
lahoma campaign, i. 262. 

War Department averse to regulars as 
volunteers, i. 141. 

Warner, Col. James M., at Cedar 
Creek, ii 69; at the Opequon, ii. 12. 

Warren, Gen. Gouvemeur K., begins 
Appomattox campaign, ii. 134; po- 
sition on March 29, ii. 141; Din- 
widdie C. H., at battle of, ii 150, 



ordered to attack enemy's rear, de- 
lays, ii. 154-158; at Five Forks, 
ii. 15^165, relieved of command af- 
ter, ii. 165 ; Court of Inquiry for, in 
1879, ii. 166. Sherman^s remarks 
on, VL 169; Sheridan's complaints 
against. iL 167-169. 

Warren, Capt Henry D., in 1856 In- 
dian war, 1. 82. 

Washburn, Elihu B., request of, from 
France, for Sheridan, li. 359. 

Washington, D. C, threatened by 
Early, L 457, 458; alarm at, L 459. 

Watkins, Col., in Tullahoma cam- 
paign, i. 267, 268. 

Watts, LtX:ol. Elijah S., in Tullahoma 
campaign, 1. 262. 

Waynesboro*, Va., last battle in the 
Shenandoah, ii. 115, 116. 

Weber, Maj. John, at Perryville, i. 192. 

Weddle, Lt.-Col. Jacob, at the Ope- 
quon. ii. 17; at Winchester, ii. 75. 

Wdr, Lieut. Gulian V., at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 79; at the Opeauon, ii. 20. 

Welcker, Lieut William T., in Spen- 
cer murder, t. 87. 

Wells, CoL George D., at the Ope- 
quon, ii. 17. 

Wclb, Col. Milton, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 76. 

Wells, Col. William, in Appomattox 
campaign, in march to Dmwiddie, 
ii. 135-139; at Cedar Creek, iL 79; 
at the Opequon, ii. 21. 

Wells, Gov., of Louisiana, in the Levee 
Commissioners controversy, ii. 265- 
267; removed by Sheridan, iL 267; 
Steadman's opinion of, ii. 268. 

Wescott, Capt Henry F., at Stone 
River, L 241. 

West, early credit system in, i. 6. 

West. Lt-Col. Theodore S., at Chick- 
amauga, L 288. 

West Point graduates from (1853^ i. 
13; hazing at, i. 9; Sheridan at, L 

West Virginia, Army of, i. 472. 

Wharton, Gen., in Shenandoah cam- 
paign, at the 0|>equon. ii. 10, 25 ; at 
Fisher's Hill, li. 34-39; at Cedar 
Creek, iL 94, 95; in Tullahoma 
campaign, L 267, 268. 

Wheaton, Gen. Frank, at Cedar Creek, 
ii. 68, 82, 85; at the Opequon, ii. 12; 
at Sailor's Creek, ii. 182, 183. 

Wheeler, Lieut. William H., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 68; at the Opequon, ii. 11. 

Wheeler, Gen., with Bragg, i. 293, 396. 

White, Maj. Frank, at Missionary 

Kidge, i. 298. 
White, Maj. Harrison, in Appomattox 

campaign, ii. 136. 
Whitehead, David, employs Sheridan, 


Whittaker, CoL, in capture of Gil- 
more, iL 106. 

Wickham, Gen., with Stuart, i. 362; 
in Shenandoah campaign, at Fisher*s 
Hill, ii. 35-42; retreat, in the, ii. 48, 

Wilcox, Gen., in operations at Peters- 

burg, L 447. 

Wilderness, battles of the, i. 357-365. 

Wildes, Lt.-CoL Thomas F., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 7^; at the Opequon, iL 17. 

Wilds, Lt-Col. John Q., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 74; at the Opequon, ii. 16. 

Wiles, Capt. Browning M., at Cedar 
Creek, iL 71. 

Wilkie, Capt. Frederick C, at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 75. 

William L of Prussia (Emperor of Ger- 
many), Sheridan's meeting with, ii. 
366; at Gravelotte, ii. 368, 376, 377; 
Sheridan dines with, ii. 387, 396, 
403; at Sedan, ii. 399, 402-405, 412; 
at Paris, iL 418, 445, 446. 

Williams, Lieut. Thomas G., in Texas, 
L 30. 

Williamson, Lieut. R. S., on survey 
duty, L 36-68. 

Willich,Gen., in East Tennessee, L 331. 

Williston. Lieut Edward B., i. 351; 
at the Opequon, ii. 2X. 

Wilson, Lt.-Col. Baitholomew W., iL 
16; at Cedar Creek, ii. 74. 

Wilson, Gen. James H., Hanover C.H., 
in advance to, L 395 ; Ashland, fails 
to hold, L 395, 411; manoeuvres of, 
Lee misled by, L 411.— James River, 
in Grant's march to, L ^04, 437, 
438.— Roanoke Station, raia to, in- 
structions and force, L 438; railroads 
destroyed, i. 439; Stony Creek, battle 
at, i. 439; report on, Meade's in- 
structions, i. 440; instructions misin- 
terpreted, i. 441 ; ])lans for raid, L 
442; benefits of raid, creditable re- 
treat i« 444. — Shenandoah campaign, 
Joins Sheridan for, L 489; Plait town, 
in march to, L 490, 491 ; Torbert's ex- 
pedition to Kemeysville,in,i. 493,494; 
Fitzhugh Lee, sent to watch, i. 494; 
Berry ville, in move to, L 497; Opequ- 
on, at the, ii. 12-27; Early, in pursuit 
of,ii 33.— -Sheridan's Ricmnond expe- 


ditiaa,mttidDBd>tIfaiA Anna River. 
L 375i YcUow TsMra^ tn iDarch lo, 

ic^Ue, MM mX Mi Cold lUr- 
bor. Hi, L 388.— Sketch of, i. 353- 
Spottntranta C U., at, i. 365-367. 
—WildBneM, in adnnce lo, l 359; 
'Roner, fiaktwId^otfoffErDmanny, 

VBMi,lJnrt.-CoLSHnNl, 1. 350. 

Wii^fiH^ GoL, at SKlan, il 403, 

wEntater. V*., Vnlj u, i. 499; 
ilhcridmii'a objacUre point, 1. 476; 
■■Mio <4, )ofA B. i, y. Wripht, 
HEi Ketwca. loAt mi'omati 

, iC 138; St Ibc Opcquon 

WUwn, Utj. HauT a, >t Ccd^L 

Cre^iLfS; MdwC^ieauaD, il. 18 
Wood, CoLGoalavn* A., U MiEsionan 

Ridie. i .gS. 314. 
Wood, Gen. Tltoinai 
' maugm, L 377; ml U 

1. 3(M, 3081 at Stoae Si 

Wo^raff. LkuL Carl, IL 21. 
WoodruF, Gca., at Stone Biver. i. 213, 

M4. aji. 
Woods, Lt-Col. Georee H.. i. 349, 
Wool, Gen. John E.. Rains- OriT affair, 

in, L l6gi Sheridan, favorable rt-. 

Wriglit, Maj. Edward M,. ai Cedar 
Creek, u. 74; in Tullahoiua cam- 
paign, i. z6a. 

Wrighl, CoL George, commands troopa 

«f Oe espedltiaa, L 8 
i. 71. 

Wright, Gen. llcmtio G., Appoawt- 
lot campaign, ia Ltt'i retreat fron 
Richmond, il. 171, 1/6^ l8i-t8&— 
Cold Harbor, it, L 4D9.-SIKSHI- 
doah campaign, in, 1. 47a; advance, 
b Ihe, i. 477; OpeoDoa ford, to 
M^, i. 47S; Stooj nint, o tdei c d 
to, i, 479; Halttown, fat maidi to^ 
i. 4S4. 4in: OpiCTO!), at Ak, E II- 
17; li<;l>rys RiU, at battk td, tL 
tt-36, »-4l! Eariy'a retrert. to, 
fi:^; Cedar Creek, at bal^o^ ii. 
C3^ 68, 83-^c.— &ctdi of, i 4rL 
— WaddngtOD, in ddaue o^ L 4 59. 

Wri^t BUm Rebecca* icrvicea o^ tK> 
SSerUan, B. 3-5 ; Sheridan's letter 
to, iL 4, Si finf letter of, to Sheridan, 
fl. 5, ^ 8; ShoMu'i meetiog with, 

YeOow Beu, Ai^ahoe dde^ ii. 337, 

Y^wnrenLVi., fight at. t. 376-378. 
Yon^, HaJ. H. K., dikf of ■cooti in 

Sheundoah cainpalen, IL s, 104; 
GDmoce, cutttre <^ iL i<n(-io7i 
Lomai and Renfrew, pteudo- scouts, 
Ii. loE'iti; in Lee's relreat, cap- 
turing prorisions. ii, 176, 189, 190; 
Mexico, service in, ii. 114, enterprise 
in, killed, ii. 230-223. 

Young, Lieut. John F., at Cedar 
Creek, ii. 71 ; at the Opequon, ii 14. 

Young, Gen., i. 363. 

Yuliy, Maj. Enoch D., at the Opeijuon, 


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